2. The range of tolerance of an organism is used to define its aggressiveness in conflicts.

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1 hapter 3 test True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. The main abiotic distinction between temperate grassland and tropical savanna is temperature, not rainfall. 2. The range of tolerance of an organism is used to define its aggressiveness in conflicts. 3. Lichens make good pioneer species because they can secrete acid that breaks down rock. 4. ata documenting the slowing of the northward spread of fricanized honeybees, commonly known as killer bees, support the conclusion that cold temperature is a limiting factor to this species. 5. The colonization of the stone walls of a building by mosses and lichens is classified as secondary succession. Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 6. In olorado forests, a disturbance such as fire that initiates a series of changes leading back to a mature community is an example of primary succession. _ 7. Primary succession is the most rapid form of succession because soil (and usually a few species) are already established. _ 8. biome in which the annual rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of precipitation is classified as tropical. _ 9. Pioneer species generally pave the way for other species during succession because they form fruit. _ 10. If lake turnover did not occur, the profundal region would experience a shortage of autotrophs. _ 11. Warming of ocean waters depress populations of algae, which will result in less production of oxygen and a decline in the removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide. _ 12. plausible hypothesis for the fact that mostly consumers live in marine abyssal zones and benthic zones is that light is a limiting factor. _ Multiple hoice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 13. student notices that her guppies reproduce most when her fish tank water is slightly alkaline. They stop reproducing if the water becomes acidic or if the water becomes too alkaline. This is an example of. a. secondary succession c. communities b. zones of tolerance d. intertidal zones

2 Ling feeds her guppies one-half teaspoon of fish food every day. The average guppy population in her aquarium over a four-month period is 38 guppies. She increased the food to one teaspoon per day. fter a four-month period, the average population is 53 guppies. 14. Which of the following statements is supported by these data? a. The size of the aquarium was a limiting factor. b. Food was a limiting factor. c. s long as Ling keeps adding more food, the guppy population will continue to grow. d. Guppies reproduce rapidly. Figure In Figure 3-1, where will you most likely find the greatest diversity? a. c. b. d. 16. In Figure 3-1, which section would have a lack of organisms due to an overabundance of resources? a. c. b. d. 17. In Figure 3-1, which section would account for a lower number of organisms near the bottom of a pond due to a short supply of oxygen and sunlight? a. c. b. d. 18. What type of succession is most likely to happen in Figure 3-2?

3 Figure 3-2 a. primary b. secondary c. tertiary d. climax 19. t which stage in Figure 3-3 are the most pioneer species found? Figure 3-3 a. c. b. d.

4 Figure You take a sample of species from the area labeled in Figure 3-5. What would you expect to find? a. almost no life b. great species diversity c. organisms that need very little oxygen d. one dominant species of fish 21. What type of species would be most likely found in the area labeled in Figure 3-5? a. one that requires plenty of oxygen b. plants that require light c. amphibians that need a warm habitat d. decomposers that feed on dead organisms 22. What single feature is primarily responsible for the variation of climate in different parts of the world? a. intensity of wind b. angle of incoming sunlight c. length of daylight d. amount of precipitation 23. If the global warming trend continues and permafrost under the tundra melts, what biome would you predict would replace it? a. boreal forest c. temperate grassland b. temperate forest d. desert 24. If precipitation on a tropical savanna increased from 100 to 200 centimeters per year but temperature remained the same, what biome would replace the savanna? a. tropical rain forest c. tropical seasonal forest b. temperate forest d. temperate rain forest 25. If fire were suppressed on a temperate grassland, what species do you think would increase in number? a. trees c. herbs b. grasses d. bison 26. Which of the following effects on the climate would you infer would result from an increase in altitude? a. the same as an increase in precipitation b. the same as a decrease in precipitation c. the same as a decrease in latitude d. the same as an increase in latitude 27. Which of these species would you classify as a profundal zone organism?

