A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING"

Transcription

1 Chapter 10 Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning: The Story of Dogs and Little Albert A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING As you read below you may come to think that behavioral learning theories seem somewhat mechanical. They are concerned with stimuli and responses, strengthening behaviors using reinforcement, charting rewards, and such. Again remember, a theory is used, not to predict what might humans do, but to understand the things humans have done and are doing. Behavioral learning theories can provide such understanding. As well, they offer insight into important elements of teaching and learning and they are essential for classroom management as well. Behaviorism is a school of psychology that, in its purest form, examines only outward behavior when trying to understand learning. From a behaviorist point of view, learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral potentiality) that occurs as a result of experience (Hergenhahn & Olson 2005). This change must be something that can be measured outwardly. The concept of the mind and the thoughts, feelings, dispositions, emotions, or states of consciousness that may dwell therein cannot be observed directly and thus, are not of interest for the pure behaviorist. Behavioral learning theories seek to describe or control the conditions (or stimuli) that affect an organism and cause it respond with particular behaviors. This is conditioning. Classical conditioning is described in this chapter. Operant conditioning (sometimes called instrumental conditioning) is described in the next chapter. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Classical condition, a type of associative learning, is where two stimuli occur together enough times so that they eventually become associated with each other. The result of this association is that each stimulus eventually produces a similar response. To illustrate, let us say that the smell of spoiled milk caused you to shudder. By presenting spoiled milk together with a specific buzzer sound many times you would eventually create the condition where just the buzzer sound would cause you to shudder even when the spoiled milk was not present. Learning then is a matter of strengthening the bond between two stimuli (spoiled milk and buzzer) so that both stimuli elicit the same response (shudder). Originally, classical conditioning only focused on reflexive behavior such as the salivation reflex of Pavlov s dog (described below). More recently, voluntary responses to conditioned stimuli have also been included in classical conditioning, as well as looking at emotions and internal states. Ivan Pavlov Two names often associated with classical conditioning are Ivan Pavlov and John Watson. Each is examined here. Russian Physiologist, Ivan Pavlov ( ) was a biologist who was trying to understand the digestive system in dogs. One day he noticed (quite by accident) that not only did the placing meat power in a dog s mouth cause his dog to salivate; but the dog also began to salivate when things (or stimuli) associated with the meat powder were present such as the sound of the door, the food dish, or the sight of the food person. He then conducted experiments where the stimuli was limited to just the sound of a bell paired with meat powder. Through this pairing, the dog eventually came to salivate when just the sound of the bell was present (no meat powder). This is called classical conditioning (or respondent conditioning). Here a neutral stimulus (bell) is repeatedly paired with a stimulus (meat powder) that causes a particular reaction (response) so that the neutral stimulus eventually creates the same response as the original stimulus (see Figure 10.1). This represents the principle of continuity which states that when two things are paired together enough times, the one thing will be associated with the other.

2 Pavlov s Salivating Dog Pavlov noticed that presenting meat powder (an unconditioned stimuli or UCS) to his dog caused it to salivate (an unconditioned response or UCR). The original stimuli and response are unconditioned because both occurred naturally without any conditioning. During the conditioning the meat powder (UCS) was paired with a neutral stimulus (NS). The neutral stimulus was a bell. Neutral here means that the sound of the bell by itself did not cause any particular response in the dog. The bell and the meat were then presented together many times. Each time, these paired stimuli produced the same response (UCR) which was salivation. The bond between the bell and the meat power became strengthened so that eventually the bell by itself produced the same response (salivation). The salivation then became the conditioned response (CR) because the dog had to be conditioned to respond to the bell this way. The bell had been conditioned to become a stimulus by itself and was now the conditioned stimulus (CS). Figure Classical conditioning. Classical Conditioning Before Conditioning 1. Before conditioning, the unconditioned stimuli (UCS) in the form of meat powder, leads to an unconditioned response (UCR) in the form of salivation. UCS [meat powder] = UCR [salivation] During Conditioning 2. During conditioning the unconditioned stimuli is pair with a neutral stimuli (NS), in the form of a bell. This also leads to a unconditioned response in the form of salivation. UCS [meat powder] + NS [bell] = UCR [salivation] 3. The neutral stimuli (bell) becomes associated with the unconditioned stimuli (meat powder) so that it becomes a conditioned stimuli. That is, through conditioning it has become a stimuli. NS [bell] + UCS [meat powder] = CS [bell is associated with meat powder]. After Conditioning 4. Now the CS (bell) elicits a conditions response (salivation). This response has been learned through conditioning. CS [bell] = CR [salivation].

