5 Learning. Links to Learning Objectives. Enduring Issues. How is learning influenced by an organism s inborn characteristics?

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1 CHAPTER 5 Learning Links to Learning Objectives ENDURING ISSUES IN LEARNING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Definition of learning Basic elements & establishing a response Classical conditioning in humans & selectivity OPERANT CONDITIONING How operant and classical conditioning differ Basic elements, establishing a response, reinforcement, & punishment Learned helplessness Biofeedback & neurofeedback FACTORS SHARED BY CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Contingencies Schedules of reinforcement Extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, & discrimination Higher-order conditioning & primary & secondary reinforcers COGNITIVE LEARNING Definition, latent learning, & cognitive maps Insight & learning sets Observational learning Cognitive learning in nonhumans Enduring Issues Person-Situation Nature-Nurture Stability-Change How is learning influenced by an organism s inborn characteristics? Diversity- Universality Mind-Body 1

2 Enduring Issues Person-Situation Nature-Nurture Stability-Change To what extent do organisms change over the course of their lives? Diversity- Universality Mind-Body Enduring Issues Person-Situation Nature-Nurture In what ways do the events that shape learning vary among different individuals? Stability-Change Diversity- Universality Mind-Body Enduring Issues Person-Situation Nature-Nurture How does learning influence how our body responds to disease? Stability-Change Diversity- Universality Mind-Body 2

3 LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Define learning. Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice e a r n i n g Three Types of Learning Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning Cognitive Learning Classical Conditioning 3

4 Classical Conditioning LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Describe the elements of classical conditioning, distinguishing between unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus and conditioned response. Describe the process of establishing a classically conditioned response, including the effect of intermittent pairing. Type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral, stimulus Discovered by Pavlov while studying digestion in dogs Pavlov and Classical Conditioning A ringing bell does not usually make a dog s mouth water, but after hearing the bell many times right before getting fed, Pavlov s dogs began to salivate as soon as the bell rang. It was as if they had learned that the bell signaled the appearance of food, and their mouths watered on cue even if no food followed. The dogs had been conditioned (Pavlov, 1927). Page 156 (Morris and Maisto) Elements of Classical Conditioning: New Reflexes from Old STIMULUS RESPONSE CONDITIONED (learned) UNCONDITIONED (unlearned) RESPONSE STIMULUS 4

5 Putting It Together Conditioned Neutral Stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Conditioned No Response Establishing a Classically Conditioned Response Number of Pairings Spacing of Pairings Consistency of Pairings It takes repeated pairings of a US and a cue before the UR becomes a conditioned response. Establishing a Classically Conditioned Response Number of Pairings Spacing of Pairings Consistency of Pairings Moderate spacing of pairings means quicker learning. 5

6 Establishing a Classically Conditioned Response Number of Pairings Spacing of Pairings Consistency of Pairings Pairing the CS and US on only some of the learning trials (intermittent pairing) reduces rate of learning and final strength of the learned response. Classical Conditioning in Humans LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Provide examples of classical conditioning in humans, including desensitization therapy. Explain the statement that classical conditioning is selective and illustrate with examples of conditioned taste aversions. Learned through classical conditioning Little Albert Phobias Unlearned through classical conditioning Peter Desensitization therapy Classical Conditioning Is Selective 6

7 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Explain how operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning. The cat can escape and be rewarded with food by tripping the bolt on the door. Type of learning in which behaviors are emitted (in the presence of specific stimuli) to earn rewards or avoid punishments Thorndike s puzzle box Elements of Operant Conditioning LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Explain the law of effect (the principle of reinforcement) and the role of reinforcers, punishers, and shaping in establishing an operantly conditioned response. Differentiate between positive reinforcers, negative reinforcers, and punishment. Explain the circumstances under which punishment can be effective and the drawbacks to using punishment. Emitted behavior (operant behavior): Designed to operate on the environment to gain something desired, avoid something unpleasant Consequence: Stimulus that follows an emitted or operant behavior Reinforcers Punishers Law of effect 7