5 a. frog c. crayfish b. plankton d. floating water plants team of ecologists measured the salinity of the water in an estuary at various distances from the river mouth. They also sampled populations of two species of clam worm, Nereis occidentalis and Neanthes succinea, at each point. The results are tabulated below. Table Which of the following hypotheses is most valuable in explaining the trends seen in the data? a. Nereis occidentalis outcompetes Neanthes succinea at salinities under 14. b. Neanthes succinea reproduces most rapidly in areas at least 20 meters from the river mouth. c. oth Neanthes succinea and Nereis occidentalis can survive at any salinity. d. Nereis occidentalis is more resistant to salinity than Neanthes succinea. 29. If the ecologists were to take a population sample of Neanthes succinea in an area 65 meters from the river mouth with 30 salinity, what do you infer that they would find? a individuals b individuals c. fewer than 5 individuals d. more than 50 individuals 30. Some coral reefs off the east coast of South merica are starting to die off. Satellite images reveal great plumes of sediment washing out of the mouths of rivers. What can you conclude, if anything, about the relationship between these two factors? a. lthough the two factors coincide, they are not likely to be related. b. eforestation on land results in lower oxygen levels in the atmosphere, which stresses the reef. c. eforestation on land allows erosion to wash away topsoil, which smothers reefs. d. urning of the rain forest increases atmospheric carbon dioxide to levels toxic to reefs. 31. nalyze each of the sequences in the primary succession of species colonizing a newly formed volcanic island and select the option in the correct order.

6 a. bare rock, small annual plants, lichens, shade-intolerant trees, shade tolerant trees b. bare rock, lichens, small annual plants, perennial herbs and grasses, shade intolerant trees c. bare rock, lichens, perennial herbs and grasses, small annual plants, shade intolerant trees d. bare rock, lichens, small annual plants, perennial herbs and grasses, shade tolerant trees 32. Which of these species might be classified as a pioneer species? a. ponderosa pine c. aspen b. asian hemlock shrub d. dandelion 33. What is the distinction between a zone of tolerance and limiting factors? a. Limiting factors are biotic or abiotic factors that limit the growth of a species, while the range of tolerance defines the set of conditions in which an organism can survive. b. The range of tolerance defines biotic or abiotic factors that limit the growth of a species, while limiting factors define the set of conditions in which an organism can survive. c. Limiting factors and zones of tolerance are two terms for the same concepts about species survival under various environmental conditions. d. Limiting factors are biotic features only, such as interactions with other life forms, that limit a species, while range of tolerance is based only on abiotic conditions. 34. ompare primary and secondary succession. What is the distinction between them? a. Primary succession is the sequence of species that become established early in a newly colonized area, and secondary succession is the sequence of species that move in later. b. Primary succession is the establishment of a community in an area with no soil, while secondary succession is the establishment of a new community in an existing ecosystem that was disturbed. c. Primary succession is the establishment of a new community in an existing ecosystem that was disturbed, while secondary succession is the establishment of a community in an area with no soil. d. Primary succession is the sequence of plants that colonize a new area, while secondary succession is the sequence of animals that move in later. 35. How would you classify a biome having forest with broad-leaf evergreen trees, mosses, and orchids, 20 25º temperatures, and where the >200 cm of rainfall per year is seasonal? a. tropical seasonal forest c. tropical rain forest b. tropical savanna d. temperate woodland

7 hapter 3 test nswer Section TRUE/FLSE 1. NS: T PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: NT: LS_5e TOP: NS: F Range of tolerance is the range of values of a biotic or abiotic factor within which an organism can live and reproduce. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 61 NT: LS_5e TOP: NS: T PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 62 ST: III.5.1 TOP: NS: T PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level E REF: 61 NT: LS_5e ST: III.5.1 TOP: NS: F This would be a primary succession process. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: NT: LS_4c TOP: 3-3 MOIFIE TRUE/FLSE 6. NS: F secondary The distinction between primary and secondary succession is whether soil is present for the pioneer species. In this ecosystem, fire is the most common disturbing force, so soil remains mostly intact. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 63 NT: LS_4c ST: III.5.4 TOP: NS: F Secondary Recall that primary succession is the establishment of a new community on bare rock or sand with no soil. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 64 NT: LS_4c ST: III.5.4 TOP: NS: F desert This is the definition of a desert. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 70 TOP: NS: F soil Pioneer species like mosses or lichens make soil by breaking down rock and forming humus when they die.

8 PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level E REF: 63 NT: LS_4c ST: III.5.1 TOP: NS: F oxygen Oxygen is depleted in the profundal region of stratified lakes because respiration depletes it and there is no photosynthesis to replace it. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 76 NT: LS_1e TOP: NS: T large proportion of the planet's oxygen comes from marine algae, which also use up many tons of carbon dioxide. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 79 NT: LS_1e ST: III.5.4 TOP: NS: T light Not enough light penetrates those zones to support photosynthesis. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level F REF: 80 NT: LS_5e TOP: 3-7 MULTIPLE HOIE 13. NS: zone of tolerance is the range of values of a factor within which organisms can live and reproduce. See definition of secondary succession on p. 63. orrect! Review communities on p. 60. Intertidal zones are places where ocean meets land, not in fish tanks. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 61 NT: LS_5e ST: III.5.3 TOP: NS: limiting factor can be identified from the fact that when it is provided in abundance a population grows. quarium size was not changed. True. Think it over and try again. lthough the statement itself is true, it was not the idea being tested in the experiment. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level F REF: 61 NT: LS_4d ST: III.5.3 TOP: NS: Section is the most favorable environment with respect to this factor.