3 John Watson While the roots of behaviorism are to be found in Pavlov s work, John Watson ( ) is known as the founder of behaviorism (Hergenhahn & Olson 2005). Before him psychology was studied mainly through introspection (people studying their own thought processes and internal states). Watson, who was highly influenced by Pavlov, brought a degree of scientific rigor to the field by moving away from the study of consciousness, which he believed to be a very subjective entity that could not be reliably measured. According to Watson, mental events (anything happening in the conscious or unconscious mind), could not be dealt with directly and thus should be avoided in the study of psychology. Instead, psychology should only study behavior and the conditions or experiences that affect or cause behavior. These were things that could be objectively observed and measured. To Watson, personality was nothing more than a collection of conditioned reflexes. He believed humans inherited only three emotions: anger, fear, and love. It was through classical conditioning that these three emotions and their variations became attached to different stimuli (things, people, and experiences). He described humans as responding organisms who go through life constantly responding to various stimuli in their environment. Over time certain reflexive patterns became reinforced through classical conditioning. According to Watson, the variability in people was a result of their varied experiences not inherited ability. Poor Little Albert Watson and Rosalie Rayner (1920) conducted the classic (and highly unethical) experiment involving an 11-month old child named Albert, a white rat, and a steel bar and hammer. Before the experiment, Albert was presented with a white rat. He showed no fear, reaching out to touch it when he saw it. During the initial part of the experiment when Albert again saw the rat he reached for it. As soon as he touched the rat a researcher behind Albert hit the steel bar with a hammer. This made a very loud noise causing Albert to jump violently, fall forward, and cry. Again, when he saw the rat and reached for it the same thing occurred. There were several more pairings like this between the rat and the sound. Eventually Albert developed a strong fear of the rat. When the rat was presented to Albert he would fall over, begin to cry, and try to crawl away. The experiment continued. Albert was taught, in the same manner, to fear a variety of other objects that were not feared at the beginning of the experiment such as a dog, a rabbit, cotton, a fur coat, and a Santa Clause mask. In this experiment Watson showed that emotional reactions could be altered through classical conditioning. Here the loud banging noise was the UCS. Albert s physical reaction to the noise was the UCR.

4 When the UCS was paired with the rat, the rat became the CS. Watson s explanation was slightly different from Pavlov s. While Pavlov would say that the UCS (banging sound) reinforces the CS (rat); Watson would say that these two followed each other in closely in time so that the one became associated with the other. Learning, according to Watson, occurs because of the close succession of events (things happen together). The more often they occur together, the stronger the bond or association between events. This is known as the law of contiguity. Classical Conditioning and Humans Going beyond Watson, we can also look at classical conditioning as it involves a person s emotional state. That is, we can examine the conditions or behaviors (UCS) that produce a particular emotional reaction (UCR). How does classical conditioning appear in real life? One illustration would be the physical reaction most people have when they hear the sound of the dentist s drill. The sound is closely associated with the very unpleasant sensation of a dentist drilling your teeth. Thus, the very sound creates a physical reaction. Another real-life example of classical conditioning related to education would be the pairing of a warm, nurturing teacher (UCS) with a particular classroom (NS). If a child s response to a particular classroom teacher was to become relaxed and less anxious (UCR); the classroom (CS) associated with the teacher would have the same effect (CR) whether or not the teacher was there. In the same way, children with learning disabilities often experience failure (UCS) and humiliation at school. They become anxious, tense, and angry (UCR) in classroom learning situations (UCS). Eventually, school and everything related has the same negative effect and school becomes a very depressing place to be. A second real life example to consider would be reading instruction. Instruction that involves reading for pleasure, enjoying great books, having choices in reading selections, learning interesting things, and having interesting discussions (UCS) generally produces a pleasurable response (UCR). When students enjoy reading class, reading books become associated with pleasure. When books are associated with pleasure, students are more apt to read for pleasure outside of school. However, when reading instruction that involves drudgery, drill and practice worksheets, activities used to test students ability to regurgitate story details, and activities that ask students to sound out lists of nonsense words; it generally produces a negative response. It becomes far less likely that children would pick up and read a book for pleasure outside of school. This type of instruction becomes a detriment for many reasons, the most important being that voluntary reading (the reading you do on your own outside of school) is highly correlated with academic achievement (Cox, 2001; Cunningham, 2006). In the current academic climate, because of the emphasis on high stakes testing, schools have become very tense, competitive places. High stakes testing is when decisions about a student, teacher, or school are made based on the results of a single test. The result of this is that schools and teachers spend more time preparing students for standardized tests and less time focusing on learning, experimenting, exploring new ideas, or creative new ventures in learning. In these cases, the curriculum becomes limited to that which will be on the test. Opportunities to learn become constricted. Learning becomes something that is done to the child instead of something children do and school becomes associated with something negative. Terms and Concepts Related to Classical Conditioning The following terms and concepts are also related to classical conditioning. Classical Conditioning - Pairing one thing with another to produce a similar response. Generalization - Responding to stimuli that are similar to the UCS. Here an organism that has been

