Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Ecosystems. The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling"

Transcription

1 Ecosystems THE REALM OF ECOLOGY Biosphere An island ecosystem A desert spring ecosystem Biosphere Ecosystem Ecology: Interactions between the species in a given habitat and their physical environment. Community Population Organism Ecosystems Communities Populations Organisms Figure 55.2 Factors that Limit Communities Abiotic (nonliving) Limiting Factors Temperature Water Soil type light Salinity Wind stress Altitude, depth The two main ecosystem processes: Energy flow and Chemical cycling Biotic (living) Limiting Factors Food source Competition Predators Social factors, mates Pathogens, parasites Vegetation SIMPLE TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM Precipitation Falling leaves and twigs Water Producer Producers consumer (rabbit) Soluble mineral nutrients Oxygen (O 2 ) Carbon dioxide (rabbit) consumer (fox) Soil decomposers Energy flow is one-way 1 st Law of thermodynamics: energy is not created, nor destroyed. But transformed. Energy enters ecosystems through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. Some energy is transformed as used by producers; some is passed through Microorganisms and other food chain detritivores All energy eventually dissipates as heat. Thus must always be replenished. Key Detritus Chemical cycling Energy flow producers Heat Figure

2 Chemical matter is recycled Law of conservation of mass: Actual atoms are constantly rearranged into new molecules Energy needed to form new bonds, but atoms are reused Microorganisms and other detritivores Carbon cycle Detritus Nitrogen cycle Solar Energy Different ecosystems have dissimilar solar illumination Latitude Topography Depth (aquatic) Reflectance producers Key Chemical cycling Energy flow Heat Figure 55.4 Reflectance vs. Available Solar Energy Percent reflectance 8 Snow Clouds 6 Vegetation 4 Soil 2 Liquid water , 1,2 Visible Near-infrared Wavelength (nm) Figure 55.5 Energy flows through the food web Energy from lower trophic levels is transferred to higher trophic levels 5% - 2% of energy consumed is available to next trophic level Energy returns to the physical environment as heat Remember thermodynamics! Energy is neither created nor destroyed! Hardwood forest Energy pyramid reflects loss of energy at each trophic level Only 1% of solar energy reaching Earth is used by living systems Only ~1% of energy consumed is available to next trophic level Energy Pyramid Plant material eaten by caterpillar 2 J Oak trees, caterpillars, birds Feces Not assimilated 33 J Growth (new biomass; secondary production) 67 J Cellular respiration Assimilated Figure

3 Pyramid of net production 1 J 1, J Energy pyramid reflects loss of energy at each trophic level Caterpillar Feeding efficiency = growth/consumed = 17% Production efficiency = growth/assimilated = 33% Feces Plant material eaten by caterpillar 2 J 33 J 67 J Cellular respiration producers 1, J 1,, J of sunlight Figure Production Efficiency: Endothermic vertebrates: 1 3% Ectothermic vertebrates: ~1% Inverts: 2 4% Not assimilated Growth (new biomass; secondary production) Assimilated Figure 55.1 Eating high on the food chain is expensive! Most chains limited to 4 5 steps Pyramid of net production 1 J Figure , J producers 1, J Less than 1% passed on to next trophic level 1,, J of sunlight Energetic hypothesis Too little energy passed through steps to support another step. Dynamic stability hypothesis Even if average 1 primary production is sufficient, oscillations/deviations in 1 production cause fluctuations in higher steps below minimum viable population Biogeochemical cycles: "life-earth-chemical" Materials enter producers from atmosphere or soil. Return to abiotic world through respiration and decomposition. Biologically important materials: Water (H 2 O) Carbon (CO 2 ) Nitrogen (N 2, NO 3-, NO 2-, NH 4 ) Pools or Reservoirs of Materials Pools available: Abiotic: atmosphere, soil, water, geological Biotic: living or dead organic matter Materials cycle between pools Size of pools constant only if entry equals exit 3

