A Parenting Roadmap. Understanding Applied Behavioral Analysis and Using Behavioral Strategies at Home

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1 A Parenting Roadmap Understanding Applied Behavioral Analysis and Using Behavioral Strategies at Home By Deborah Hammer Autism Coordinator Arlington Public Schools (703)

2 What types of behavior problems upset you the most? 2

3 Why do parents struggle with their children s behavior? Child is testing the limits and wants more independence No! Child is overly tired, hungry, stressed, etc. Parent is overly tired, hungry, stressed, etc. Child doesn t understand expectation Child isn t sufficiently motivated to change activities Child isn t yet able to do desired behavior 3

4 What every child needs to be successful with their behavior Expectations that are clear, concise, and developmentally appropriate Motivation to change their behavior Room to make choices - including both good ones and certain wrong ones The understanding that the parent s role is to love them, look out for their best interests, and keep them safe 4

5 Using Applied Behavioral Analysis: ABA Based on the theories of B.F. Skinner Study of behaviors with social significance and how to change behavior Lots of research indicates that ABA techniques are effective for people with Autism Spectrum Disorders Theories and teaching strategies are used throughout Arlington Public Schools 5

6 Antecedent First step of the journey: Using the ABCs What happens BEFORE the behavior? Behavior What does the behavior look like? When does it occur? Where does it occur? Who does it occur around? How often does is occur? I Consequence What happens AFTER the behavior occurs? 6

7 Why do most behaviors occur? To gain something (food, attention, money, relaxation, more time, a good grade, etc.) To avoid something (work, responsibility, a ticket, diseases, being grounded by parent, etc.) 7

8 Changing your child s behaviors Introducing new expectations can be a bumpy road at first! Choose one behavior at a time to modify Give a replacement behavior for a behavior of concern Understand that trying new things takes time and might not feel comfortable at first Trial and error may be needed 8

9 Roadblock 9

10 Clearly explain to your child what you expect List rules Give time constraints Model for your child what you want them to do, and how to do it Let them know that you will help them, if they need it Help child understand what will happen afterwards 10

11 Consequences Reinforcement increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur more in the future Punishments increase the likelihood that the behavior will occur less in the future 11

12 Reinforcement Positive reinforcement: something added to the environment, to make it more likely to happen in the future Negative reinforcement: something is taken away from the environment, to make it more likely to happen in the future 12 In behaviorist terms, positive and negative are like math

13 Punishments Positive Punishment: something added to the environment, to make it less likely to happen in the future Negative Punishment: something is taken away from the environment, to make it less likely to happen in the future 13

14 Cheat sheet to remember ABA terms: Think Math! Reinforcement = increase in behavior Punishment = decrease in behavior Positive = add Negative = subtract 14

15 Reinforcement = increase in behavior Positive = add Punishment = decrease in behavior Some scenarios: Negative = subtract A man works really hard at his job and receives a bonus, so he works hard in the future. Positive Reinforcement A boy is rude to his mother and she takes away his favorite toy, his ipad, and he is not rude to her in the future. Negative Punishment A woman has a headache, so she takes a pain reliever. Her pain goes away, and in the future when she gets a headache, she takes the pain reliever again. Negative Reinforcement A girl who hates school curses at her teacher and gets suspended, and the next week she curses again. Positive Reinforcement 15

16 Many studies show that the most effective of these 4 16

17 Making Positive Reinforcement a Meaningful Trip Make sure the reinforcer is something that your child really wants Make sure they don t have another way to receive that reward Use a reward menu List rewards that that can be earned for a choosing an appropriate behavior 17

18 Reinforcer Menus Money Special privilege Bubbles Snacks Stickers Verbal Praise Board game computer game MP3 player Books or magazines Play date Movie Walk Toy Helping with a chore Dessert Cell phone privileges Nintendo DS Television time 18

19 Some additional strategies to pack with you on your trip 19

20 The Importance of Choice Let child know: You are giving them the choice of following your direction. If they choose to follow it, there will be positive consequences, such as If they choose NOT to follow it, there will be negative consequences, such as Stay neutral when presenting the choices 20

21 The Importance of Visuals Catoon by Gary Larson, "The Far Side",

22 Visual Prompts Textual Pictorial Environmental 22

23 Example of a visual schedule 23

24 Example of a rule reminder 24

25 Calendars and preparing children for the future 25

26 Morning Checklist Checklists 26

27 Charts for behavior and reward 27

28 Dealing with a meltdown Give your child personal space Use few words and quiet voice Move your other children away Offer calming tools: gum, squeezy balls, turn off lights, calm music, blanket, drawing paper Distract your child with something they are interested in Don t attempt to discuss behavior with your child or threaten discipline while they are still upset 28

29 Additional ABA teaching strategies: Another workshop! Discrete Trial Training Chaining Shaping Pivotal Response Training Differential Reinforcement 29

30 In Review: Some ABA strategies for helping your child with behaviors Use visual supports Sensory strategies for calming Reinforcer menus Explain directions Teach steps one at a time Remind child of rules and expectations Prepare child for changes in routine or schedule 30

31 Remember to enjoy the journey! 31

32 Erin Donohue Laura DePatch Deborah Hammer

33 RESOURCES: books Understanding Applied Behavior Analysis: An Introduction to ABA for Parents, Teachers, and Other Professionals by Albert J. Kearney A Work in Progress: Behavior Management Strategies and a Curriculum for Intensive Behavioral Treatment of Autism by Ron Leaf and John McEachin Functional Behavior Assessment for People With Autism: Making Sense of Seemingly Senseless Behavior (Topics in Autism) by Beth A. and Ph.D. Glasberg Raising a Child With Autism: A Guide to Applied Behavior Analysis for Parents by Shira Richman 33

34 RESOURCES: websites the_national_standards_project

35 RESOURCES: apps Autism Research Institute Schafer Autism Report Autism Apps OCALI Preference Assessment Behavior Breakthroughs iearned That ibehavior SymTrend 35

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