8 Establishing an Operantly Conditioned Response Skinner box Limits the available responses, increasing likelihood that desired response will occur Shaping Reinforces successive approximations to a desired behavior Applying Psychology 1. Identify target behavior. 2. Define target behavior precisely. 3. Monitor present behavior. 4. Select positive reinforcer that is contingent upon improvements in the target behavior. A stimulus that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated einforcer 8

9 A Closer Look at Reinforcement Positive reinforcers: Events whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur Negative reinforcers: Events whose reduction or termination increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur Any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that an ongoing behavior will recur u n i s h m e n t Differences Between Punishment and Negative Reinforcement Punishment Adds something unpleasant to the environment Weakens the behavior that preceded it BEHAVIOR Negative reinforcement Removes something unpleasant from the BEHAVIOR environment Strengthens the behavior that preceded it 9

10 Punishment In order for punishment to be effective it must be: Swift Sufficient without being cruel Consistent Punishment Punishment also has drawbacks because it: Cannot unteach unwanted behaviors Can backfire by stirring up negative feelings Can teach aggression Learned Helplessness LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Explain what is meant by learned helplessness. Learned helplessness: Failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs as a result of previous exposure to unavoidable painful stimuli 10

11 Shaping Behavioral Change Through Biofeedback LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Describe how biofeedback and neurofeedback can be used to change behavior. Biofeedback: technique using monitoring devices to provide precise information about internal physiological processes (i.e. heart rate, blood pressure), to teach people to gain voluntary control over these functions Neurofeedback: biofeedback technique that monitors brain waves with the use of an EEG to teach people to gain voluntary control over their brain wave activity Factors Shared by Classical and Operant Conditioning Factors Shared by Classical and Operant Conditioning They involve learned associations. Responses are under control of stimuli in the environment. Responses will gradually disappear if not periodically renewed. New behaviors can build upon previously established ones. 11

12 The Importance of Contingencies LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Describe the importance of contingencies in both operant and classical conditioning. Classical Conditioning Contingency between CS and US; CS signals that US is about to happen CS must come before US CS must occur in close proximity to US The Importance of Contingencies Operant Conditioning Contingency between responses and consequences Schedules of reinforcement: contingencies between responses and rewards Partial reinforcement = longer-lasting behavior Continuous reinforcement = behavior does not last as long Schedules of Reinforcement: FR LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Differentiate between the four schedules of reinforcement in operant conditioning and their effect on learned behavior. Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval FR: Correct response is reinforced after a fixed number of correct responses Rapid, steady response rate with short pauses Variable Interval 12

13 Schedules of Reinforcement: VR Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio VR: Varying number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement Fixed Interval Rapid rate without pauses Variable Interval Schedules of Reinforcement: FI Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Variable Interval FI: Correct response is reinforced after a fixed length of time has passed Increase in response before reinforcement, long pauses after Schedules of Reinforcement: VI Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval VI: Correct response is reinforced after varying amounts of time Slower, steady rate Variable Interval 13

14 Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Describe the processes of extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination in classical and operant conditioning. Extinction: Decrease in the strength or frequency, or stopping, of a learned response because of: failure to continue pairing the US and CS (classical conditioning) withholding of reinforcement (operant conditioning) Spontaneous recovery: Learned response suddenly reappears on its own Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery in Classical Conditioning CS-US paired CS alone Rest CS alone Amount of spontaneous recovery TRIALS Extinction in Operant Conditioning Extinguishing operantly conditioned responses depends on a number of factors: Strength of the original learning Pattern of reinforcement Variety of settings in which the original learning took place Complexity of the behavior Learning through punishment vs. reinforcement 14

15 Stimulus Control Control of conditioned responses by cues or stimuli in the environment Occurs in classical conditioning? YES NO Occurs in operant conditioning? YES NO Stimulus Generalization Stimulus generalization: Transfer of a learned response to different but similar stimuli Occurs in classical conditioning? YES NO Occurs in operant conditioning? YES NO Response generalization: Giving a response that is somewhat different from the response originally learned to that stimulus Occurs in classical conditioning? YES NO Occurs in operant conditioning? YES NO Stimulus Discrimination Learning to respond to only one stimulus and to inhibit the response to all other stimuli Occurs in classical conditioning? YES NO Occurs in operant conditioning? YES NO 15