4 Global Water Cycle Humidity: water in atmosphere Global Water Cycle Precipitation: rain, snow Surface transport: puddles, groundwater, rivers, oceans Groundwater transport aquifers Evaporation: transpiration: water loss from plants; helps maintain local humidity from organisms: sweat, urine, respiration Water cycle & NPP Actual evapotranspiration = annual amount of water evaporated from a landscape and transpired by plants Watershed Net primary production (g/m 2 /yr) 3, 2, 1, Desert shrubland Arctic tundra Temperate forest Mountain coniferous forest Temperate grassland Tropical forest 5 1, 1,5 Actual evapotranspiration (mm H 2 O/yr) Impacted watersheds Natural/Forested Ecosystem permeability percolation surface runoff interflow & retention evapotranspiration primary productivity groundwater aquifer pool gaining stream Developed/Impacted Ecosystem permeability percolation surface runoff erosion flooding sedimentation interflow& retention evapotranspiration primary productivity groundwater aquifer pool losing stream Human activity disrupts local water cycles Diversion of surface transport Irrigation Dams Disruption of soil water retention (watershed disturbance) Clear cutting of forests Overgrazing Permeability compaction & loss of organic content Also causes loss of minerals through runoff Further losses of vegetation Desertification 4

5 Desertification DESERTIFICATION Africa U.S. 193 s Dust Bowl Moderate Severe Very Severe 5

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Chapter 55 Ecosystems PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Overview:

More information

Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology. AP Biology

Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology. AP Biology Ch. 55 Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology Studying organisms in their environment organism population community ecosystem biosphere Essential questions What limits the production in ecosystems? How do

More information

Unit 2 Lesson 3 Energy and Matter in Ecosystems. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 2 Lesson 3 Energy and Matter in Ecosystems. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Soak Up the Sun How do organisms get energy and matter? Energy is the ability to do work. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. All organisms need energy and matter to live, grow, and reproduce.

More information

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling

Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling AP Biology Chapter 54 notes Ecosystems Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a community and all the abiotic factors with which they

More information

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter

Ecology - Exchange of energy and matter - Exchange of energy and matter You should be able to: (a) briefly describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow (b) establish the relationship of the following in food webs: producer, consumer, herbivore,

More information

ENERGY WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? PATTERNS OF ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

ENERGY WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? PATTERNS OF ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS ENERGY PATTERNS OF ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? Biological community plus all abiotic factors affecting the community Ecosystem first proposed by Arthur Tansley Boundaries not fixed

More information

Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Chapter 55: Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Overview: 1. What is an ecosystem? Name Period An ecosystem is the sum of all the organisms living in a given area and the abiotic factors with which they

More information

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy A. Ecology I. Ecology 1. eco house & logy study of 2. The study of interactions among and between organisms in their abiotic environment B. Biotic - living environment 1.Includes

More information

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - The biological influences on organisms are called biotic factors. The physical components of an ecosystem are called abiotic factors. - Primary producers are

More information

Life on Earth. Page 1. Energy (sunlight) Energy (heat) Nutrients. Nutrients. Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work?

Life on Earth. Page 1. Energy (sunlight) Energy (heat) Nutrients. Nutrients. Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work? Chapter 28: How Do Ecosystems Work? Introduction to Ecology Ecology - Increasing Levels of Complexity: Population: All members of a particular species living within a defined area Organism Community: All

More information

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species.

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species. Name: practice test Score: 0 / 35 (0%) [12 subjective questions not graded] The Biosphere Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the

More information

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystems, Energy, and Matter An ecosystem consists of

Ecosystems. Chapter 55. Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystems, Energy, and Matter An ecosystem consists of Chapter 55 Ecosystems Ecosystem Ecology Ecosystems, Energy, and Matter An ecosystem consists of All the organisms living in a community, and All the abiotic factors with which they interact PowerPoint

More information

Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected.. What they might ask:

Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected.. What they might ask: B-6.1 Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems. ecosystem - biotic community (all

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 13 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A group of organisms of the same

More information

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes Biomes The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 2 THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes By the end of this topic you should be able to:- SYLLABUS STATEMENT ASSESSMENT STATEMENT CHECK NOTES 2.4 BIOMES 2.4.1 Define the term biome.