5 condition to respond to a particular stimulus (CS) also responds to similar or related stimuli. Using Pavlov s experiment, the dog would initially respond to a particular bell. Through generalization it might be taught to bell sounds at different tones, or sounds that were similar to the bell sound such as a gong. Discrimination - Being able to distinguish one stimulus from others. Here the organism is able to tell the difference between the stimuli and others that are similar. Pavlov s dog would respond to a bell but not to a gong. Extinction - The weakening of a conditioned response. When the CS becomes absent from the UCS the UCR disappears. That is, if the bell was run without the meat powder many times, Pavlov s dog would eventual stop salivating. The responding behavior would become extinct. Systematic Desensitization- Based on classical conditioning, this is a method to reduce anxiety by getting people to associate comforting or happy thoughts with stressful situation that produces anxiety. For example, a student becomes very anxious when taking tests. Through systematic desensitization, the student would be put in a series of test-like condition and be asked to imagine or visualize a happy time. Since comfort and anxiety are incompatible emotions, the student would eventually become less anxious in these situations. Classical Conditioning and the Master Teacher Teachers must do their best to pair learning with pleasurable experiences so as to avoid the negative effects of classical conditioning. But do all learning experiences have to be fun? No, certainly not. But neither do they all have to be boring, useless, frustrating, disconnected, impersonal, contrived, or irrelevant. What separates the master teacher from those with growth potential is the ability of the former to make learning interesting, successful, relevant, and personal to the greatest extent possible. And, while a teacher would not necessarily try to condition a human being to act in ways that are unnatural to him or her, understanding classical conditioning can help in understanding the forces that shape students and cause them to act and react. Master teachers also strive to design learning experiences that reflect and respect students natural ways of learning, their curiosity, or the developmental tasks confronting them to the greatest degree possible. Summary of Key Ideas Behaviorism studies only outward behaviors when trying to understand learning. Behavioral learning theories seek to describe or control the conditions (or stimuli) that affect an organism and cause it respond with particular behaviors. Classical condition is where two stimuli occur together enough times so that they eventually become associated with each other. Through classical conditioning a condition stimulus eventual produces a similar response as an unconditioned stimulus. References Cox, K. (2001). Motivational and cognitive contributions to students amount of reading. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26, Cunningham, P.M. (2006). Struggling readers: High-poverty schools that beat the odds. The Reading Teacher, 60, Hergenhahn, B. R., & Olson, M. H. (2005). An introduction to theories of learning (7 th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Watson, J.B. & Rayner, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1-14.

How do we Learn? How do you know you ve learned something? CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is learning? What is Classical Conditioning? Chapter 6 Learning

How do we Learn? How do you know you ve learned something? CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is learning? What is Classical Conditioning? Chapter 6 Learning How do we Learn? Chapter 6 Learning CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is learning? What is Classical Conditioning? How do you know you ve learned something? 1 Can our beliefs and attitudes be a result of learning??

More information

Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning

Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning Psychology Behavior 01 Notes Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning Behaviorism is essentially the study of how we learn. Humans are different from many animals in that we possess very little instinct, or

More information

Programmed Learning Review

Programmed Learning Review Programmed Learning Review L-HO1-121907 Take another sheet of paper and cover the answers located in the right hand column. Then read through the unit filling in the blanks as you go. After filling in

More information

LEARNING. Chapter 6 (Bernstein), pages 194-229

LEARNING. Chapter 6 (Bernstein), pages 194-229 LEARNING Chapter 6 (Bernstein), pages 194-229 What is LEARNING? LEARNING is the adaptive process through which experience modifies preexisting behavior and understanding; relatively permanent change in

More information

GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION

GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING LEARNING LEARNING= Is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience Some behaviours are learnt, but

More information

Learning Theories 4- Behaviorism

Learning Theories 4- Behaviorism LEARNING THEORIES - BEHAVIORISM CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER Learning Theories 4- Behaviorism LEARNING OUTCOMES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain the principles of classical conditioning,

More information

Learning. Relatively permanent behavior change that is acquired through experience

Learning. Relatively permanent behavior change that is acquired through experience Learning Relatively permanent behavior change that is acquired through experience Learning vs Maturation Not all behavior change is best described as learning Maturation (neuromuscular development) usually

More information

Behavioural Therapy A GUIDE TO COUNSELLING THERAPIES (DVD) Published by: J & S Garrett Pty Ltd ACN 068 751 440

Behavioural Therapy A GUIDE TO COUNSELLING THERAPIES (DVD) Published by: J & S Garrett Pty Ltd ACN 068 751 440 Behavioural Therapy A GUIDE TO COUNSELLING THERAPIES (DVD) Published by: J & S Garrett Pty Ltd ACN 068 751 440 All Case Histories in this text are presented as examples only and any comparison which might

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7 1 Chapter in Review 1. Learning is difficult to define, but most psychologists would agree that: In learning the organism acquires some new knowledge or behavior as a result of experience; learning can

More information

Today. Learning. Learning. What is Learning? The Biological Basis. Hebbian Learning in Neurons

Today. Learning. Learning. What is Learning? The Biological Basis. Hebbian Learning in Neurons Today Learning What is Learning? Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Intro Psychology Georgia Tech Instructor: Dr. Bruce Walker What is Learning? Depends on your purpose and perspective Could be

More information

Introduction to Learning. Chapter 1

Introduction to Learning. Chapter 1 Introduction to Learning Chapter 1 A Definition of Learning Learning is: An experiential process Resulting in a relatively permanent change Not explained by temporary states, maturation, or innate response

More information

Learning: Classical Conditioning

Learning: Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn? Learning Learning: Classical Conditioning Chapter 7 One way is through Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Extending Pavlov s Understanding Pavlov s Legacy Psy 12000.003 1 2 Definition

More information

Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning

Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning Chapter Summary Definitions Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. A stimulus is anything that comes in through your senses.

More information

IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES

IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES PAVLOV THORNDIKE SKINNER PAVLOV S CLASSICAL CONDITIONING I. Introduction: Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a Russian Physiologist who won Nobel Prize

More information

Classical vs. Operant Conditioning

Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning (R S RF ) A voluntary response (R) is followed by a reinforcing stimulus (S RF ) The voluntary response is more likely to be emitted by the organism.

