# Chapter 4 Fractions and Mixed Numbers

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1 Chapter 4 Fractions and Mixed Numbers

2 4.1 Introduction to Fractions and Mixed Numbers

3 Parts of a Fraction Whole numbers are used to count whole things. To refer to a part of a whole, fractions are used. A fraction is a number of the form, where a and b are integers and b is not 0. The parts of a fraction are a b numerator denominator a b fraction bar Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 3

4 Helpful Hint 4 7 Remember that the bar in a fraction means division. Since division by 0 is undefined, a fraction with a denominator of 0 is undefined. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 4

5 Visualizing Fractions One way to visualize fractions is to picture them as shaded parts of a whole figure. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 5

6 Visualizing Fractions Picture Fraction Read as part shaded equal parts parts shaded equal parts parts shaded equal parts one-fourth five-sixths seven-thirds Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 6

7 Types of Fractions A proper fraction is a fraction whose numerator is less than its denominator. Proper fractions have values that are less than ,, An improper fraction is a fraction whose numerator is greater than or equal to its denominator. Improper fractions have values that are greater than or equal to ,, A mixed number is a sum of a whole number and a proper fraction ,3, Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 7

8 Fractions on Number Lines Another way to visualize fractions is to graph them on a number line equal parts Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 8 1 5

9 Fraction Properties of 1 If n is any integer other than 0, then n n =1 If n is any integer, then 5 5 =1 n 1 = n 3 1 =3 Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 9

10 Fraction Properties of 0 If n is any integer other than 0, then 0 0 n = 0 5 =0 If n is any integer, then n 0 = undefined 3 0 = undefined Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 10

11 Writing a Mixed Number as an Improper Fraction Step 1: Multiply the denominator of the fraction by the whole number. Step 2: Add the numerator of the fraction to the product from Step 1. Step 3: Write the sum from Step 2 as the numerator of the improper fraction over the original denominator = = = 11 4 Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 11

12 Writing an Improper Fraction as a Mixed Number or a Whole Number Step 1: Divide the denominator into the numerator. Step 2: The whole number part of the mixed number is the quotient. The fraction part of the mixed number is the remainder over the original denominator. quotient = remainder original denominator Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 12

13 4.2 Factors and Simplest Form

14 Prime and Composite Numbers A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 whose only factors are 1 and itself. The first few prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29,... A composite number is a natural number greater than 1 that is not prime. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 14

15 Helpful Hint The natural number 1 is neither prime nor composite. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 15

16 Prime Factorization A prime factorization of a number expresses the number as a product of its factors and the factors must be prime numbers. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 16

17 Helpful Hints Remember a factor is any number that divides a number evenly (with a remainder of 0). Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 17

18 Prime Factorization Every whole number greater than 1 has exactly one prime factorization. 12 = and 3 are prime factors of 12 because they are prime numbers and they divide evenly into 12. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 18

19 Divisibility Tests A whole number is divisible by 2 if its last digit is 0, 2, 4, 6, or is divisible by 2 3 if the sum of its digits is divisible by is divisible by 3 since = 9 is divisible by 3. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 19

20 Divisibility Tests A whole number is divisible by 5 if the ones digit is 0 or 5. 2,345 is divisible by if its last digit is 0. 8,470 is divisible by 10. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 20

21 Equivalent Fractions Graph on the number line on the number line. 8 Graph Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 21

22 Equivalent Fractions Fractions that represent the same portion of a whole or the same point on the number line are called equivalent fractions = = = = Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 22

23 Fundamental Property of Fractions If a, b, and c are numbers, then a a c b = b c and also a b a c b c as long as b and c are not 0. If the numerator and denominator are multiplied or divided by the same nonzero number, the result is an equivalent fraction. = Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 23

24 Simplest Form A fraction is in simplest form, or lowest terms, when the numerator and denominator have no common factors other than 1. Using the fundamental principle of fractions, divide the numerator and denominator by the common factor of 7. Using the prime factorization of the numerator and denominator, divide out common factors = = = = Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 24 = 2 3

25 Writing a Fraction in Simplest Form To write a fraction in simplest form, write the prime factorization of the numerator and the denominator and then divide both by all common factors. The process of writing a fraction in simplest form is called simplifying the fraction. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 25

26 Helpful Hints = = = = = When all factors of the numerator or denominator are divided out, don t forget that 1 still remains in that numerator or denominator. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 26

27 4.3 Multiplying and Dividing Fractions

28 Multiplying Fractions of 4 is The word of means multiplication and is means equal to. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 28

29 Multiplying Fractions of 4 is 3 8 means = Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 29

30 Multiplying Two Fractions If a, b, c, and d are numbers and b and d are not 0, then a c a c = b d b d In other words, to multiply two fractions, multiply the numerators and multiply the denominators. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 30