More information

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids

Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem. Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids What is Ecology? ECOLOGY is a branch of biology that studies ecosystems. Ecological Terminology Environment Ecology Biotic

More information

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Overview of Chapter 3 What is Ecology? The Energy of Life Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems Producers, Consumers

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives

Ecosystem Ecology. Community interacts with abiotic factors. Objectives Ecosystem Ecology Community interacts with abiotic factors Objectives Compare the processes of energy flow and chemical cycling as they relate to ecosystem dynamics. Define and list examples of producers,

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers Ecosystem Ecology 1. Overview of material and energy flows in ecosystems 2. Primary production 3. Secondary production and trophic efficiency 4. Ecological Pyramids Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems

More information

Ecology - Interactions in Communities

Ecology - Interactions in Communities Ecology - Interactions in Communities Symbiotic Relationships ( living together ) symbiosis - dissimilar organisms living together symbiont lives in /on a second species, host parasitism and mutualism

More information

A Biotic and Abiotic Factors

A Biotic and Abiotic Factors Ecology Project Earth s Biomes Biomes 1. Savanna 2. Temperate Grasslands 3. Desert 4. Tropical Rain Forest 5. Taiga /Boreal Forest 6. Tundra 7. Temperate Forest 8. Temperate Shrubland/Scrublands 9. Nothwestern

More information

Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A.

Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A. Earth s Cycles 1. Models are often used to explain scientific knowledge or experimental results. A model of the carbon cycle is shown below. Which of the following can be determined based on this model?

More information

Eastern Regional High School. F 2. Like nutrients and water, energy also recycles through an ecosystem.

Eastern Regional High School. F 2. Like nutrients and water, energy also recycles through an ecosystem. Eastern Regional High School Honors Biology Name: Period: Date: Unit 14 Introduction to Ecology Worksheet The Science of Ecology Part 1 - True or False Write true if the statement is true or false if the

More information

BIOLOGY CLASS 9 ECOSYSTEMS

BIOLOGY CLASS 9 ECOSYSTEMS BIOLOGY CLASS 9 ECOSYSTEMS Q1. Define the following terms: a) Biosphere The whole of the region of the earth s surface, the sea, and the air where living organisms are found is termed as Biosphere. It

More information

Chapter 36: Population Growth. Population Concepts. Population: Carrying Capacity: Critical Number: Growth Rate: Growth rate = Birth rate - Death rate

Chapter 36: Population Growth. Population Concepts. Population: Carrying Capacity: Critical Number: Growth Rate: Growth rate = Birth rate - Death rate Chapter 36: Population Growth Population: Population Concepts interbreeding group of same species Carrying Capacity: maximum population size an ecosystem can sustainably support Critical Number: minimum

More information

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy

Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Chapter 3 Ecosystems and Energy Overview of Chapter 3 o Ecology o Energy, the ability to do work First Law of Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics o Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration o Flow

More information

9/6/2013. Ecosystem Ecology. Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors

9/6/2013. Ecosystem Ecology. Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors Ecosystem Ecology Orgnaisms (biotic factors) interact with abiotic factors 1 Matter and Energy Matter has mass and occupies space: it is the stuff you and everything else is made of. Energy is what you

More information

Ecosystems and Energy

Ecosystems and Energy 3 Ecosystems and Energy Overview of Chapter 3 What is Ecology? The Energy of Life Laws of Thermodynamics Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems Producers, Consumers &

More information

Introduction to Ecology. Lab practical next week. 1. Types of Ecology. What is ecology? Organismal ecology. Population ecology

Introduction to Ecology. Lab practical next week. 1. Types of Ecology. What is ecology? Organismal ecology. Population ecology Introduction to Ecology Reading: Chapter 50 Introduction, today Chapter 52 Population ecology, today and W Chapter 54 Ecosystem ecology, W&F Outline of Lecture 1. Branches of ecology 2. Factors affecting

More information

13.1. Principles of Ecology CHAPTER 13. Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment.

13.1. Principles of Ecology CHAPTER 13. Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. SECTION 13.1 KEY CONCEPT ECOLOGISTS STUDY RELATIONSHIPS Study Guide Ecology is the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment. VOCABULARY ecology community MAIN IDEA: Ecologists study

More information

NUTRIENT CYCLES (How are nutrients recycled through ecosystems?)

NUTRIENT CYCLES (How are nutrients recycled through ecosystems?) NUTRIENT CYCLES (How are nutrients recycled through ecosystems?) Why? We have learned the importance of recycling our trash. It allows us to use something again for another purpose and prevents the loss

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles

Ecosystem Ecology. Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles Ecosystem Ecology Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles Introduction to Ecosystems Some reflected Some converted to heat Some absorbed PSN Some absorbed by organisms, soils, water Introduction to Ecosystems

More information

Principles of Ecology

Principles of Ecology Principles of Ecology Chapter 2. pp. 33-61 Flexbook. pp. 709-746 Principles of Ecology Ecology the study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environments Living things are affected

More information

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. life by observing many different kinds of life forms. sunlight for their energy. Other animals eat food to get energy.