More information

Encyclopedia of School Psychology Conditioning: Classical And Operant

Encyclopedia of School Psychology Conditioning: Classical And Operant Encyclopedia of School Psychology Conditioning: Classical And Operant Contributors: Merilee McCurdy & Michelle Swanger Edited by: Steven W. Lee Book Title: Encyclopedia of School Psychology Chapter Title:

More information

Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? learning Conditioning II. Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli Ivan Pavlov

Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? learning Conditioning II. Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli Ivan Pavlov Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? A. Psychologists define learning as a process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of an individual s experience.

More information

A. Learning Process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior.

A. Learning Process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior. Woolfolk, A. (2010). Chapter 6: Behavioral Views of Learning. In A. Woolfook (Ed.), Educational psychology (11th ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. This chapter begins by defining learning and

More information

Learning. Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. Permanent Experience Practice

Learning. Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. Permanent Experience Practice Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice Permanent Experience Practice Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian Physiologist Father= Village Priest Father-in-law=

More information

Learning from Experience. Definition of Learning. Psychological definition. Pavlov: Classical Conditioning

Learning from Experience. Definition of Learning. Psychological definition. Pavlov: Classical Conditioning Learning from Experience Overview Understanding Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning Definition of Learning Permanent change Change in behavior or knowledge Learning

More information

Behavioral Principles. S-R Learning. Pavlov & Classical Conditioning 12/2/2009

Behavioral Principles. S-R Learning. Pavlov & Classical Conditioning 12/2/2009 Behavioral Principles S-R Learning Classical conditioning The most basic form of learning; one stimulus comes to serve as a signal for the occurrence of a second stimulus (the response) Stimulus a physical

More information

Image Source: Markstivers.com

Image Source: Markstivers.com Classical Conditioning Image Source: Markstivers.com What is Learning? Relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Behaviorism Types of Learning Classical Conditioning Operant

More information

Classical Conditioning. Classical and Operant Conditioning. Basic effect. Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning. Classical and Operant Conditioning. Basic effect. Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Classical and Operant Conditioning January 16, 2001 Reminder of Basic Effect What makes for effective conditioning? How does classical conditioning work? Classical Conditioning Reflex-basic

More information

Psychology with Mr. Duez UNIT 3 "Learning" LEARNING TARGETS

Psychology with Mr. Duez UNIT 3 Learning LEARNING TARGETS Psychology with Mr. Duez UNIT 3 "Learning" LEARNING TARGETS If you learn only 6 things from this chapter... 1. Learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behavior based on experience. 2. Classical

More information

Chapter 5. Learning. Outline

Chapter 5. Learning. Outline Chapter 5 Learning Outline I. What Is Learning? A. Learning is demonstrated by a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as the result of practice or experience. 1. Learning cannot be observed

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Chapter 5 Learning Classical Conditioning Learning relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience Behaviorism emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as determinant

More information

A Study in Learning Styles of Construction Management Students. Amit Bandyopadhyay, Ph.D., PE, F.ASCE State University of New York -FSC

A Study in Learning Styles of Construction Management Students. Amit Bandyopadhyay, Ph.D., PE, F.ASCE State University of New York -FSC A Study in Learning Styles of Construction Management Students Amit Bandyopadhyay, Ph.D., PE, F.ASCE State University of New York -FSC Abstract Students take in and process information in different ways.

More information

Is the stimulus/response something that was learned or something that occurs naturally, by instinct?

Is the stimulus/response something that was learned or something that occurs naturally, by instinct? Chapter 5: Learning: Classical Conditioning Notes & Exercises Many students get confused with the terms of classical conditioning. There are four major components to this type of learning: unconditioned

More information

Behaviorism & Education

Behaviorism & Education Behaviorism & Education Early Psychology (the use of nonobjective methods such as Introspection) Learning = behavior change movement toward objective methods Behaviorism Pavlov, Skinner (Focus on Sà R)

More information

GCSE Psychology Learning

GCSE Psychology Learning GCSE Psychology Learning Student: Tutor: Unit 2: Understanding other people 1 Learning What is classical conditioning? What do we mean when we say we have learnt something? Read the statements below and

More information

Classical Conditioning Overview

Classical Conditioning Overview Classical Conditioning Overview Classical conditioning was first identified and developed by a Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov. The phenomenon of classical conditioning is widely considered to be the

More information

UNIT 6: LEARNING. 6. When the US is presented prior to a neutral stimulus, conditioning DOES NOT (does/does not) occur.

