Name: Understanding by Design Student Learning Packet

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1 Name: Understanding by Design Student Learning Packet Please complete the following in complete sentences, using blue or black ink. Answers not completed in blue or black ink in sentences will not earn credit. From the College Board s Teacher s Guide Students need to be able to distinguish between classical conditioning (Pavlovian conditioning), operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning), and observational learning (modeling). Discuss with them the concepts of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination, contingency, and contiguity as they apply to both classical and operant conditioning. It is helpful to use historical examples like Pavlov s dogs or Skinner s pigeons to illustrate these concepts. The use of everyday examples, such as the development of phobias through classical conditioning or the training of a family pet with operant conditioning, may increase students understanding of these phenomena. When covering operant conditioning, make sure that students understand the concepts of reinforcement and punishment (take care to highlight the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment). Also, be sure to emphasize schedules of reinforcement. With respect to developments in the field, you should discuss the role of cognition in learning and the importance of understanding the biological predispositions of animals in training. Learning (7 9%) This section of the course introduces students to differences between learned and unlearned behavior. The primary focus is exploration of different kinds of learning, including classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. The biological bases of behavior illustrate predispositions for learning. AP students in psychology should be able to do the following: Distinguish general differences between principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning (e.g., contingencies). Describe basic classical conditioning phenomena, such as acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination, and higher-order learning. Predict the effects of operant conditioning (e.g., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, schedules of reinforcement). Predict how practice, schedules of reinforcement, and motivation will influence quality of learning. Interpret graphs that exhibit the results of learning experiments. Provide examples of how biological constraints create learning predispositions. Describe the essential characteristics of insight learning, latent learning, and 1

2 social learning. Apply learning principles to explain emotional learning, taste aversion, superstitious behavior, and learned helplessness. Suggest how behavior modification, biofeedback, coping strategies, and selfcontrol can be used to address behavioral problems. Identify key contributors in the psychology of learning (e.g., Albert Bandura, John Garcia, Ivan Pavlov, Robert Rescorla, B. F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Edward Tolman, John B. Watson). Learning objective from the College Board: Distinguish general differences between principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning (e.g., contingencies). 1. Which type of learning is described below--classical, Operant, or Observational? a. This type of learning is the most biologically based. b. This type of learning occurs because participants are given a direct consequence of their actions. The participants may like or dislike their consequence. c. This type of learning occurs by participants watching others. d. A teenager makes dinner for the family shows responsibility and therefore a later curfew hour; or the teenager refuses extra responsibility and the curfew hour is earlier.) e. This type of learning pairs a biological stimulus to a neutral stimulus. f. Pavlov is associated with this kind of learning. g. Watson is associated with this kind of learning. h. Bandura is associated with this kind of learning. i. Little Albert is a famous example of this kind of learning. 2

3 j. B.F. Skinner is associated with this kind of learning. k. Jane s parents are very polite even when they are in snarling traffic with rude drivers. When Jane drives, she is a very polite driver. l. John curses and asks who is hurt by his words, since he curses at things, not people. John s parents respond that John has younger brothers and sisters who are hurt by John s words. 2. From Jane Halonen s Critical Thinking with Psychology: Read the following examples and identify the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR. a. Sam is 3 years old. One night his parents build a roaring fire in the family room fireplace. The fire spits out a large ember (small part of the fire) that hits Sam in the arm that gives him a burn that hurts a great deal for several hours. A week later, when Sam s parents light another fire in the fireplace, Sam becomes upset and fearful, crying and running from the room. UCS: UCR: CS: CR: b. Melanie is driving to work on a rainy highway when she notices that the brake lights of all the cars just ahead of her have come on. She hits her brakes but watches in horror as her car glides into a four-car pileup. She s badly shaken up in the accident. A month later she s driving in the rain again and notices that she tenses up every time she sees brake lights come on ahead of her. UCS: UCR: CS: CR: 3

4 College Board Learning Objective: Describe basic classical conditioning phenomena, such as acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination, and higher-order learning. 3. Match the following examples to the definitions. The defintions and examples are from conceptcharts/ch05/conceptchart_05.1.pdf a. A form of learning in which a response identical or similar to the one originally elicited by an unconditioned stimulus (US) is made in response to a conditioned stimulus (CS) based on the pairing of two stimuli. b. CR not evoked by stimuli that are related but not identical to the CS c. Gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response (CR) when the CS is repeatedly presented without the CS d. spontaneous return of the CR some time after extinction occurs e. CR evoked by a new stimulus that is paired with a CS that already elicits the response f. CR evoked by stimuli that are similar to the original CS classical conditioning extinction discrimination generalization higher order conditioning spontaneous recovery 4. Match the following examples to the definitions; from college.cengage.com/psychology/nevid/psychology/1e/shared/conceptcharts/ch05/ conceptchart_05.1.pdf 4