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. life by observing many different kinds of life forms. sunlight for their energy. Other animals eat food to get energy. The Biosphere Matter of Energy, Interdependence in Nature Q: How do Earth s living and nonliving parts interact and affect the survival of organisms? 3.1 How do we study life? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER:

More information

THE WATER CYCLE. Ecology

THE WATER CYCLE. Ecology THE WATER CYCLE Water is the most abundant substance in living things. The human body, for example, is composed of about 70% water, and jellyfish are 95% water. Water participates in many important biochemical

More information

Chapter 55: Ecosystems

Chapter 55: Ecosystems Name Period Overview: 1. What is an ecosystem? 2. Where does energy enter most ecosystems? How is it converted to chemical energy and then passed through the ecosystem? How is it lost? Remember this: energy

More information

7. Use the dead tree in Fig 3-10 to describe the processes of detritus feeders and decomposers.

7. Use the dead tree in Fig 3-10 to describe the processes of detritus feeders and decomposers. APES Miller 17th ed. Chapter 3 Questions 5. Describe the 2 chemical equations used by autotrophs and heterotrophs to gain energy for chemical functions. Compare/contrast respiration to fossil fuel combustion

More information

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Ecosystems An ecosystem is a living community of plants and animals sharing an environment with non-living elements such as climate and soil. An example of a small scale ecosystem

More information

Introduction to Ecology

Introduction to Ecology Introduction to Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between living organisms and their environment. Scientists who study ecology are called ecologists. Because our planet has many

More information

Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with

Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with Oikos: House and Ology: to Study Scientific discipline in which the relationships among living organisms and the interaction the organisms have with their environments are studied. An Ecologist is someone

More information

Chapter 13- Food chains and webs

Chapter 13- Food chains and webs Section 4: Food Chains and Food Webs Chapter 13- Food chains and webs KEY CONCEPT Food chains and food webs model the flow of energy in an ecosystem. VOCABULARY food chain herbivore carnivore omnivore

More information

4 Ecology. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised

4 Ecology. Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 4 Ecology Chapter summary a reminder of the issues to be revised 1 Ecology is the study of organisms in relation to their environment. An ecosystem, such as a lake or woodland, is a stable and settled

More information

Ecology- an ecosystem: a Biome: o They are either terrestrial or aquatic. rainforests, deserts, coral reefs

Ecology- an ecosystem: a Biome: o They are either terrestrial or aquatic. rainforests, deserts, coral reefs Topic 17: Ecology Ecology- The environment is an organism s surroundings o It includes:! biotic factors: Ecosystems! abiotic factors: an ecosystem: In order for an ecosystem to maintain life it must: -

More information

Cycles of Matter. Chapter 13- Lesson 3

Cycles of Matter. Chapter 13- Lesson 3 Cycles of Matter Chapter 13- Lesson 3 What processes are involved in the water cycle? Matter in an ecosystem includes water, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and many other substances. The water cycle is the

More information

Objectives. Key Terms

Objectives. Key Terms Objectives Summarize the basic pattern of chemical cycling. Describe how carbon and oxygen are cycled through an ecosystem. Describe the movement of nitrogen through an ecosystem. Describe the processes

More information

Westerville City Schools Science Power Standards Safety Net Skills * Grade 7

Westerville City Schools Science Power Standards Safety Net Skills * Grade 7 Westerville City Schools Science Power Standards Safety Net Skills * Grade 7 Standard 1 Earth and Space Sciences Students will be able to describe the positions of matter and energy throughout the lithosphere,

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Ecosystems as machines. Simple laws of physics. Energy Ability to do work

Ecosystem Ecology. Ecosystems as machines. Simple laws of physics. Energy Ability to do work Ecosystem Ecology Read Chps 18-19 (know N, P, C cycles) Ecosystem: A community of organisms plus its nonlinving (=abiotic) environment At the individual level, the abiotic environment affects organisms

More information

Ecology. Initial Vocab and Practice. Page 1 in notes

Ecology. Initial Vocab and Practice. Page 1 in notes 2015 1 Ecology Initial Vocab and Practice Page 1 in notes 2 The study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment. 3 Organism/species an individual living thing.

