Previously, you learned the names of the parts of a multiplication problem. 1. a. 6 2 = 12 6 and 2 are the. b. 12 is the

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1 Tallahassee Community College 13 PRIME NUMBERS AND FACTORING (Use your math book with this lab) I. Divisors and Factors of a Number Previously, you learned the names of the parts of a multiplication problem. 1. a. 6 2 = 12 6 and 2 are the b. 12 is the You learned the names of the parts of a division problem from your textbook. 2. a. 6 2 is the 2)12 12 is the 12 6 is the the remainder is b. 1 8 is the 8)12 12 is the -8 1 is the 4 4 is the The definitions of a factor of a certain whole number or the divisor of the whole number are in your textbook. The factors or divisors of a number will be natural numbers (1, 2, 3, 4,...). REMEMBER we cannot divide by zero. 3. a. What is the smallest factor of 6? b. What is the largest factor of 6? c. What is the smallest factor of 27? d. What is the largest factor of 27? e. Generally speaking, the smallest factor of any number is ; the largest factor is.

2 II. Finding All Factors of a Number (Study your textbook.) Now study these ways of writing a number as a product of two natural numbers: = = 16 You can see that it is not 2 5 = = 16 necessary to try all natural 3 3 numbers. You can stop after = 16 you try the first factor 5 2 = 10 5 whose square is equal to or 6 6 greater than the original 7 7 number = = The factors 12 of 10 are 1, 2, 13 5, = 16 The factors of 16 are 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16. II. 1. Tell how you would find all the factors of 20. a. List all numbers, stopping with the first number whose square is to or than 20. b. by each of these numbers. c. The factors of 20 are both the divisors and quotients of the divisions which have reminders of. 2. Find all divisors of each number. a. 36 b. 42 c. 37 d Your work will be easier if you learn the divisibility rules in your textbook. a. A number is divisible by 2 if b. A number is divisible by 3 if c. A number is divisible by 5 if 4. Look at the factors of 37. a. There are exactly 2 different factors of 37; what are they?,. b. 37 is a number because its only factors are 1 and the number itself. 5. Look at the factors of 36.

3 a. Are 1 and 36 its only factors? b. What kind of number is 36? 6. Find all prime numbers less than 20. III. The Prime Factorization of a Number. It is very important that you know what a prime factorization of a number is. A factorization of a number is a multiplication problem whose product is the number. a. 1 8 All of these are factorizations of 8 because b. 2 4 the product is 8 in each case. c NOTICE all of the factors in "c" are prime numbers. We say 2 x 2 x 2 is the prime factorization of 8. To find the prime factorization of a number, divide by prime numbers only. (REMAINDERS MUST BE ZERO)! Continue until the quotient is a prime number. The prime factorization is the expression which shows all of the prime divisors and the final prime quotient as factors. Study the prime factorization of 36. (Compare this with 2a in Part II above.) 3 3) 9 2)18 2) is the prime factorization of 36. Students sometimes miss test questions because they aren't sure what is meant. Don't let this happen to you. Earlier, you learned to find all factors of a number and you learned to find the prime factorization of a number. In 1 and 2 below, you answer the question. In 3 and 4, you write the question so that the answer is correct. 1. Find the prime factorization of 70. (Your answer must be a multiplication problem in which all factors are primes.) 2. Find all the factors of 70. (This answer is a list of all the numbers that divide evenly into 70. The numbers are separated with commas.)

4 3 and 4. Study. Then tell what was found! ANSWERS: 3. Find of 45. WORK 1 45 ANSWER: 1, 3, 5, 9, 15, Find of 45. WORK 5 ANSWER: 3) )45 5. Find the prime factorization of each composite number. If the number is prime, write "PRIME". a. 50 b. 48 c. 27 d. 29 I. 1. a. 6, 2 are factors b. 12 is the product 2. a. 2 is divisor 12 is dividend 6 is quotient 0 is remainder b. 8 is divisor 12 is dividend 1 is quotient 4 is remainder 3. a. 1 b. 6 c. 1 d. 27 e. smallest factor is 1; largest is the number itself. II. 1. a. natural, equal, greater b. divide c. zero 2. a. 36: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36 b. 42: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, 42 c. 37: 1, 37 d. 20: 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, a. last digit is 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 b. sum of digits is divisible by 3 c. last digit is 0 or 5 4. a. 1, 37 b. prime

5 Answers (continued) II. (continued) 5. a. No b. composite 6. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 (One is not prime. It has only one factor.) III , 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 35, All the factors 4. Prime factorization 5. a b c d. prime

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