UNIT 6: LEARNING. 6. When the US is presented prior to a neutral stimulus, conditioning DOES NOT (does/does not) occur. UNIT 6: LEARNING HOW DO WE LEARN? OBJECTIVE 1: Define learning, and identify two forms of learning. 1. A relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience is called LEARNING. 2. More

More information

Theories for Child Development: What are they and why should you care? Lifespan Developmental Theory

Theories for Child Development: What are they and why should you care? Lifespan Developmental Theory Theories for Child Development: What are they and why should you care? Wednesday, August 24 th, 2005 Covering: Lifespan Developmental Theory, Psychoanalytic Theory, Erikson, Behavioral and Social Learning,

More information

HONORS PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW QUESTIONS

HONORS PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW QUESTIONS HONORS PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW QUESTIONS The purpose of these review questions is to help you assess your grasp of the facts and definitions covered in your textbook. Knowing facts and definitions is necessary

More information

Behaviorism: Laws of the Observable

Behaviorism: Laws of the Observable Behaviorism: Laws of the Observable The Backdrop to Watson: Functionalism at the Univ. of Chicago John Dewey, like James, was influenced by both Peirce and Darwin Moved to the University of Chicago in

More information

Final Exam Review for EDP304 Prague

Final Exam Review for EDP304 Prague Final Exam Review for EDP304 Prague Types of Instruction 1. The term used to describe lessons in which the teacher provides information directly to students, structuring class time to reach a clearly defined

More information

Outline. General Psychology PSYC 200. Definition. Habituation. Habituation. Classical Conditioning 3/17/2015. Learning

Outline. General Psychology PSYC 200. Definition. Habituation. Habituation. Classical Conditioning 3/17/2015. Learning /17/015 General Psychology PSYC 00 Outline 0) Definition of Learning 1) Habituation ) Classical Conditioning ) Operant Conditioning Learning Definition Learning = change in behavior or thought as a result

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7 1 Chapter Test 1. Knowing how to do something, like drive a car or play a sport, is referred to as a. explicit knowledge b. behavioral knowledge c. procedural knowledge d. implicit knowledge 2. All of

More information

Applied Behavior Analysis. Session 1: Course overview and basic concepts

Applied Behavior Analysis. Session 1: Course overview and basic concepts Applied Behavior Analysis Session 1: Course overview and basic concepts My background Special Ed teacher in Victoria Special Ed teacher in junior vocational high schools in Canada BEd, MSc University of

More information

Social Forces Human Development Learning and Learning Styles

Social Forces Human Development Learning and Learning Styles Social Forces Human Development Learning and Learning Styles Change in individual s knowledge or behavior that results from experience Types of learning Behavioral Cognitive Emphasize observable changes

More information

Chapter 15. Historical Perspective. How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory

Chapter 15. Historical Perspective. How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory Chapter 15 How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory Learning 2 stimuli events, things, or people repeatedly experienced together will eventually come to elicit the same

More information

Psychological Models of Abnormality

Psychological Models of Abnormality Several Different Models Psychological Models of Abnormality Psychoanalytic Models Learning Models Cognitive Models Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides

More information

LEARNING AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 1

LEARNING AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 1 1 Learning and Classical Conditioning Jenna Leah Smith The University of Texas at Brownsville 2 Synopsis Even though we may not be cognizant of it, the concept of classical conditioning is present in our

More information

Evolutionary Perspective: Wrap Up

Evolutionary Perspective: Wrap Up Psych 305A: Lecture 18 Evolutionary Approach Wrap Up The Cognitive Approach Part I Learning and Behaviorism 1 Evolutionary Perspective: Wrap Up 2 1 Importance of Good Financial Prospect When Selecting

More information

AP Psychology 2008-2009 Academic Year

AP Psychology 2008-2009 Academic Year AP Psychology 2008-2009 Academic Year Course Description: The College Board Advanced Placement Program describes Advanced Placement Psychology as a course that is designed to introduce students to the

More information

Operant Conditioning

Operant Conditioning LP 6B Operant Conditioning: Reinforcements and Punishments 1 Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning): A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning OpenStax-CNX module: m49048 1 Classical Conditioning OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 By the end of this section, you

More information

The Behaviorist Revolution: Pavlov and Watson

The Behaviorist Revolution: Pavlov and Watson Ivan Petrovich Pavlov: Physiologist The Behaviorist Revolution: Pavlov and Watson Trained in physiology at St. Petersberg and Leipzig (Carl Ludwig) First research on circulation and blood pressure Subsequently,

More information

Section 2 - Behavior Modification Section 2.2 - Reinforcement

Section 2 - Behavior Modification Section 2.2 - Reinforcement Section 2 - Behavior Modification Section 2.2 - Reinforcement Positive versus Negative Reinforcement Wiki - reinforcement is an increase in the strength [or frequency] of a response following the change

More information

USVH Disease of the Week #1: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

USVH Disease of the Week #1: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) USVH Disease of the Week #1: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Effects of Traumatic Experiences A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet By: Eve B. Carlson, Ph.D. and Josef Ruzek, Ph.D. When people find

More information

Empirical Background for Skinner s Basic Arguments Regarding Selection by Consequences

Empirical Background for Skinner s Basic Arguments Regarding Selection by Consequences Empirical Background for Skinner s Basic Arguments Regarding Selection by Consequences Iver Iversen University of North Florida, Jacksonville Presentation at NAFO, April 2016 Gol, Norway Skinner was Controvercial

More information

The Behaviorist Revolution: Pavlov and Watson

The Behaviorist Revolution: Pavlov and Watson The Behaviorist Revolution: Pavlov and Watson Ivan Petrovich Pavlov: Physiologist Trained in physiology at St. Petersberg and Leipzig (Carl Ludwig) First research on circulation and blood pressure Subsequently,

More information

Learning. Chapter 5. How have you used reinforcement to modify your own behavior or the behavior of others? Video 00:00 / 02:28