More information

STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY. CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment.

STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY. CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. STUDY GUIDE ECOLOGY CHAPTER 21: Populations 1. An overview of ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. 2. A Hierarchy of interactions: cells tissues organs

More information

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND ENERGY FLOW

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND ENERGY FLOW Chapter Concepts Chapter 18 PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND ENERGY FLOW Terrestrial Primary Production is generally limited by temperature and moisture Aquatic Primary Production is generally limited by nutrient

More information

Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Chapter 55 Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology Lecture Outline Overview: Cool Ecosystem An ecosystem is the sum of all the organisms that live in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which

More information

Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems [2].

Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems [2]. GUIDED READING - Ch. 55 - ECOSYSTEMS NAME: Please print out these pages and HANDWRITE the answers directly on the printouts. Typed work or answers on separate sheets of paper will not be accepted. Importantly,

More information

Ecology PS 12 PS 13:

Ecology PS 12 PS 13: Ecology PS 12: Matter cycles and energy flows through living and nonliving components in ecosystems. The transfer of matter and energy is important for maintaining the health and sustainability of ecosystems.

More information

Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2.

Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2. Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2.1 ) Energy Flow 1) Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George Date:

More information

Biomes An Overview of Ecology Biomes Freshwater Biomes

Biomes An Overview of Ecology Biomes Freshwater Biomes Biomes An Overview of Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environments. Ecology can be divided into four increasingly comprehensive levels: Organismal

More information

How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles. Multiple Choice Test

How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles. Multiple Choice Test How Ecosystems Work: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles Multiple Choice Test 1. The flow of solar energy through an ecosystem is marked by a) plants converting light energy to chemical energy via photosynthesis

More information

Principles of Ecology

Principles of Ecology Principles of Ecology Before You Read Use the What I Know column to list the things you know about ecology. Then list the questions you have about ecology in the What I Want to Find Out column. K W L What

More information

Primary Production and Energy Flow Chapter 18

Primary Production and Energy Flow Chapter 18 Primary Production and Energy Flow Chapter 18 Sunlight to photosynthesizer to herbivore to carnivore to decomposer!!! 1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or

More information

Lesson 7: The Principles of Ecology

Lesson 7: The Principles of Ecology Lesson 7: The Principles of Ecology These brilliant red "feathers" are actually animals called tube worms. They live in an extreme environment on the deep ocean floor, thousands of meters below the water

More information

8.2 - A Local Ecosystem:

8.2 - A Local Ecosystem: 8.2 - A Local Ecosystem: 1. The distribution, diversity and numbers of plants and animals found in ecosystems are determined by biotic and abiotic factors: Distinguish between the abiotic and biotic factors

More information

What are the subsystems of the Earth? The 4 spheres

What are the subsystems of the Earth? The 4 spheres What are the subsystems of the Earth? The 4 spheres Essential Questions What are the 4 spheres of the Earth? How do these spheres interact? What are the major cycles of the Earth? How do humans impact

More information

Relationships in Ecosystems. Vocabulary

Relationships in Ecosystems. Vocabulary Relationships in Ecosystems Vocabulary Relationships in Ecosystems Big Ideas Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms Explore the scientific theory of evolution by relating how the inability of a species

More information

Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5.

Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5. North arolina Testing Program EO iology Sample Items Goal 4 Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5. coyotes 3. If these organisms were arranged in a food pyramid, which organism

More information

Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology

Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology 55 Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology KEY CONCEPTS 55.1 Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems 55.2 Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems

More information

- diversity is the results of interactions among the population adapting to each other. - 4 types of interactions are important in shaping community:

- diversity is the results of interactions among the population adapting to each other. - 4 types of interactions are important in shaping community: Biology 1407 Notes Exam 5 - Ecology Ch 34, 37, 38 Ecology - the study of how organisms interact with their environment; interactions occur at several levels and include both living (biotic) and nonliving

More information

Energy flow in ecosystems. Lecture 6 Chap. 6

Energy flow in ecosystems. Lecture 6 Chap. 6 Energy flow in ecosystems Lecture 6 Chap. 6 1 What is an ecosystem? System = regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified whole Ecosystem = an ecological system; = a community

More information

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS In an ecosystem, plants capture the sun's energy and use it to convert inorganic compounds into energy-rich organic compounds. This process of using the sun's

More information

The animals at higher levels are more competitive, so fewer animals survive. B.