5 a. The pairing of pain during dental procedures with environmental stimuli in the dentist s office leads the development of a fear response to the environmental cues alone. b. person shows a fear response when visiting the office of a new dentist. c. fear of denistry spontaneously returns a few months or years after extinction. d. the use of anesthetics and painless dental techniques leads to the gradual reduction and elimination of the fear of denistry. e. person cringes upon hearing the dentist s name f. person shows a fear response to the sight of a dentist s drill but not equipment used for cleaning teeth. classical conditioning extinction discrimination generalization higher order conditioning spontaneous recovery 5. Temporal Conditioning refers to the timing of the CS and the US. Match the word bank word to its definition. This exercise and words are taken from a. The CS is presented before the US and it (CS) stays on until the US is presented. This is generally the best, especially when the delay is short. For example - a bell begins to ring and continues to ring until food is presented. b. - discrete event is presented, then the US occurs. Shorter the interval the better. For example - a bell begins ringing and ends just before the food is presented. 5

6 c. - CS and US presented together. For example - the bell begins to ring at the same time the food is presented. Both begin, continue, and end at the same time. d. - US occurs before CS. For example - the food is presented, then the bell rings. This is not really effective. backward conditioning trace conditioning simultaneous conditioning delayed conditioning (forward) e. Taste aversion is a special example of classical conditioning. In one trial, a person may eat a tuna fish salad and become sick. Then, the person will avoid tuna fish salad. What kind of conditioning has taken place, and why? f. From a biological perspective, why would taste aversion help a species survive? 6. Distinguish between classical and operant conditioning. 7a. When Mrs. Jones saw that her daughter started to walk, she praised her for any effort at all in walking. Classical/operant & explanation in a sentence: 7b. The smell of fresh bread baking makes Jane s mouth water. Classical/operant & explanation in a sentence: 6

7 8. Schedules of Reinforcement - for each example below identify the schedule of reinforcement From Dr. Linda Walsh, University of Northern Iowa Positive and Negative Reinforcement: Notice how many ways operant conditioning occurs in our everyday lives. For each example below identify the type of consequence. Remember, in each case a consequence is something which follows a behavior. Consequences may increase or decrease the likelihood (in the future) of the behavior that they follow. For example: PR (positive reinforcement) - something good is presented, which encourages the behavior in the future NR (negative reinforcement) - something bad is removed or avoided, which encourages the occurrance of the behavior. a. Police stop drivers and give them a prize if their seatbelts are buckled; seat belt use increases in town. b. A basketball player who commits a flagrant foul is removed from the game; his fouls decrease in later games. c. A soccer player rolls her eyes at a teammate who delivered a bad pass; the teammate makes fewer errors after that. d. The annoying child jumps up and down, hand raised, yelling "Me, me, me!" until the teacher calls on her. The child jumps and yells even more in the future. e. After a good workout in physical therapy, hospital patients are given ice cream sundaes. They work harder in later sessions. f. After completing an Alcohol Education Program, the suspension of your driver's license is lifted. More DWI drivers now complete the program. g. After Jodi flirted with someone else at the party, her boyfriend stopped talking to her. Jodi didn't flirt at the next party. h. The employee of the month gets a reserved parking space. Employees now work harder. i. A dog is banished to his doghouse after soiling the living room carpet. The 7

8 dog has fewer accidents after that. j. A professor allows those students with A averages in the class to skip the final exam. Students work harder for As. k. You clean up your stuff more regularly now to avoid your mother's nagging. l. You've learned a particular response in your videogame gets rid of one of the "bad guys". You now always respond that way at the appropriate time. m. Making just the right facial expression softens up your parent when he/ she is mad at you. You make that facial expression more often now. 9. I. Fixed Interval a. a reinforcer is given after a specified number of correct responses. This schedule is best for learning a new behavior II. Variable Interval III.Fixed Ratio IV. Variable Ratio b. reinforcer is given after a set number of correct responses. After reinforcement the number of correct responses necessary for reinforcement changes. This schedule is best for maintaining behavior. c. the first correct response after a set amount of time has passed is reinforced. After the reinforcement, a new time period (shorter or longer) is set with the average equaling a specific number over a sum total of trials. 8 d. The first correct response after a set amount of time has passed is reinforced (i.e., a consequence is delivered). The time period required is always the same.

