Biology Chapter 4 Section 2 Review

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1 Name: Class: Date: Biology Chapter 4 Section 2 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which is a biotic factor that affects the size of a population in a specific ecosystem? a. average temperature of the ecosystem b. type of soil in the ecosystem c. number and kinds of predators in the ecosystem d. concentration of oxygen in the ecosystem 2. Several species of warblers can live in the same spruce tree ONLY because they a. have different habitats within the tree. b. eat different foods within the tree. c. occupy different niches within the tree. d. can find different temperatures within the tree. 3. Different species can share the same habitat, but competition among them is reduced if they a. reproduce at different times. c. increase their populations. b. eat less. d. occupy different niches. 4. The symbiotic relationship between a flower and the insect that feeds on its nectar is an example of a. mutualism because the flower provides the insect with food, and the insect pollinates the flower. b. parasitism because the insect lives off the nectar from the flower. c. commensalism because the insect doesn t harm the flower, and the flower doesn t benefit from the relationship. d. predation because the insect feeds on the flower. 5. What is one difference between primary and secondary succession? a. Primary succession is slow, and secondary succession is rapid. b. Secondary succession begins on soil, and primary succession begins on newly exposed surfaces. c. Primary succession modifies the environment, and secondary succession does not. d. Secondary succession begins with lichens, and primary succession begins with trees. 6. Which factor can influence continual change in an ecosystem? a. further disturbances c. introduction of nonnative species b. long-term climate changes d. all of the above 2

2 Name: Short Answer 7. Explain why the food that a bullfrog eats is part of its niche. 8. Describe an important role that pioneer species play in primary succession. 9. Explain why plants do not occur in the succession of a whale-fall community as they do in land-ecosystem succession. Essay 10. Name and define the three main classes of symbiotic relationships. Give examples of each. 2

3 Name: Other USING SCIENCE SKILLS Figure Interpreting Graphics The boreal forest and river valley depicted in Figure 4-2 were swept by fire 20 years ago. The forest on the hills on each side of the river valley were destroyed. Does this illustration show an earlier or later stage of succession? Which kind of succession has taken place? Explain what will happen in this ecosystem if there are no more disturbances. 3

4 Name: 12. Predicting Examine Figure 4-2. Predict what might happen to this flowing-water ecosystem in a boreal forest biome if a dam was built on the river in region C. 4

5 Biology Chapter 4 Section 2 Review Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 94 p ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 95 SHORT ANSWER 7. ANS: A niche includes all of the physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and how the organism uses those conditions. Food is part of the biological conditions that a bullfrog uses. PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: In primary succession, pioneer plants help rocks to break up in the process of soil formation. They also contribute organic material to the forming soil in which plants can grow. PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: Whale-fall succession takes place on the deep, permanently dark ocean floor where there is no light for photosynthesis and no plants can grow. PTS: 1 REF: p. 96 ESSAY 10. ANS: The three main classes of symbiotic relationships are mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. In mutualism, both species benefit from the relationship. For example, flowers depend on certain insects to pollinate them. The flowers provide the insects with food in the form of nectar, pollen, or other substances. In commensalism, one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. Barnacles attached to the skin of whales benefit from food particles in the water moving past the swimming whale, but the whale is not affected. In parasitism, one member benefits by obtaining all its nutritional needs from the host. The host can be damaged, but is usually not killed. Fleas, ticks, and lice are examples of parasites that live on the bodies of mammals. PTS: 1 REF: p. 93 1

6 OTHER 11. ANS: The hills show a growth of shrubs and a few small trees. This indicates a later stage of secondary succession. Eventually, an ecologically characteristic boreal forest will grow if there are no more disturbances. PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: A lake would form above the dam, creating a standing-water ecosystem. Without a flow of water, the river below the dam would dry up. The dry land would then undergo secondary succession, and because of the climate and latitude, would eventually have the ecological characteristics of a land biome, a boreal forest. PTS: 1 REF: p. 95 2

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