Web of Water. Teacher s Guide Webisode 1 Blue Ridge

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1 Web of Water Teacher s Guide Webisode 1 Blue Ridge

2 Table of Contents About Blue Ridge South Carolina Science Standards.. 4 Discussion Questions.. 10 Knowitall Resources Credits

3 About the Landform Blue Ridge The Blue Ridge Mountain Region is located in the northwestern corner of South Carolina and covers approximately two percent of the area of the state. South Carolina State Hwy. 11, also known as the Cherokee Foothills Scenic Highway, serves as a fairly accurate and easily recognizable eastern boundary for this region, which occupies the northern portions of Oconee, Pickens, and Greenville counties but also extends north and west well beyond the borders of the state. This region is the only truly mountainous region in South Carolina. Although other regions are hilly in places, none show the drastic elevation changes and high relief (difference in elevation between high hills and adjacent low valleys) that characterize the Blue Ridge. Several mountain peaks rise to more than 3,000 feet above sea level, and many mountains have very steep slopes and high cliffs. Local topographic relief can range from a few hundred feet to more than a thousand feet from valley floor to ridge crest. The best scenic lookouts are often located at the tops of cliffs because most other areas, including the mountain tops, are covered with trees and other vegetation. Mountain streams or creeks are usually small and rocky with clear, cold water and many rapids and waterfalls. They generally flow in narrow valleys which have developed a rectangular drainage pattern due to the underlying geologic structure. Occasionally these streams will disappear below piles of rock debris fallen from the adjacent mountainside, and reappear as springs at the downslope side. Landslides and other mass movement of rock and soil are common occurrences in the mountains. The amount of water flowing in these creeks varies greatly, depending on the amount of precipitation which has fallen recently in the local area. Occasionally small floodplain areas, called hollows or coves, occur along flatter sections of streams. Such areas contain rich bottomland soil for farming and provide a unique habitat for wildlife. No natural lakes occur in this region although beavers occasionally dam up small streams to form ponds and engineers have constructed several reservoirs in the area. SC Maps Teaching Manual, 4th Edition (2000), section 2 3

4 South Carolina Science Standards GRADE 3 Habitats and Adaptations Standard 3-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures, characteristics, and adaptations of organisms that allow them to function and survive within their habitats. (Life Science) Explain how physical and behavioral adaptations allow organisms to survive (including hibernation, defense, locomotion, movement, food obtainment, and camouflage for animals and seed dispersal, color, and response to light for plants) Summarize the organization of simple food chains (including the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers). GRADE 3 Earth s Materials and Changes Standard 3-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of Earth s composition and the changes that occur to the features of Earth s surface. (Earth Science) 4

5 3-3.3 Illustrate Earth s saltwater and freshwater features (including oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, ponds, streams, and glaciers) Illustrate Earth s land features (including volcanoes, mountains, valleys, canyons, caverns, and islands) by using models, pictures, diagrams, and maps Illustrate changes in Earth s surface that are due to slow processes (including weathering, erosion, and deposition) and changes that are due to rapid processes (including landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods, and earthquakes) Illustrate Earth s land features (including volcanoes, mountains, valleys, canyons, caverns, and islands) by using models, pictures, diagrams, and maps Illustrate changes in Earth s surface that are due to slow processes (including weathering, erosion, and deposition) and changes that are due to rapid processes (including landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods, and earthquakes). GRADE 5 Ecosystems: Terrestrial and Aquatic Standard 5-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of relationships among biotic and abiotic factors within terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. (Life Science) Summarize the composition of an ecosystem, considering both biotic factors (including populations to the level of microorganisms and communities) and abiotic factors Compare the characteristics of different ecosystems (including estuaries/salt marshes, oceans, lakes and ponds, forests, and grasslands). 5

6 5-2.4 Identify the roles of organisms as they interact and depend on one another through food chains and food webs in an ecosystem, considering producers and consumers (herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores), decomposers (microorganisms, termites, worms, and fungi), predators and prey, and parasites and hosts. GRADE 5 Landforms and Oceans Standard 5-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of features, processes, and changes in Earth s land and oceans. (Earth Science) Explain how natural processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition, landslides, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and floods) affect Earth s oceans and land in constructive and destructive ways. 6

7 GRADE 7 Cells and Heredity Standard 7-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and function of cells, cellular reproduction, and heredity. (Life Science) Explain how cellular processes (including respiration, photosynthesis in plants, mitosis, and waste elimination) are essential to the survival of the organism. GRADE 7 Ecology: The Biotic and Abiotic Environment Standard 7-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how organisms interact with and respond to the biotic and abiotic components of their environment. (Earth Science, Life Science) Illustrate energy flow in food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids Summarize how the location and movement of water on Earth s surface through groundwater zones and surface-water drainage basins, called watersheds, are important to ecosystems and to human activities. 7