31 Examples = = If the numerators have common factors with the denominators, divide out common factors before multiplying = = 3 10 or = Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 31 1

32 Examples 3x 8 = 4 5x 3 x x = 6 5 or 2 3x 8 4 5x = Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 32

33 Helpful Hint Recall that when the denominator of a fraction contains a variable, such as 8, 5x we assume that the variable is not 0. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 33

34 Expressions with Fractional Bases The base of an exponential expression can also be a fraction. F 3 2 H I K = = = 8 27 Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 34

35 Reciprocal of a Fraction Two numbers are reciprocals of each other if their product is 1. The reciprocal of the fraction a b because is b a a b a b ab = = = 1 b a b a ab Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 35

36 Dividing Two Fractions If b, c, and d are not 0, then a c a d a d = = b d b c b c In other words, to divide fractions, multiply the first fraction by the reciprocal of the second fraction. 3 2 = 3 7 = Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 36

37 Helpful Hint Every number has a reciprocal except 0. The number 0 has no reciprocal. Why? There is no number that when multiplied by 0 gives the result 1. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 37

38 Helpful Hint When dividing by a fraction, do not look for common factors to divide out until you rewrite the division as multiplication. 1 2 Do not try to divide out these two 2s. 2 = = Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 38

39 Fractional Replacement Values If x = and y =, evaluate Replace x with and y with. x y x y = = = Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 39

40 4.4 Adding and Subtracting Like Fractions, Least Common Denominator, and Equivalent Fractions

41 Like and Unlike Fractions Fractions that have the same or common denominator are called like fractions. Fractions that have different denominators are called unlike fractions. Like Fractions 2 5 and 4 5 Unlike Fractions 2 3 and and and 5 12 Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 41

42 Adding or Subtracting Like Fractions If a, b, and c, are numbers and b is not 0, then a c a + c a c a c + = also = b b b b b b To add or subtract fractions with the same denominator, add or subtract their numerators and write the sum or difference over the common denominator. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 42

43 Adding or Subtracting Like Fractions Start = End To add like fractions, add the numerators and write the sum over the common denominator. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 43

44 Helpful Hint Do not forget to write the answer in simplest form. If it is not in simplest form, divide out all common factors larger than 1. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 44

45 Equivalent Negative Fractions = = = Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 45

46 Least Common Denominator To add or subtract fractions that have unlike, or different, denominators, we write the fractions as equivalent fractions with a common denominator. The smallest common denominator is called the least common denominator (LCD) or the least common multiple (LCM). Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 46

47 Least Common Multiple The least common denominator (LCD) of a list of fractions is the smallest positive number divisible by all the denominators in the list. (The least common denominator is also the least common multiple (LCM) of the denominators.) Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 47

48 Least Common Denominator To find the LCD of 5 5 and First, write each denominator as a product of primes. 12 = = Then write each factor the greatest number of times it appears in any one prime factorization. The greatest number of times that 2 appears is 2 times. The greatest number of times that 3 appears is 2 times. LCD = = 36 Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 48

49 4.5 Adding and Subtracting Unlike Fractions

50 Adding or Subtracting Unlike Fractions Step 1: Find the LCD of the denominators of the fractions. Step 2: Write each fraction as an equivalent fraction whose denominator is the LCD. Step 3: Add or subtract the like fractions. Step 4: Write the sum or difference in simplest form. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 50

51 Adding or Subtracting Unlike Fractions Add: Step 1: Find the LCD of 9 and = 3 3 and 12 = LCD = = 36 Step 2: Rewrite equivalent fractions with the LCD = = = = Continued. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 51

52 Adding or Subtracting Unlike Fractions Continued: Step 3: Add like fractions = + = Step 4: Write the sum in simplest form Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 52

53 Writing Fractions in Order One important application of the least common denominator is to use the LCD to help order or compare fractions. Insert < or > to form a true sentence. The LCD for these fractions is 35. Write each fraction as an equivalent fraction with a denominator of = = ? = = Continued. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 53

54 Writing Fractions in Order Continued: Compare the numerators of the equivalent fractions. Since 21 > 20, then Thus, 3 4 > > Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 54

55 Evaluating Expressions Evaluate x y if x = and y = Replacing x with and y with, then, x y 2 3 = = = = Martin-Gay, Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 5ed Prealgebra, 6ed 55 55

56 Solving Equations Containing Fractions Solve: 1 5 x = 3 12 To get x by itself, add 1 3 to both sides x + = = Continued. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 56

57 Solving Equations Containing Fractions Continued: 5 4 x = = = 12 4 Write fraction in simplest form. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 57

