Building Blocks: Effective Practices for Including Young Children with Disabilities in Community Based Programs

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1 Building Blocks: Effective Practices for Including Young Children with Disabilities in Community Based Programs Cassandra Cerros Jaime Martin Gail Joseph Head Start Center for Inclusion University of Washington

2 Head Start Center for Inclusion Overarching purpose is to increase the competence, confidence and effectiveness of personnel in Head Start programs to include children with disabilities

3 Review the literature and other available training materials Developing training materials and approach Extensive field testing in local Head Start programs Disseminating materials

4 Framework The Building Blocks model provides a set of educational practices designed to help teachers do a more effective job of including young children with disabilities and other special needs in preschool classrooms.

5 These practices can be used to supplement the curriculum that the teacher currently uses. Creative Curriculum High/Scope Project Approach

6 Using the Building Blocks model can help all children participate, learn, and thrive in their preschool classrooms.

7 Child-focused Instructional Strategies Embedded Learning Opportunities Curriculum modifications & adaptations Quality Early Childhood Program

8 The foundation Quality Early Childhood Program

9 1. Do children spend most of their time playing and working with materials or with other children? 2. Do children have access to various activities throughout the day? 3. Do teachers work with individual children, small groups, and the whole group at different times during the day? 4. Is the classroom decorated with children s original artwork, their own writing, and stories they ve dictated?

10 5. Do children learn within meaningful (i.e., relevant to their interests and experiences) contexts? 6. Do children work on projects and have extended periods of time to play and explore? 7. Do children have an opportunity to play outside everyday? 8. Do teachers read books to children individually or in small groups throughout the day? 9. Is the curriculum adapted for those who are ahead as well as those who need additional help? 10. Do the children and their families feel safe and secure within their early childhood program?

11 Assessment Worksheet #1 According to the schedule, pinpoint your concerns for particular children Worksheet #1 (1)

12 Worksheet #1 Assessment Child: Teacher: Date: Classroom Activities Classroom Expectations Child s Level of Performance Strength Average Area of Concern Strength Average Area of Concern Strength Average Area of Concern Strength Average Area of Concern Strength Average Area of Concern Strength Average Area of Concern Strength Average Area of Concern Strength Average Area of Concern Strength Average Area of Concern

13 Classroom Activities Classroom Expectations Child s Level of Performance Arrival Opening Circle Center/Free choice Time Clean Up Snack Small group Outside Transitions Bus Come in, put away belongings, greet peers independently, participate in small group/table top time Sit on carpet squares, look, listen and imitate songs, respond to questions, quiet hand up to say something Try activities in different areas. Play with minimal teacher support. Engage in cooperative play. Resolve conflicts independently and peacefully. Stop playing when the bell rings, start picking up toys when song begins. Move to wash hands when song is done. Sit at table. Request food items from peer. Try different foods. Respond to peer when asked for food. Participate in planned activity. Use own materials unless request/ed to share materials. Remain at table until bell rings. Run and play. Share toys, bikes, etc. when asked. Follow outside time rules. Line up when bell rings. Follow teacher directions to get coats and backpack, line up and walk out to bus. Line up when bell rings. Sit in seat. Keep seat belt on. Hands and feet to self. Use inside voices. Strength Average Area of Concern Strength Average Area of Concern Strength Average Area of Concern_ Strength Average Area of Concern Strength Average_ Area of Concern Strength Average Area of Concern_ _ Strength Average Area of Concern Strength Average_ Area of Concern Strength_ _ Average Area of Concern

14 So, we have the quality environment

15 Curriculum Modifications & Adaptations Quality Early Childhood Program

16 Curriculum Modifications & Adaptations Environmental Support Materials Adaptation Simplify the Activity Special Equipment Peer Support Adult Support Child Preferences Invisible Support

17 Curriculum Modifications & Adaptations Environmental Support: Altering the physical, social, and temporal environment to promote participation, engagement and learning Special Equipment: Special or adaptive devices that allow a child to participate or increase a child s level of participation Simplify the Activity: Simplifying a complicated task by breaking it into smaller parts or reducing the number of steps Peer Support: Utilizing peers to help children learn important objectives

18 Curriculum Modifications & Adaptations Adult Support: An adult intervenes to support the child s participation and learning Materials Adaptation: Modifying materials so that the child can participate as independently as possible Child Preferences: If the child is not taking advantages of the available opportunities, identify and integrate the child s preferences Invisible Support: A purposeful arrangement of naturally occurring events within one activity