Learning. Chapter 5. How have you used reinforcement to modify your own behavior or the behavior of others? Video 00:00 / 02:28 Chapter 5 Learning Yoshiko s first-grade teacher started a reading contest. For every book read, a child would get a gold star on the reading chart, and at the end of one month the child with the most

More information

HOW TO CHANGE NEGATIVE THINKING

HOW TO CHANGE NEGATIVE THINKING HOW TO CHANGE NEGATIVE THINKING For there is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so. William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act 2, Scene 2, 239 251. Although you may not be fully aware of it, our minds

More information

Faulty Explanations for Behavior

Faulty Explanations for Behavior Functional Assessment of Behavior EDS 240 Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP California State University, Sacramento Faulty Explanations for Behavior 1. Behavior occurs because of the student is bad 2. Behavior

More information

Heather Maurin, MA, EdS, PPS, LEP, BICM School Psychologist-Stockton Unified School District THE ABC S OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

Heather Maurin, MA, EdS, PPS, LEP, BICM School Psychologist-Stockton Unified School District THE ABC S OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS Heather Maurin, MA, EdS, PPS, LEP, BICM School Psychologist-Stockton Unified School District THE ABC S OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS WHAT IS BEHAVIOR Every behavior has a purpose. There is no behavior that

More information

What is Psychology? A set of questions about mental functioning trace back to philosophy Aristotle asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc.

What is Psychology? A set of questions about mental functioning trace back to philosophy Aristotle asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc. What is? The science of behavior and the mind behavior - observable actions of a person or animal mind - thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiences

More information

BEHAVIORAL THERAPY. Behavior Therapy (Chapter 9) Exposure Therapies. Blurring the Line. Four Aspects of Behavior Therapy

BEHAVIORAL THERAPY. Behavior Therapy (Chapter 9) Exposure Therapies. Blurring the Line. Four Aspects of Behavior Therapy BEHAVIORAL THERAPY Psychology 460 Counseling and Interviewing Sheila K. Grant, Ph.D. 1 Behavior (Chapter 9) A set of clinical procedures relying on experimental findings of psychological research Based

More information

4.Insight = change of self- image acceptance of theoretical interpretation 5.Obtaining relevant information

4.Insight = change of self- image acceptance of theoretical interpretation 5.Obtaining relevant information Psychotherapy Treatment by psychological stimuli Intrapsychological process therapeutic relationship Methods: 1.Abreaction release of repressed emotions and feelings 2.Catharsis clearing, cognitive rebirth

More information

Supporting your child after a burn injury

Supporting your child after a burn injury Royal Manchester Children s Hospital Supporting your child after a burn injury Information for Parents and Carers of Young Children 2 Contents Page Introduction 4 Trauma and children 4 Normal reactions

More information

LEARNING AND CONDITIONING

LEARNING AND CONDITIONING 64 Chapter II Perception and Consciousness The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective. Nicholas Spanos was a prolific and wellrespected behavioral scientist who has been missed greatly by his colleagues and

More information

Chapter 3 Behavioral Approach and Multimedia-Learning Environments

Chapter 3 Behavioral Approach and Multimedia-Learning Environments Chapter 3 Behavioral Approach and Multimedia-Learning Environments The behavioral approach to learning and development, which has for the most part dominated the psychology of curriculum design and educational

More information

Educational Psychology (EDP304) Comprehensive Course Review

Educational Psychology (EDP304) Comprehensive Course Review Educational Psychology (EDP304) Comprehensive Course Review Research Methods 1. The discipline or field that studies learners, learning and teaching is? 2. Explain the difference between external and internal

More information

AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY An Introduction to MODULE - I 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY As human beings our curiosity drives us to know the reasons behind various events happening around us. Whenever we meet somebody or see someone

More information

Using the Second Step: Social-Emotional Skills for Early Learning and Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA-P2) Preschool Program Together

Using the Second Step: Social-Emotional Skills for Early Learning and Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA-P2) Preschool Program Together Using the Second Step: Social-Emotional Skills for Early Learning and Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA-P2) Preschool Program Together The Second Step program and DECA Preschool Program are both

More information

IT'S NOT JUST ABOUT SALIVATING DOGS! Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.

IT'S NOT JUST ABOUT SALIVATING DOGS! Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press. 1 IT'S NOT JUST ABOUT SALIVATING DOGS! Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press. Have you ever walked into a dentist's office where the odor of the disinfectant made

More information

PSYCHOTHERAPY. MODULE -V Social and Applied Psychology OBJECTIVES 24.1 MEDICAL MODEL. Psychotherapy. Notes

PSYCHOTHERAPY. MODULE -V Social and Applied Psychology OBJECTIVES 24.1 MEDICAL MODEL. Psychotherapy. Notes MODULE -V Psychotherapy 24 PSYCHOTHERAPY In the previous lesson, you were told about psychological disorders. Psychologists have tried to understand the causes of abnormal behaviour, and the best way to

More information

ABA. History of ABA. Interventions 8/24/2011. Late 1800 s and Early 1900 s. Mentalistic Approachs

ABA. History of ABA. Interventions 8/24/2011. Late 1800 s and Early 1900 s. Mentalistic Approachs ABA Is an extension of Experimental Analysis of Behavior to applied settings Is not the same as modification Uses cognition in its approach Focuses on clinically or socially relevant s Is used in many

More information

GCSE Psychology Topic D

GCSE Psychology Topic D GCSE Psychology Topic D Why do we have phobias? 1) Classical conditioning and phobias Classical conditioning A learning process which builds up an association between the two stimuli through repeated pairings.