9 10. Match the schedules of reinforcement to the schedule. From Dr. Linda Walsh, University of Northern Iowa Remember: Consequences don't always follow every occurrence of a behavior. Some common contingencies or ways of "scheduling" when a reinforcement is available are: FR (fixed ratio) - the reinforcement is delivered only after a certain fixed number of correct response have occurred VR (variable ratio) - the reinforcement is delivered only after a variable (unpredictable) number of responses have occurred FI (fixed interval) - reinforcement is delivered after the first response that occurs after a specific interval of time has passed VI (variable interval) - reinforcement is delivered after the first response occurring after a variable interval of time has passed a. You get paid once every two weeks. b. A worker is paid $2 for every 100 envelopes stuffed. c. Slot machines at casinos payoff after a variable number of plays. d. Students are released from class when the end-of-period bell rings. e. A fly fisherman casts and reels back his line several times before catching a fish. f. You get a nickel for every soda can that you return. g. Every time you buy a sandwich you get your card punched; after 10 punches you get a free sandwich. h. Sometimes the mail is delivered at 1:00, sometimes closer to 2:00. i. A car salesman who gets a commission on each sale. j. Getting a small increase in your hourly wage every 6 months. k. Every so often you like to surprise your special other with something nice. l. Matt gets a hit about once every 3 times he is at bat (sometimes a little more often, sometimes less). 9

10 . 11. Match the graph to the schedule of reinforcement. Graphs cited on the next page. Note: only three of the four graphs are represented. A. schedules deliver reinforcement for the first response after a fixed length of time since the last reinforcement. B. s chedule delivers reinforcement for the response after a random average length of time passes since the last reinforcement. C. schedule delivers reinforcement after a random number of responses based upon a predetermined average. The following words and graphs above are directly from whuitt/col/behsys/operant.html D. schedule delivers a reinforcement after every nth response: 10

11 12. Identify key contributors in the psychology of learning (e.g., Albert Bandura, John Garcia, Ivan Pavlov, Robert Rescorla, B. F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Edward Tolman, John B. Watson). Your teacher has also included Martin Seligman and Wolfgang Kohler. A B C D: E F G G H I 11

12 A is and is known for the contribution of B is and is known for the contribution of C is and is known for the contribution of D is and is known for the contribution of E is and is known for the contribution of F is and is known for the contribution of G is and is known for the contribution of 12

13 H is and is known for the contribution of I is and is known for the contribution of Describe the essential characteristics of insight learning, latent learning, and social learning. A C 13. a. A young boy sees his family recycling. So, he recycles. b. A rat spent some time in a maze. The rat does not earn any reward for finding the quickest way in the maze. However, once cheese is put in the maze, the rat is able to quickly locate the cheese. c. A chimpanzee figures out how to get to bananas outside the cage--the chimpanzee uses a stick as a pole to grab the bananas. i. Which scenario describes latent learning? Why? ii. Which scenario describes insight learning? Why? iii. Which scenario describes observational learning? 13

14 Also cited: Gavin de Becker s book, The Gift of Fear 14. Which is described--taste aversion, learned helplessness, or superstitious behavior? a. Ranchers knew that coyotes were eating their sheep. The ranchers put out poisoned bait that was mutton (sheep meat). Again, the coyotes sampled it and got sick. The coyotes left the sheep alone. b. John ate a grilled cheese sandwich for lunch and then got sick four hours later. He no longer eats grilled cheese sandwiches. c. Young circus elephants are attached by heavy chains to large stakes driven deep into the ground. They pull and yank and strain and struggle, but the chain is too strong, the stake too rooted. One day they give up, having learned that they cannot pull free, and from that day forward they can be "chained" with a slender rope. d. John uses his lucky pencil on his AP Calculus test. He used his lucky pencil on his AP Psychology test and earned a 5. e. Jane really enjoys singing, but her best friend told her that she sings off key and doesn t have a good singing voice. Jane decides that she s not going to sing anymore. 14

15 f. Rob, at a gambling table in Las Vegas, just lost $1000. He now is betting his meal money for the next 3 days. He blows on the dice and wins. 15. Link learned helplessness and operant conditioning. 16. Link taste aversion and classical conditioning. 17. Link superstitious behavior and spontaneous reinforcement. (Spontaneous reinforcement is reinforcement that is not contingent upon any kind of stimulus-- your teacher gives out homework passes whenever the mood strikes your teacher; the rats in the change at times not contingent upon pushing a lever.) 18. What do you see? psychologists would say that this is a picture of a cube, even though there is no direct drawing of a cube. These psychologists believe that people perceive stimuli as a whole. Wolfgang Kohler is frequently grouped with Max Wertheimer of the school of psychology. 15

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