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1 Classical Conditioning Image Source: Markstivers.com

2 What is Learning? Relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Behaviorism Types of Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Natural Observation

3 Types of Conditioning Classical Conditioning Forms an association between stimuli Involves respondent behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Operant Conditioning Organisms associate their own actions with consequences Behavior operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli called operant behavior

4 Is the organism learning associations between events it does not control (classical conditioning) or is it learning associations between its behavior and resulting events?

5 Classical or Operant Conditioning? In order to be able to punish my cat even when I'm not near enough to reach him, Ihave paired the sound of a clicker with getting squirted with water. Now the sound of the clicker causes him to startle. My cat never gets on the furniture when I am around. The smell of fresh bread baking makes my mouth water. When my son has gone for a week without arguing with his sister, he gets to choose which favorite activity he wants to engage in on Friday night. After the bad car accident we had last year, I cringe and break into a sweat at the sound of squealing brakes. Your father gives you a credit card at the end of your first year in college because you did so well. As a result, your grades continue to get better in your second year. Chris is bitten by the neighbor's German Shepherd. Now whenever she sees a dog in the neighborhood, she becomes afraid and runs away. She still enjoys petting her own family's cocker spaniel.

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7 Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response

8 Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Neutral Stimulus

9 Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Neutral Stimulus

10 Conditioned dstimulus Conditioned Response

11 UCS, UCR, CS, CR? People receiving chemotherapy often vomit during or shortly after the procedure. After several chemotherapy sessions, people begin feeling sick at the sight of the treatment room. UCS = chemotherapy UCR = vomiting CS = treatment room CR = feeling sick

12 UCS, UCR, CS, CR? Frequently, when Mary goes to the Doctor she must undergo some uncomfortable procedure or she gets bad news that makes her blood pressure rise. Now, when the nurse with the white lab coat comes in her blood pressure goes up. UCS = uncomfortable medical procedure UCR = blood pressure goes up CS = white lab coat CR = blood pressure goes up

13 UCS, UCR, CS, CR? Every time a psychology instructor enters the classroom, she goes straight to the board to write an outline on it. Unfortunately, she has long finger nails and each time she writes the outline, her nails screech on the board, making students cringe. After a few weeks of this, students cringe at the sight of the teacher entering the classroom. UCS = fingernails screeching on the board UCR = hurts ears which makes you cringe CS = teacher entering classroom CR = cringing

14 Five Major Conditioning Processes Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous Recovery

15 Time

16 Five Major Conditioning Processes Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Generalization Discrimination

17 Extending Pavolov s Understanding Underestimated the importance of cognitive processes and biological constraints on an organism s s learning capacity Cognitive Processes Biological Predisposition Basic form of learning that informed the study of psychology Applications Understanding treatment of addiction Conditioned emotions? Treatment of Phobias Flooding Systematic Desensitization Bed wetting (enuresis)

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