More information

TWO - FACTOR THEORY OF LEARNING: APPLICATION TO MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR

TWO - FACTOR THEORY OF LEARNING: APPLICATION TO MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR School and Health 21, 2010, Health Education: Contexts and Inspiration TWO - FACTOR THEORY OF LEARNING: APPLICATION TO MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR Michaella BUCK Abstract: Two-factor theory of avoidance remains

More information

Practical Principles Using Applied Behavior Analysis

Practical Principles Using Applied Behavior Analysis Practical Principles Using Applied Behavior Analysis Annie Baghdayan, PhD, BCBA-D, LBA annie-baghdayan@ouhsc.edu May 28 th, 2014 The Oklahoma Autism Network The Oklahoma Autism Network Established in October

More information

Providing Support for Special Needs Children By The U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Posted June 1998.

Providing Support for Special Needs Children By The U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Posted June 1998. Providing Support for Special Needs Children By The U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Posted June 1998. All children can succeed with the right support. Being

More information

A View on Behaviorist Learning Theory. view of behaviorism assumes that all behavior is determined via the environment or how one has

A View on Behaviorist Learning Theory. view of behaviorism assumes that all behavior is determined via the environment or how one has A View on Behaviorist Learning Theory Introduction Behaviorism is a learning theory that emphasizes observable behavior. The most radical view of behaviorism assumes that all behavior is determined via

More information

How To Improve A Child'S Learning Experience

How To Improve A Child'S Learning Experience Effective teaching and classroom management is about whole child - and whole school development for knowledge, skills and human values During the past years as an outcome of the UN Study on Violence against

More information

LINDA LANTIERI EXPERT IN SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL LEARNING

LINDA LANTIERI EXPERT IN SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL LEARNING SUNDAY, March 20, 2011 Diario de Mallorca LINDA LANTIERI EXPERT IN SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL LEARNING She has been a school principal in Harlem and has helped children and adults solve their conflicts in over

More information

Acknowledging Children s Positive Behaviors What Works Brief Series Matt Timm and Sharon Doubet

Acknowledging Children s Positive Behaviors What Works Brief Series Matt Timm and Sharon Doubet Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Project funded by the Child Care and Head Start Bureaus in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Acknowledging Children s Positive

More information

Chapter 1 Assignment Part 1

Chapter 1 Assignment Part 1 Chapter 1 Assignment Part 1 Careers in Psychology 1. Which of the following psychological professionals must always have a medical degree? a. psychologist b. psychiatric social worker c. psychiatrist d.

More information

THE WORLD OF PSYCHOLOGY, 5/E 2005

THE WORLD OF PSYCHOLOGY, 5/E 2005 THE WORLD OF PSYCHOLOGY, 5/E 2005 Ellen Green Wood Samuel E.Wood Denise Boyd 0-205-43055-4 Exam Copy ISBN (Please use above number to order your exam copy.) Visit www.ablongman.com/replocator to contact

More information

Family Engagement and Ongoing Child Assessment

Family Engagement and Ongoing Child Assessment Family Engagement and Ongoing Child Assessment The partnership between parents and Head Start staff is fundamental to children s current and future success and their readiness for school. This relationship

More information

DRAFT TJ PROGRAM OF STUDIES: AP PSYCHOLOGY

DRAFT TJ PROGRAM OF STUDIES: AP PSYCHOLOGY DRAFT TJ PROGRAM OF STUDIES: AP PSYCHOLOGY COURSE DESCRIPTION AP Psychology engages students in a rigorous appraisal of many facets of our current understanding of psychology. The course is based on the

More information

What Teachers Need to Know About Learning

What Teachers Need to Know About Learning BORICP04.doc - 1 Part II What Teachers Need to Know About Learning Chapter 4 The Behavioral Science Approach to Learning Chapter 5 Cognitive Learning I: Understanding Effective Thinking Chapter 6 Chapter

More information

Fact Sheet #1: Skills to Expect from 0 to 18 months

Fact Sheet #1: Skills to Expect from 0 to 18 months Fact Sheet #1: Skills to Expect from 0 to 18 months Mental Skills Remember people and objects that are not present Imitate other people s facial expressions, sounds, and actions Imitate what they see on

More information

Kids Have Stress Too! Especially at Back to School Time As a Parent, You Can Help!

Kids Have Stress Too! Especially at Back to School Time As a Parent, You Can Help! 1 Kids Have Stress Too! Especially at Back to School Time As a Parent, You Can Help! Stress can infect and affect the physical, emotional, intellectual and academic well being of children. It can interfere

More information

Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and. Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst

Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and. Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst Methods Domain Introductory Chapter Module 02 History and Perspectives Module 2: History and Perspectives

More information

North-Grand High School Psychology 2015-2016

North-Grand High School Psychology 2015-2016 North-Grand High School Psychology 2015-2016 Ms. Fryer and Ms. Blum E-mail: afryer@cps.edu or mblum@cps.edu (Please do not email me at aledwards@cps.edu) Free Periods- 1 st, 5 th, and 6 th period Coarse

More information

Psychology lesson plans for the week of 11/16/09. Monday 11/16/09 Chapter 6 test Read chapter 5

Psychology lesson plans for the week of 11/16/09. Monday 11/16/09 Chapter 6 test Read chapter 5 Psychology lesson plans for the week of 11/16/09 Monday 11/16/09 Chapter 6 test Read chapter 5 Tuesday 11/17/09 What is the difference between motivation and emotion? Motivation drives us toward goals.