16 New Learning Based on Original Learning LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Explain what is meant by higher order conditioning and differentiate between primary and secondary reinforcers. Higher order conditioning: Conditioning based on previous learning Conditioned stimulus serves as an unconditioned stimulus for further training Conditioned Neutral Stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Conditioned No Response New Learning Based on Original Learning Primary reinforcers: Reinforcers that are rewarding in themselves Secondary reinforcers: Reinforcers whose value is acquired through association with other primary or secondary reinforcers Summing Up The main difference between (classical and operant conditioning) is that in classical conditioning, the learner is passive and the behavior involved is usually involuntary, whereas in operant conditioning, the learner is active and the behavior involved is usually voluntary. Page 176 (Morris and Maisto) 16

17 Cognitive Learning Cognitive Learning LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Define cognitive learning and how it can be inferred from evidence of latent learning and cognitive maps. Learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly observable Latent learning: Learning that is not immediately reflected in a behavior change Cognitive map: A learned mental image of a spatial environment that may be called on to solve problems when stimuli in the environment change Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps 17

18 Insight and Learning Sets LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Explain what is meant by insight and its relation to learning sets. Insight: Learning that occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all the elements of a problem Learning set: The ability to become increasingly more effective in solving problems as more problems are solved Learning by Observing LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Explain the process of observational (vicarious) learning and the conditions under which it is most likely to be reflected in behavior. Observational (or vicarious) learning: Learning by observing other people s behavior based on the punishment and rewards others receive Vicarious reinforcement (or punishment): Reinforcement or punishment experienced by models that affects the willingness of others to perform the behaviors they learned by observing those models Learning and Performance Learning can occur without performance. 18

19 Albert Bandura Social cognitive theory The Bobo doll experiment (1965) illustrated the influence of modeled aggression on preschool children. Children imitated aggressive behaviors they observed. This had important implications regarding unintentionally teaching aggression to children. Results of Bandura s Study Source: Results of Bandura s study. From Influence of models reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses by A. Bandura, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 592, Reprinted by permission of the American Psychological Association and the author. Cognitive Learning in Nonhumans LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Give examples of cognitive learning in nonhumans. Experiments have revealed that animals are capable of various forms of cognitive learning through: observing others experiencing pairing of stimuli and responses acquiring behaviors in response to rewards and punishments 19

20 Lecture Activities Classical Conditioning in the Classroom Let s see if we can set up and test a scenario for classically conditioning a simple reflex, right here in the classroom. Pair up!?! Tony is 6 years old, with a father who is usually busy with work, and who leaves most parental decisions to Tony s mother. Recently, Tony has begun to disobey his mother s instructions, which causes Tony s father to spank him and lecture him about obedience. Afterwards, Tony disobeys his mother even more than before. What conclusion(s) can we reach? A.The Law of Effect is not really a law, because it does not explain Tony s behavior Tony is doing the behavior more even though the behavior is being punished. B.The Law of Effect does explain Tony s behavior Tony is being rewarded for his behavior, so it happens more often. C.Tony likely has a psychological disorder that leads to this behavior. D.Tony s parents are relying on classical conditioning instead of operant conditioning. 20

21 What shape would you like? Using strict behavioral principles, let s see if we can shape someone into performing a very simple behavior here in class. We ll need a victim Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment In small groups, decide which of the following illustrates negative reinforcement or punishment. Discuss your rationale. 1. Playing less aggressively in a soccer game to avoid a red card. 2. Being thrown out of a soccer game for playing too aggressively. 3. Mailing your income tax in on time to avoid a late penalty. 4. Losing some of your money to pay a late penalty for filing your taxes after April 15 th. 5. Obeying your parent, before she reaches the count of three, to avoid punishment. Do we repeat the past? What was your experience with punishment and reward growing up? Were you rewarded for good grades? How about spankings for misbehavior? How did your parents encourage and discourage your behaviors? Will you punish and reward like your parents? 21