8 GRADES 9-12 BIOLOGY Standard B-6: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationships among organisms and the biotic and abiotic components of their environments. B-6.1 Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems B-6.2 B-6.4 B-6.5 Explain how populations are affected by limiting factors (including density-dependent, density-independent, abiotic, and biotic factors). Exemplify the role of organisms in the geochemical cycles (including the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and water). Explain how ecosystems maintain themselves through naturally occurring processes (including maintaining the quality of the atmosphere, generating soils, controlling the hydrologic cycle, disposing of wastes, and recycling nutrients). 8

9 GRADES 9-12 EARTH SCIENCE Earth s Hydrosphere Standard ES-5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of Earth s freshwater and ocean systems. ES-5.1 ES-5.2 Summarize the location, movement, and energy transfers involved in the movement of water on Earth s surface (including lakes, surface-water drainage basins [watersheds], freshwater wetlands, and groundwater zones). Illustrate the characteristics of the succession of river systems. 9

10 Discussion Questions QUESTIONS: 1. Does the clear, cold water up in the mountains have more or less oxygen than water on the coast of South Carolina? 2. We can run through these mountains like the Native American tribes who once lived off this same land. What was the name of the most populous Native American tribe in the SC mountain region? 3. What were those early interactions with the settlers like? 4. What are some of the different types of trees up in the mountains that create such beautiful foliage? 5. We don't find many fossils up in these Mountains, why is that? 6. Moss and lichen are everywhere up here in the mountains. What unique relationship do lichen have to produce food? ANSWERS: 1. The cold water in the mountains holds more oxygen than the warmer water on the coast of South Carolina. 2. The most populous tribe in the upstate of South Carolina was the Cherokee nation, and it is 10

11 estimated that the Cherokee have lived in the upcountry area of South Carolina since In fact, the Cherokee are the largest tribe in the United States, but have suffered some of the greatest losses. In 1670, it is estimated that their population numbered 50,000, but throughout the 1700 s, half were lost to disease brought by European colonists. Learn more about the Cherokee and other Native American tribes in South Carolina through the Knowitall Media Native American Heritage Month collection. 3. Early relations with the settlers were rough, but soon the Cherokee began trading with the British. The peace was not to last long though, and soon Andrew Cummings negotiated a peace treaty that saw some of the Cherokee travel all the way to England for its signing. This treaty bound the Cherokee to the British up until and during the American Revolution. This did not bode well for the Cherokee upon the Colonists defeating the British in the war. Before the end of the 19th century the Cherokee would have their land taken from them and they would be relocated from South Carolina. The United States government forcibly removed many Native Americans from their homelands under the Indian Removal Act of The Trail of Tears is the route by which the Cherokee and other Native Americans departed for land in the west. 4. The many trees creating the foliage of the mountains are primarily: 1) conifers / pines (pitch pine, Virginia pine, short leaf pine) and 2) deciduous hardwoods (pignut hickory, mockernut hickory, scarlett oak, white oak, chestnut oak). 5. Fossils are found only in sedimentary rocks. The mountain region comprised of metamorphic rock created with the smashing together of the North American and African plates. Since no fossils are found in metamorphic rock there are no fossils in the mountain region. 6. Lichen are the result of a symbiotic relationship between algae and fungus. Using water and minerals absorbed by lichen from whatever the plants are growing on, algae turns the sun's energy into food while the fungus helps to retain water for the algae and to decompose the organic materials for recycling. 11

12 Knowitall Resources Use RiverVenture.org to learn about how rivers are connected, and how we are all connected to them: At the Estuary module of RiverVenture.org, learn about the sensitive salt marsh ecosystem and issues relating to pollution. Look for an object relating to DHEC to find out more about water quality and what factors help us measure it. The Three Rivers module of RiverVenture.org focuses more on natural resources and how rivers have shaped communities. Go to SC Life to learn more about the plants and animals of the Cove Forest ecosystem and other habitats. Here, you can also read more about beneficial relationships between plant and animal species. Go to Knowitall.org and learn about South Carolina s landform regions and about different types of maps at the following Web sites: RiverVenture.org A Natural State 12

13 Credits Ian Sanchez s trip was sponsored by the South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism. Funding for Knowitall.org was provided by the S. C. General Assembly through the K-12 Technology Initiative. Visit scetv.org/education for more educational resources. 13

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