19 Peer Support Circle Time

20 Circle Time Child Preference Special Equipment

21 Circle Time Environmental Support

22 Circle Time Invisible Support

23 Child Preference Circle Time

24 Circle Time Invisible Support

25 Circle Time Simplify the Activity

26 Special Equipment Meals

27 Peer Support Meals

28 Meals Environmental Support

29 Adult Support Meals

30 Meals Simplify the Activity

31 Small Group Environmental Support Materials Adaptation

32 Small Group Environmental Support

33 Environmental Support Small Group

34 Small Group Materials Adaptation

35 Small Group Simplify the Activity

36 Small Group Simplify the Activity

37 Small Group Environmental Support

38 Dramatic Play/Housekeeping Peer Support

39 Dramatic Play/Housekeeping Environmental Support

40 Dramatic Play/Housekeeping Simplify the Activity

41 Dramatic Play/Housekeeping Child Preference

42 Blocks Materials Adaptation

43 Environmental Support Blocks

44 Environmental Support Blocks

45 Blocks Environmental Support

46 Manipulatives Simplify the Activity

47 Materials Adaptation Manipulatives

48 Manipulatives Environmental Support

49 Manipulatives Environmental Support

50 Materials Adaptation Sand and Water Table

51 Art Environmental Support

52 Environmental Support Books and Literacy

53 Books and Literacy Simplify the Activity

54 Child Preference Books and Literacy

55 Outside and Gross Motor Child Preference

56 Outside and Gross Motor Environmental Support

57 Outside and Gross Motor Peer Support

58 Peer Support Outside and Gross Motor

59 Special Equipment Outside or Gross Motor

60 Outside or Gross Motor Environmental Special Equipment Support

61 Environmental Support Transitions

62 Simplify the Activity Transitions

63 Child Preference Transitions

64 Discussion Watch video clip of boy again View modification in action

65 Action Plan Worksheet #2 List the classroom activities that are areas of concern for the child Describe the problem or concern as carefully as you can Describe what the team currently does Indicate your plan for modifications or instruction

66 Worksheet #2 Planning Based on Worksheet #1, identify three activities on which you would like to focus your attention. Once you identify the problem, collecting information is the next step for instructional planning for children in inclusive settings. Child: Teacher: Date: Activity Define Concern What are you currently doing? Ideas for Assistance/Instruction Modifications: ELO: CFIS: Describe: Modifications: ELO: CFIS: Describe: Modifications: ELO: CFIS: Describe:

67 Worksheet #2 Planning Based on Worksheet #1, identify three activities on which you would like to focus your attention. Once you identify the problem, collecting information is the next step for instructional planning for children in inclusive settings. Child: Jessie Teacher: Gail Date: 10/20 Activity Define Concern What are you currently doing? Ideas for Assistance/Instruction Circle time Jessie hesitates going and often will get up and leave. Repeated telling him to come. Leading him back to group. Modifications: ELO: CFIS: Describe: Let hold a train toy. Start circle with a train song. Free choice Plays for a long time with trains but refuses to try anything else. Asked to make a choice about where he wants to play. Always chooses the train table. When asked to make a new choice, he often throws a tantrum. Teachers let him stay. Modifications: ELO: CFIS: Describe: Use a picture schedule. He will go to 3 areas with adult support and the train table will be his last area. Small Group Jessie grabs materials from children who are next to him and needs a great deal of adult attention in order to stay engaged with the activity. Jessie has an assigned seat at small group, and a teacher always sits next to him. When materials are put on the table, he often grabs the most preferred ones and won t share. Then a teacher intervenes. Modifications: ELO: CFIS: Describe: Use tray for his materials. Praise often. When done with assigned project use a finished box. Transitions Tantrums, Give choices, use momentum toward door, physical prompts, blocking Modifications: ELO: CFIS: Describe: visual cue card for next activity

68 Child-focused Instructional Strategies Embedded Learning Opportunities Curriculum modifications & adaptations Quality Early Childhood Program

69 Embedded Learning Opportunities/CFIS

70 ELO/CFIS ELO contains five essential elements 1. Creating a Learning Opportunity 2. Child-Focused Instructional Strategy 3. Prompting Strategies 4. Reinforcing Consequences 5. Evaluation

71 Creating Learning Opportunities Access: Access is the technique of creating teaching opportunities by making it difficult for a child to get desired objects or to go somewhere she wants to be. Access video clip

72 Child Focused Instructional Strategies Choice making Mand-model Expectant look Incidental teaching Peer-mediated Transition-based Discrete trial

73 Discrete Trial Instruction Prompt if necessary Child s response Consequences Inter-trial interval Discrete Trail clip

74 Prompting Strategies Physical Verbal Gesture Model Expectant Look

75 Prompting Strategies Expectant Look(E): The adult looks at what the child is looking at or at the task the child should perform and then looks at the child as if to say What do you need to do? Or What do you want? (expectant look video)

76 Prompting Hierarchies Most-to-Least: A most-to-least strategy is a series of two or more forms or levels of help, arranged to provide progressively decreasing amounts of assistance. The sequence begins with the most help a child needs to say or do something with out error. Over time, as he learns the task, the amount of help he is given decreases until the adult ceases help altogether.