9 t limits of range, fewer species can survive. lose, try again. Right! t the upper limit of tolerance, fewer species can adapt. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 61 NT: LS_4c TOP: NS: The overabundance of the factor is on the right end of the range at section. This end of the graph represents fewer resources. on't give up. Organisms are plentiful here. Right answer! PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 61 NT: LS_4d ST: III.5.3 TOP: NS: Section is not supportive of life; section represents an underabundance of the factor, for example oxygen or sunlight. Section represents a place nearly devoid of life. orrect. The highest point of the bell curve, at, indicates an environment with the most organisms. This point of the curve represents a place with plentiful resources. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 61 NT: LS_5e ST: III.5.3 TOP: NS: Secondary succession occurs after a fire disturbance. heck definition of primary succession on page 62. orrect! Re-read the section on succession and try again. heck the definition of a climax community on page 63. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: NT: LS_4c ST: III.5.4 TOP: NS: Pioneer species are the first species to appear in a succession. That's right! There would be some, but not the most, here.

10 Have a look at pages again. There would be the fewest here. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: NT: LS_4c ST: III.5.4 TOP: NS: The most resource-rich and physically heterogeneous environment is the littoral zone. Think about the conditions there and try again. Good job. Little oxygen? t the surface? Many species could adapt to this environment. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 61 NT: LS_5e ST: III.5.3 TOP: NS: This region receives a steady drift of waste materials and dead organisms. More oxygen is found closer to the surface. Less light reaches the bottom. ecause less light penetrates, bottoms of lakes and ponds are cold. Right answer. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 61 NT: LS_4b ST: III.5.2 TOP: NS: Total amount of energy at Earth s surface is determined by the angle of incidence of sunlight. Review section on latitude and climate and try again. Right! See page 65. See page 65. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 65 TOP: NS: n increase in average temperature would be like a decrease in latitude, moving the boreal forest north. Right. See page 68 for a hint. Unlikely, try again. Review page PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level E REF: NT: LS_5e ST: III.5.4 TOP: 3-5

11 24. NS: These variables match climate characteristic of a tropical seasonal forest biome. See page 71. That would require a change in temperature. Good job. Review page 71. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 71 ST: III.5.4 TOP: NS: Fire will destroy young, woody plants. Good job. Try again. See page 70. Review information on temperate grasslands. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 70 NT: LS_5e ST: III.5.4 TOP: NS: Temperature declines with an increase in altitude; this mimics an increase in latitude. Review page 72. See page 72. Remember a decrease in latitude takes you toward the equator. orrect. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 72 TOP: NS: rayfish live on the bottoms of freshwater ecosystems. Review the definition of profundal zone. See page 77. That's right! See page 76 for a hint about water plants. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 77 TOP: NS: This is the only hypothesis that is consistent with the data. Look carefully at the table and try again.

12 The data do not support this conclusion. ata for all salinities are not provided in the table. orrect! PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level F REF: 78 NT: IS_1a ST: II.1.3 TOP: NS: If salinity controls their distribution, there should be numbers of Neanthes succinea similar to those found at 50 m. Look again at the data. o the data support this conclusion? Good job. Take another look at the table and try again. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 78 ST: II.1.3 TOP: NS: The sediment from land erosion shades and buries coral reef ecosystems. Review page 81. Try again! Right. lthough burning does increase carbon dioxide levels, this does not directly poison reefs. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level F REF: 81 NT: LS_4e ST: III.5.4 TOP: NS: This is the correct order. onsider requirements of annual plants for soil. Right answer! Perennials are not early colonizers. Review page 63. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: 63 NT: LS_4c TOP: NS: dandelions can grow in very harsh conditions. See page 62. This tree needs soil to grow. Try again. Right.

13 PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: TOP: NS: This is the correct distinction. orrect. See page 61. Recheck definitions and try again. Re-read the material and try again. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level F REF: 61 NT: LS_4d LS_5e TOP: NS: This is the correct distinction. See pages Good job! id you get your definitions in the right order? Recheck definitions and try again. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: NT: LS_4c ST: III.5.4 TOP: NS: These are tropical temperatures with seasonal rainfall. Right. Try again. heck pages Hint: those are tropical temperatures. PTS: 1 IF: loom's Level REF: TOP: 3-6

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