The animals at higher levels are more competitive, so fewer animals survive. B. Energy Flow in Ecosystems 1. The diagram below shows an energy pyramid. Which of the following best explains why the number of organisms at each level decreases while moving up the energy pyramid? The

More information

Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems

Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems photosynthesis a process by which plants use water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight to produce sugars (food) Types

More information

ECOSYSTEM : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

ECOSYSTEM : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION ECOSYSTEM : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Environment The term environment denotes all the physical, chemical and biotic conditions surrounding and influencing a living organism. Favourable environmental conditions

More information

Chapter 3 How Ecosystems Work. You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through.

Chapter 3 How Ecosystems Work. You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through. Chapter 3 How Ecosystems Work You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through. Ilya Ehrenburg Energy Flow in Ecosystems For most living organisms the sun

More information

Energy & Matter in Ecosystems. Chapter 13

Energy & Matter in Ecosystems. Chapter 13 Energy & Matter in Ecosystems Chapter 13 The Big Idea Matter cycles between organisms and the abiotic environment. Energy flows one way, from sunlight to producers to consumers and decomposers. Lesson

More information

Lecture Eight: Energy Flow And Biogeochemical Cycles

Lecture Eight: Energy Flow And Biogeochemical Cycles Lecture Eight: Energy Flow And Biogeochemical Cycles We now know what a FOOD WEB is, and what TROPHIC LEVELS are. The Food Web reflects the flow of ENERGY and NUTRIENTS through ecosystems. ENERGY (E) is

More information

3.2 Energy flows through ecosystems

3.2 Energy flows through ecosystems 3.2 Energy flows through ecosystems Printed Page 60 [Notes/Highlighting] To understand how ecosystems function and how to best protect and manage them, ecosystem ecologists study not only the biotic and

More information

REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS

REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS Period Date REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS A. Sample Multiple Choice Questions Complete the multiple choice questions to review this unit. 1. All of the following are density-dependent factors

More information

Ecosystems and Food Webs

Ecosystems and Food Webs Ecosystems and Food Webs How do AIS affect our lakes? Background Information All things on the planet both living and nonliving interact. An Ecosystem is defined as the set of elements, living and nonliving,

More information

Climate Change and Biomes

Climate Change and Biomes Climate Change and Biomes Key Concepts: Greenhouse Gas WHAT YOU WILL LEARN Biome Climate zone Greenhouse gases 1. You will learn the difference between weather and climate. 2. You will analyze the effect

More information

Unit 3 Lecture 4 Energy flow in an ecosystem

Unit 3 Lecture 4 Energy flow in an ecosystem Energy flow is the movement of energy through an ecosystem: from the external environment through a series of organisms and back to the external environment. It is one of the fundamental processes common

More information

The main source of energy in most ecosystems is sunlight.

The main source of energy in most ecosystems is sunlight. Energy in Ecosystems: Ecology: Part 2: Energy and Biomass The main source of energy in most ecosystems is sunlight. What is the amount of energy from the sun? 100 W/ft 2 The energy gets transferred through

More information

LESSON 4. Ecosystem Extravaganza NUTSHELL BIG IDEAS BACKGROUND INFORMATION OBJECTIVES SUBJECT AREAS LESSON/ACTIVITY TIME TEACHING SITE

LESSON 4. Ecosystem Extravaganza NUTSHELL BIG IDEAS BACKGROUND INFORMATION OBJECTIVES SUBJECT AREAS LESSON/ACTIVITY TIME TEACHING SITE LESSON 4 Ecosystem Extravaganza BIG IDEAS Ecosystem structure consists of different types of organisms (i.e., producers, consumers, decomposers) interacting with one another and their environment. Humans

More information

Chapters 16 Soils Ecosystem Essentials

Chapters 16 Soils Ecosystem Essentials Chapters 16 Soils Ecosystem Essentials I. Soils A. Characteristics B. Properties C. Classification II. Ecosystem Components and Cycles A. Biotic components B. Abiotic components C. Limiting factors D.