77 Prompting Hierarchies Least-to-Most: A series of two or more forms or levels of help arranged to provide progressively increasing amounts of assistance. The sequence begins with an opportunity for the child to respond to a natural cue. If she does not respond correctly, she is given less help than she may need to challenge her to complete the task independently. Increasing amounts of help are given, if needed, until she is able to complete the task correctly.

78 Adult Response Got it Didn t get it, try again

79 Adult Response: Got it Reinforcers must be delivered immediately after a correct response Reinforcers must be contingent Vary reinforcers Individualize reinforcers ALWAYS pair social praise with any tangible reward (praise first)

80 Adult Response: Didn t Get it, Try Again Say or model the expected response (the answer) and give the child another try (help as needed) Teacher: Put your bowl in the dish bin. Child: Puts bowl on counter. Teacher: Watch me, here is the dish bin. Try again, put your bowl in the dish bin. Child: Picks up bowl. Teacher: Points to the dish bin. Child: Puts bowl in the dish bin. Teacher: Thanks for cleaning up! Now you can go play. (error correction video)

81 Evaluation Level of Independence data collection Completed retrospectively, but daily

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83

84 Organizing Instruction Classroom Matrix Barukh Michael Mariam Circle --imitate actions with objects --remain at circle --identify attributes --identify words that have the same beginning sounds Free Choice --request toy from peer using PECS or sign --imitate actions with objects --rote count --imitate vertical and horizontal lines --use words to request or comment --verbally request a turn with a toy from a peer --identify attributes --count 1-5 objects using one to one correspondence --ask a friend to play and follow through --write name --count 1-10 using one to one correspondence --identify words that have the same beginning sounds Outside and Gym --use words to request or comment --imitate vertical and horizontal lines --remain in a group game --verbally request a turn with a toy from a peer (X2) --give item requested by a peer --write name --ask a friend to play and follow through Breakfast/Lunch -- complete hand washing routine --Use PECS to request from adults and peers --identify attributes --count 1-10 using one to one correspondence Small Group --Imitate actions with objects --request toy from peers using PECS or sign --verbally request a turn with a toy from a peer --give item requested by a peer --count 1-10 using one to one correspondence

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86 Activity Matrix Class Gail s AM class Week: 10/20-10/24 Daily Schedule Arrival/ Table time Circle time Free Choice Snack Name: Jessie Name: Larisha Name: Daniel Name: Drew Copies first 3 letters of name Uses scissors to cut playdough at table time Shares objects with others (circle time props) Uses scissors to cut straight and curved lines Copies first 3 letters of name to sign up for computer Matches items by some physical attribute (Helps to set up snack and matches plates and utensils to place mat) Shares objects with others (snack items) Threads, zips, and unzips zipper (unzips coat) Put playdough in zipped bag (unzips and zips bag) Responds to question if you re wearing the color stand up.. ) Demonstrates understanding of 5 colors (during clean up) Threads, zips, and unzips zipper (when dressing up) Rides and steers a tricycle through drive thru Demonstrates understanding of 5 colors (Responds to direction -sit at the blue table) Outside Shares objects with others Unzips/zips ball bag to remove balls Rides and steers a tricycle Prints first name Responds appropriately to directions ( put your coat and backpack away ) Counts ten objects (counts # of children at school) Prints first name to sign up for a turn Responds appropriately to directions ( put your cup and plate in the bucket ) Counts ten objects (when handing out gold fish crackers) Counts to ten while playing hide and seek Prints name with chalk Identifies emotions in self and others Identifies emotions in self and others (singing happy and you know it) Asks what and where questions ( where is _ ) Asks what questions (while playing with surprise box ) Asks what questions (Smells food cooking and asks what s for snack? ) Plays hide and seek and asks where is )

87

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89 Membership Supervisors Guide Teacher s Guide Tips for Teachers Print and Go Photographs Print and Go Cards Gently Tap a Friend s Shoulder Give a Toy to Share Say, Let s Play Gently Take a Friend by the Hand Helpful Resources

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