58 4.6 Complex Fractions and Review of Order of Operations

59 Complex Fraction A fraction whose numerator or denominator or both numerator and denominator contain fractions is called a complex fraction. 2 3 x y Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 59

60 Method 1: Simplifying Complex Fractions This method makes use of the fact that a fraction bar means division = = When dividing fractions, multiply by the reciprocal of the divisor. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 60

61 Method 1: Simplifying Complex Fractions Recall the order of operations. Since the fraction bar is a grouping symbol, simplify the numerator and denominator separately. Then divide = = = = 4 12 = When dividing fractions, multiply by the reciprocal of the divisor. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 61

62 Method 2: Simplifying Complex Fractions This method is to multiply the numerator and the denominator of the complex fraction by the LCD of all the fractions in its numerator and its denominator. Since this LCD is divisible by all denominators, this has the effect of leaving sums and differences of terms in the numerator and the denominator and thus a simple fraction. Let s use this method to simplify the complex fraction of the previous example. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 62

63 Method 2: Simplifying Complex Fractions = F H F H I K I K = F H I F K I H 6 K F H I F I = K H K Step 1: The complex fraction contains fractions with denominators of 2, 6, 4, and 3. The LCD is 12. By the fundamental property of fractions, multiply the numerator and denominator of the complex fraction by 12. Step 2: Apply the distributive property Continued. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 63

64 Method 2: Simplifying Complex Fractions Continued: = F H I F K I H 6 K F H I F I = K H K = 8 1 = 8 Step 3: Multiply. Step 4: Simplify. The result is the same no matter which method is used. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 64

65 Reviewing the Order of Operations 1. Perform all operations within parentheses ( ), brackets [ ], or other grouping symbols such as fraction bars, starting with the innermost set. 2. Evaluate any expressions with exponents. 3. Multiply or divide in order from left to right. 4. Add or subtract in order from left to right. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 65

66 4.7 Operations on Mixed Numbers

67 Mixed Numbers Recall that a mixed number is the sum of a whole number and a proper fraction = = Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 67

68 Multiplying or Dividing with Mixed Numbers To multiply or divide with mixed numbers or whole numbers, first write each mixed number as an improper fraction. Multiply: = = 36 5 = Write the solution as a mixed number if possible. Change mixed numbers to improper fractions. Remove common factors and multiply. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 68

69 Adding or Subtracting Mixed Numbers We can add or subtract mixed numbers by first writing each mixed number as an improper fraction. But it is often easier to add or subtract the whole number parts and add or subtract the proper fraction parts vertically. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 69

70 Adding or Subtracting Mixed Numbers 5 14 Add: The LCD of 14 and 7 is = = Since 17 is , write the sum as = = Write equivalent fractions with the LCD of 14. Add the fractions, then add the whole numbers. Notice that the fractional part is improper. 14 Make sure the fractional part is always proper. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 70

71 Adding or Subtracting Mixed Numbers When subtracting mixed numbers, borrowing may be needed = = = = Borrow 1 from 3. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 71

72 Adding or Subtracting Mixed Numbers 3 14 Subtract: = 5 3 = The LCD of 14 and 7 is = 5 = 4 3 = 3 = 3 Write equivalent fractions with the LCD of 14. To subtract the fractions, we have to borrow = = = Subtract the fractions, then subtract the whole numbers. Notice that the fractional part is proper. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 72

73 4.8 Solving Equations Containing Fractions

74 Addition Property of Equality Let a, b, and c represent numbers. If a = b, then a + c = b + c and a c = b c In other words, the same number may be added to or subtracted from both sides of an equation without changing the solution of the equation. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 74

75 Multiplication Property of Equality Let a, b, and c represent numbers and let c 0. If a = b, then a c = b c and a = c b c In other words, both sides of an equation may be multiplied or divided by the same nonzero number without changing the solution of the equation. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 75

76 Solving an Equation in x Step 1: If fractions are present, multiply both sides of the equation by the LCD of the fractions. Step 2: If parentheses are present, use the distributive property. Step 3: Combine any like terms on each side of the equation. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 76

77 Solving an Equation in x Step 4: Use the addition property of equality to rewrite the equation so that variable terms are on one side of the equation and constant terms are on the other side. Step 5: Divide both sides of the equation by the numerical coefficient of x to solve. Step 6: Check the answer in the original equation. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 77

78 Solve for x 1 5 x = x = 9 7 Multiply both sides by = 9 x Simplify both sides. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 78

79 Solve for x 3( y +3) = 2 y ( y +3) 5 = 2 y y+9 = 10 y+30 9 = 7 y = 7y 3=y Multiply both sides by 5. Simplify both sides. Add 3y to both sides. Add 30 to both sides. Divide both sides by 7. Martin-Gay, Prealgebra, 6ed 79

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