More information

Ecology limiting factors plant limiting factors field mouse nitrogen nitrogen ALL nitrogen returned to soil process major role; mutualism

Ecology limiting factors plant limiting factors field mouse nitrogen nitrogen ALL nitrogen returned to soil process major role; mutualism Ecology List some limiting factors that would affect a plant (such as a corn plant) population. Light, carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, nutrients in soil, water List some limiting factors that

More information

Energy Flow in the Biosphere

Energy Flow in the Biosphere Energy Flow in the Biosphere 36.1-36.2 Objectives Compare and contrast the pathways of matter and energy in an ecosystem. Identify and describe the various feeding relationships in an ecosystem. Describe

More information

The Global Water Cycle

The Global Water Cycle The Global Water Cycle OCN 401 November 18, 2014 1. The Global Water Cycle - Processes - Reservoirs and Fluxes - Composition Lecture Outline 2. Models of the Hydrologic Cycle 3. The History of the Water

More information

Amherst County Public Schools. AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide. College Board AP Environmental Science Site

Amherst County Public Schools. AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide. College Board AP Environmental Science Site Amherst County Public Schools AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide College Board AP Environmental Science Site REV: 8/12 1 st 9 weeks AP Objectives Energy Resources and Consumption A. Energy

More information

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species Science Unit 6: Vocabulary List One tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species The coldest of the biomes, located at the top

More information

Spring Break homework will be posted on my.ccsd.net

Spring Break homework will be posted on my.ccsd.net Mon 4/7 Collect: Power of the Pyramids. Today: Test and INB Check, Start POGIL. Homework: POGIL-due Wed, Guided Reading-Due Fri. Print notes-ch 45 pt 1 for next class. Next class: Notes-Ch 45 pt 1. Wed.

More information

Ecosystems. I.1 Soil. I.2 Air. I.3 The sun. I.4 Water. I. What is an ecosystem?

Ecosystems. I.1 Soil. I.2 Air. I.3 The sun. I.4 Water. I. What is an ecosystem? I. What is an ecosystem? Ecosystems An ecosystem is a community of living and non-living things that work together. Ecosystems have no particular size. An ecosystem can be as large as a desert or as small

More information

AP Biology Summer Assignment

AP Biology Summer Assignment Name Biology Mrs. Slomnicki Part 1 AP Biology Summer Assignment Read Chapters 45 48 in your textbook. Fill in the following guided worksheets as you read. I have included the most important key phrases

More information

3 Types of Interactions

3 Types of Interactions CHAPTER 1 3 Types of Interactions SECTION Interactions of Living Things BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What determines an area s carrying capacity?

More information

Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers:

Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers: Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fourth-Grade Teachers: Energy and Matter in Ecosystems by Ellen Deehan, M.S. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Biological Overview: Hierarchy of

More information

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Section 1: Community Ecology Section 2: Terrestrial Biomes Section 3: Aquatic Ecosystems Click on a lesson name to select. 3.1 Community Ecology Communities A biological

More information

Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles Interdependence within Environmental Systems. Carbon the Element

Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles Interdependence within Environmental Systems. Carbon the Element Carbon the Element The element carbon is one of the most essential elements on our planet. All living organisms contain carbon, making it a critical component of all life on planet earth. In fact, the

More information

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Before You Read Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements. 1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

More information

Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011

Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011 Energy Flow in the Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011 Grades: 6, 7 & 8 Time: 3 hours With the pond as a model, students explore how energy that originates from the sun keeps changing shape and form as

More information

Chapter 13 study guide

Chapter 13 study guide Below are listed some Key Topics or terms to aid in focusing your study time. More topics then these may appear on the exam but these are a good place to start. Check each box as you review the concept

More information

Ecology. Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce.

Ecology. Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce. Biotic vs. Abiotic Ecology Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce. Some Abiotic Factors light intensity temperature range

More information

Lungs of the Planet. 1. Based on the equations above, describe how the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration relate to each other.

Lungs of the Planet. 1. Based on the equations above, describe how the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration relate to each other. Lungs of the Planet Name: Date: Why do people call rain forests the lungs of the planet? Usually it is because people think that the rain forests produce most of the oxygen we breathe. But do they? To

More information

Name Date. Cycling WebQuest

Name Date. Cycling WebQuest Name Date Cycling WebQuest Directions: Visit the following websites and answer the related questions. Your goal is to gain a better understanding of the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Background: In biogeochemical

More information