22 How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Why? 1. My behavior is affected by what I see on television and at the movies. 2. My emotions are affected by what I see on television and at the movies. 3. My thoughts are affected by what I see on television and at the movies. Acknowledgments Slide # Image Description Image Source text template chapter template upside down blue sky & grass mouse riding bicycle istockphoto.com/konrad Lew istockphoto.com/james Brey 3 spider istockphoto.com/audrey Bell 3 person looking scared of spider istockphoto.com/tiny Moments Photography 4 person figuring something out istockphoto.com/digital Savant LLC 5 happy woman worker istockphoto.com/artemis Gordon 5 unhappy woman worker istockphoto.com/pawel Gaul 6 guy with flu mask istockphoto.com/jon Schulte 7 sky istockphoto.com/konrad Lew 7 kite istockphoto.com/petr Jilek 9 mouse riding bicycle istockphoto.com/james Brey 10 illustration: dog experiment Morris/Maisto, 9/e p Open Your Book - textbook cover Shutterstock 11 Open Your Book - textbook background From Ciccarelli, 1/e pp Open Your Book - open textbook From Ciccarelli, 1/e pp dog biscuits istockphoto.com/mbphoto, Inc. 12 dog food bowl istockphoto.com/jonas Engström 12 salivating dog istockphoto.com/jess Wiberg 12 hand istockphoto.com/stas Perov 12 bell istockphoto.com/igor Sandra icon: classic studies car istockphoto.com/brian Sullivan 13 dog biscuits istockphoto.com/mbphoto, Inc. 13 dog food bowl istockphoto.com/jonas Engström 13 salivating dog istockphoto.com/jess Wiberg 13 not salivating dog istockphoto.com/eric Isselée 13 hand istockphoto.com/stas Perov 22