More information

History/Approaches. 1. A cognitive psychologist would likely be most interested in

History/Approaches. 1. A cognitive psychologist would likely be most interested in History/Approaches 1. A cognitive psychologist would likely be most interested in (A). concentration of neutral transmitters in the spinal cord (B). unconditional positive regard in the therapeutic setting

More information

2010 Alabama Course of Study Social Studies High School Psychology

2010 Alabama Course of Study Social Studies High School Psychology A Correlation of Prentice Hall Psychology Minter/Elmhorst 2012 To the Social Studies High School Psychology A Correlation of, to the for Social Studies Social Studies Students will: 1. Trace the development

More information

MANAGING BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM

MANAGING BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM MANAGING BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM Sonja Samek, Ed.S, BCBA District Behavior Analyst Collier County Public Schools OUR ROLE I have come to a frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the

More information

Nurturing Early Learners

Nurturing Early Learners Nurturing Early Learners A Curriculum Framework for Kindergartens in Singapore A Guide for Parents A Strong Start for Every Child 1 A Strong Start for Every Child A Word to Parents Parents know that the

More information

A Brief Explanation of Applied Behavior Analysis. conditioning to identify the contingencies affecting a student s behavior and the functions of the

A Brief Explanation of Applied Behavior Analysis. conditioning to identify the contingencies affecting a student s behavior and the functions of the A Brief Explanation of Applied Behavior Analysis Applied Behavior Analysis is the procedure for using the principles of operant conditioning to identify the contingencies affecting a student s behavior

More information

Learning Theories Taught in EDFL 2240: Educational Psychology. Behavioral Learning Theories (Learning is defined as a change in behavior)

Learning Theories Taught in EDFL 2240: Educational Psychology. Behavioral Learning Theories (Learning is defined as a change in behavior) Learning Theories Taught in EDFL 2240: Educational Psychology Behavioral Learning Theories (Learning is defined as a change in behavior) Pavlov & Watson s Classical (Reflexive) Conditioning Definition:

More information

The Four Term Contingency and Tier 3 Functional Behavior Intervention: Avoiding Common Pitfalls and Encouraging Successful Outcomes

The Four Term Contingency and Tier 3 Functional Behavior Intervention: Avoiding Common Pitfalls and Encouraging Successful Outcomes The Four Term Contingency and Tier 3 Functional Behavior Intervention: Avoiding Common Pitfalls and Encouraging Successful Outcomes Kevin Kuhn, 2014 ASPP Conference Kahoot.it Code: The Four Term Contingency

More information

Operational Psychology: The Experiment Round 1

Operational Psychology: The Experiment Round 1 Operational Psychology: The Experiment Round 1 Robert Howard Kroepel Copyright 2006 Lakeside Studios New Durham, New Hampshire, USA 03855-2107 603-859-7873 kroepel@tds.net www.bobkwebsite.com Operational

More information

psychology the science of psychology CHAPTER third edition Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White

psychology the science of psychology CHAPTER third edition Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White psychology third edition CHAPTER 1 the science of psychology Learning Objectives LO 1.1 Definition and Goals of Psychology LO 1.2 Structuralism and Functionalism LO 1.3 Early Gestalt, Psychoanalysis, and

More information

INDIVIDUAL CHANGE Learning and the process of change in what ways can models of

INDIVIDUAL CHANGE Learning and the process of change in what ways can models of INDIVIDUAL CHANGE Learning and the process of change in what ways can models of learning help us understand individual change? The behavioural approach to change how can we change people s behaviour? The

More information

The Application of Applied Behavior Analysis in the Special Education Classroom

The Application of Applied Behavior Analysis in the Special Education Classroom The Application of Applied Behavior Analysis in the Special Education Classroom Tonight s Agenda Review course requirements Discuss foundational principles and history of ABA SPC ED 519 Spring 2015 Professor:

More information

12 Step Worksheet Questions

12 Step Worksheet Questions 12 Step Worksheet Questions STEP 1 We admitted we were powerless over alcohol that our lives had become unmanageable. The first time I took a drink I knew it wasn't for me. Every time I drank I got drunk

More information

Alexis Naugle 2-15-13. Intro to Special Education. Dr. Macy

Alexis Naugle 2-15-13. Intro to Special Education. Dr. Macy Running head: MOVIE REVIEW: MY LEFT FOOT 1 Alexis Naugle 2-15-13 Intro to Special Education Dr. Macy 2 The movie I chose to review was called My Left Foot, The story of Christy Brown filmed in 1989. The

More information

Change Leadership: A Boot Camp to Drive Organizational Change

Change Leadership: A Boot Camp to Drive Organizational Change Change Leadership: A Boot Camp to Drive Organizational Change Presented by: Rachel Schaming Radiology Ltd. Tucson, AZ 520.705.2889 Email: Rachel.Schaming@radltd.com Your Perceptions of Change What are

More information