Biology Chapter 5 Test

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1 Name: Class: _ Date: _ Biology Chapter 5 Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What does the range of a population tell you that density does not? a. the deaths per unit area b. the areas inhabited by a population c. the births per unit area d. the number that live in an area 2. Which would be least likely to be affected by a density-dependent limiting factor? a. a population with a high birthrate b. a population with a high immigration rate c. a large, dense population d. a small, scattered population 3. As resources in a population become less available, population growth a. reaches carrying capacity. b. becomes negative. c. enters a phase of exponential growth. d. increases slowly. 4. What can cause a population to grow? a. The birthrate becomes lower than the death rate. b. The birthrate becomes higher than the death rate. c. The birthrate stays the same, and the death rate increases. d. The birthrate and the death rate remain the same. 5. Demographic transition is change from high birthrates and high death rates to a. a low birthrate and a low death rate. b. a low birthrate and a high death rate. c. exponential growth. d. indefinite growth. 6. About 500 years ago, the world s population started a. decreasing. c. to reach carrying capacity. b. growing more rapidly. d. to level off. 7. Which are two ways a population can decrease in size? a. increased death rate and immigration b. decreased birthrate and emigration c. immigration and emigration d. emigration and increased birthrate 8. If a population grows larger than the carrying capacity of the environment, the a. birthrate may rise. c. death rate may rise. b. carrying capacity will change. d. population will grow faster. 1

2 Name: 9. In countries like India, the human population is growing a. transitionally. c. exponentially. b. logistically. d. demographically. 10. Which density-dependent factors, other than the predator/prey relationship, affected the populations of moose and wolves on Isle Royale? a. food availability for the moose and disease for the wolf b. parasitic wasps for the wolves and clear-cut forest for the moose c. extreme temperatures for the moose and flooding for the wolves d. a hurricane followed by drought for both moose and wolves 11. Which of the following is not likely to be a limiting factor on the sea otter population? a. disease c. drought b. competition d. predation 12. Which will reduce competition within a species population? a. higher population density c. higher birthrate b. fewer resources d. fewer individuals 13. In Rwanda, there are more young children than teenagers, and more teenagers than adults. This age structure indicates a population that a. will double in 30 years. b. has stopped growing. c. has a steady growth rate. d. will decrease in 30 years. 14. When individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate, it produces a growth pattern called a. logistic growth. c. growth density. b. demographic growth. d. exponential growth. 15. There are 150 Saguaro cacti plants per square kilometer in a certain area of Arizona desert. To which population characteristic does this information refer? a. age structure c. population density b. growth rate d. geographic distribution Completion Complete each statement. 16. When an individual moves into a population from a different population, it is called. 17. Under conditions of logistic growth, population size will rise and fall around an average point called a(an) _. 18. Zero population growth is a characteristic of growth. 19. Resource shortages triggered by increasing population size are density- limiting factors. 2

3 Name: 20. Social and factors explain why some countries have high growth rates while other countries grow slowly or not at all. Short Answer: Complete TWO questions for FIVE points each. Additional correct answers are worth one point extra credit. 21. How does population growth in the United States compare with that of China and India? 22. How can a demographer, or scientist who studies demography, predict how a population will change in the future? 23. How does emigration affect population size? 24. What is a density-independent limiting factor? Give two examples. 25. What kept the human population growth rate low before the Industrial Revolution? Essay : Answer TWO essay Question for FIVE Points. Additional correct answers are worth one point extra credit. 26. Discuss four ways population size can change. 3

4 Name: 27. Sequence the historical events that contributed to the current human population growth. 28. Differentiate between density-dependent and density-independent limiting factors. 29. Differentiate between exponential and logistic growth. 30. Explain the limiting factors that control population growth. 4

5 Name: Other: Answer TWO QUESTIONS for FIVE POINTS each. Additional CORRECT answers are worth one point extra credit. USING SCIENCE SKILLS Graph I shows the curve for a culture of Paramecium aurelia. Graph II shows the growth curve for a culture of Paramecium caudatum, a larger species. Graph III shows the growth curves of each species when they are grown together. Figure Drawing Conclusions What is the most likely explanation for the decline of the P. caudatum shown in graph III of Figure 5-1? 5

6 Name: 32. Interpreting Data According to Figure 5-1, which species has the greater initial growth rate when they are grown in separate cultures? 33. Drawing Conclusions Are the limiting factors for all cultures in Figure 5-1 density-dependent or density-independent? Explain. 34. Observing What type of population growth curve can be observed in graphs I and II of Figure 5-1? 35. Interpreting Graphics From Figure 5-1, which species has the greater growth rate overall when grown together? Describe the growth curve of P. caudatum in graph III. 6

7 Biology Chapter 5 Test Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: A 4. ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: C 9. ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 119 COMPLETION 16. ANS: immigration PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: carrying capacity 18. ANS: logistic 19. ANS: dependent PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: economic PTS: 1 REF: p

8 SHORT ANSWER ESSAY 21. ANS: Population growth has slowed in the United States, but China and India are only in the beginning stage of demographic transition where the population is still growing rapidly. PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: A demographer studies the social and economic factors that affect a population and the age structure in order to predict how it will change. PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: Emigration is the movement of individuals out of a population and reduces its size if all other factors are equal. PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: A density-independent limiting factor is a limiting factor that affects all populations regardless of size, such as a rainstorm, drought, fire, and certain human activities. PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: Limiting factors, such as food scarcity and diseases, kept the human population growth rate low. PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: A population will increase or decrease in size depending on how many individuals are added to it or removed from it. There are two ways individuals can be added to a population. Individuals can be born into the population, or they can move into it from outside the population, or immigrate. There are two ways individuals can be removed from a population. They can die, or they can move out of the population, or emigrate. PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: During most of human history, population growth was slow. Food was hard to find, and there was no cure or treatment for diseases. Death rates and birthrates were high. With the beginning of agriculture, life became easier. The food supply became more reliable. With the Industrial Revolution, other advances, such as medicine and improved healthcare and sanitation, reduced the death rate and made it possible to live longer. This is when the human population began to grow exponentially. PTS: 1 REF: p

9 OTHER 28. ANS: Density-dependent limiting factors become limiting only when population density the number of organisms in a given area reaches a certain level. These factors include competition, predation, parasitism, and disease. Density-independent limiting factors affect all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size. These limiting factors include weather, natural disasters, and certain human activities, such as damming rivers and clear-cutting forests. PTS: 1 REF: p. 125 p ANS: Exponential growth occurs when the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate. At first, the size of the population increases slowly, then it increases more and more rapidly until it approaches an infinitely large size. Under ideal conditions with unlimited resources, a population will grow exponentially. Exponential growth does not continue in natural populations for very long. Resources become less available as the population grows, and the rate of population growth slows down. Logistic growth occurs when a population s growth slows or stops following a period of exponential growth. PTS: 1 REF: p. 121 p ANS: Under ideal conditions, populations will continue to grow if there are not factors that limit their growth. Some factors in a population s environment that can limit growth are predation, competition, parasitism, and disease. Other limiting factors are climate extremes and human activities. PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: P. aurelia is a better competitor for limited resources, such as food. 32. ANS: P. caudatum 33. ANS: The limiting factors are density-dependent. In Graphs I and II, the population growth rate decreased and leveled out when the population size reached carrying capacity, as did P. aurelia in Graph III. PTS: 1 REF: p ANS: Both populations show a logistic growth curve. 35. ANS: Overall, P. aurelia had the greater growth rate. P. caudatum had the greater initial growth rate, but was eventually excluded by P. aurelia. P. caudatum eventually died out. 3

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