23 13 bell istockphoto.com/igor Sandra 13 wood floor istockphoto.com/drew Hadley 14 diagram: repeated pairings Morris/Maisto, 9/e p wood floor istockphoto.com/drew Hadley 15 wood floor istockphoto.com/drew Hadley 16 wood floor istockphoto.com/drew Hadley 17 white rat istockphoto.com/butinova Elena 17 wood floor istockphoto.com/drew Hadley 17 woman with bullhorn istockphoto.com/joshua Hodge Photography 17 box of chocolates istockphoto.com/the Desktop Studio 18 girl refusing medicine (yucky) istockphoto.com/paul Roux 18 spider istockphoto.com/audrey Bell 18 person looking scared of spider istockphoto.com/tiny Moments Photography 20 illustration: thorndike puzzle box Morris/Maisto, 9/e p applause istockphoto.com/lise Gagne 22 icon: helmet istockphoto.com/li Shen Jun 22 seeing eye dog istockphoto.com/lisa Fletcher 23 scrap of paper istockphoto.com/trevor Hunt 23 guy watching tv istockphoto.com/alexander Login 23 person skiing istockphoto.com/sportstock 24 trophy istockphoto.com/pali Rao 24 gold background istockphoto.com/naphtalina 24 diamond R istockphoto.com/blackred 25 icon: peer instruction Charlie Levin 25 clouds istockphoto.com/milorad Zaric 25 woman with umbrella istockphoto.com/annett Vauteck 25 handing money istockphoto.com/youra Pechkin 26 standing in the corner istockphoto.com/brad Killer 27 icon: jigsaw puzzle Charlie Levin 28 parent and punished sad child istockphoto.com/fertnig Photography 29 icon: wanted sign Charlie Levin, adapting wooden board image from istockphoto.com/andynwt 29 parent and punished mad child istockphoto.com/juanmonino 30 illustration: learned helplessness From Ciccarelli, Psychology, 1/e, p woman profile istockphoto.com/juanmonino 31 lights for inside of head istockphoto.com/andrey Prokhorov 31 heart & arteries istockphoto.com/sciepro 34 hand istockphoto.com/stas Perov 34 bell istockphoto.com/igor Sandra 34 dog biscuits istockphoto.com/mbphoto, Inc. 34 dog food bowl istockphoto.com/jonas Engström 34 wood floor istockphoto.com/drew Hadley 35 illustration: thorndike puzzle box Morris/Maisto, 9/e p Figure 5-6: Response patterns to schedules of reinforcement Morris/Maisto, 9/e p industrial sewing istockphoto.com/poco_bw 37 slot machine istockphoto.com/leezsnow 38 woman at dentist istockphoto.com/webphotographeer 38 alarm clock istockphoto.com/hidesy 39 alarm clock istockphoto.com/hidesy 39 man fishing istockphoto.com/tacojim 41 Figure 5-7: Response acquisition and extinction in classical conditioning Morris/Maisto, 9/e p paper background istockphoto.com/gaffera 46 salivating dog istockphoto.com/jess Wiberg 46 not salivating dog istockphoto.com/eric Isselée 36 hand istockphoto.com/stas Perov 36 bell istockphoto.com/igor Sandra 46 wood floor istockphoto.com/drew Hadley 47 gold medal istockphoto.com/morganlane studios 47 head istockphoto.com/suzanne Tucker 47 food - burger & fries istockphoto.com/adolfo Lazo 47 gears istockphoto.com/mark Stay 48 Open Your Book - textbook cover Shutterstock 48 Open Your Book - textbook background From Ciccarelli, 1/e pp Open Your Book - open textbook From Ciccarelli, 1/e pp icon: wanted sign Charlie Levin, adapting wooden board image from istockphoto.com/andynwt 50 wire frame head istockphoto.com/oksana 50 gears istockphoto.com/mark Stay 51 two tone rat standing up istockphoto.com/dmitry Maslov 51 white rat istockphoto.com/butinova Elena 51 Figure 5.9: A typical maze From Ciccarelli, 2/e p Figure 5.10: Learning Curves for Three Groups of Rats From Ciccarelli, 2/e p insight istockphoto.com/digital Savant LLC 53 child watching another child receive a medal istockphoto.com/digital planet design 54 people dancing istockphoto.com/joseph C. Justice Jr. 54 guy watching istockphoto.com/tomml 54 dance steps istockphoto.com/russell Tate 54 background for dancers istockphoto.com/matthew Dula 54 guy watching istockphoto.com/tomml 55 boy watching violent cartoon on TV istockphoto.com/ryasick 56 Figure 5-9: Results of Bandura's study Morris/Maisto, 9/e p chimpanzee istockphoto.com/life on White 57 dolphin istockphoto.com/skynesher 57 bumblebee istockphoto.com/arlindo71 23

24 57 killer whales istockphoto.com/jami Garrison 59 hand istockphoto.com/stas Perov 59 bell istockphoto.com/igor Sandra 59 dog biscuits istockphoto.com/mbphoto, Inc. 59 dog food bowl istockphoto.com/jonas Engström 59 salivating dog istockphoto.com/jess Wiberg 59 topbar: chrome & license plate istockphoto.com/grafissimo 59 topbar:red shiny car background istockphoto.com/jon Helgason 59 icon: classic studies car istockphoto.com/brian Sullivan 60 topbar: chalkboard istockphoto.com/studio Araminta 60 topbar: people icons Charlie Levin 61 topbar: helmets istockphoto.com/li Shen Jun 61 topbar: athletic field istockphoto.com/jamie Otterstetter 62 topbar: jigsaw pieces animation Charlie Levin 62 topbar: jigsaw bk istockphoto.com/felix Möckel 62 soccer player receiving red card istockphoto.com/techno 63 topbar: cactus istockphoto.com/lee Daniels 63 topbar: wooden board istockphoto.com/andynwt 64 topbar: cactus istockphoto.com/lee Daniels 64 topbar: wooden board istockphoto.com/andynwt 24

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