Psychology with Mr. Duez UNIT 3 "Learning" LEARNING TARGETS

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Psychology with Mr. Duez UNIT 3 "Learning" LEARNING TARGETS"

Transcription

1 Psychology with Mr. Duez UNIT 3 "Learning" LEARNING TARGETS If you learn only 6 things from this chapter Learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behavior based on experience. 2. Classical conditioning involves the pairing of one stimulus with another, so that eventually the first neutral stimulus will evoke a reflex. 3. Classical conditioning is associated with Pavlov and Watson; Operant conditioning is associated with Skinner. 4. According to operant conditioning, the consequences of a behavior influence whether or not the behavior will be performed again. 5. Reinforcements are used to increase the likelihood a behavior will be repeated 6. Punishments are used to decrease the likelihood a behavior will be repeated. Key People to know: Albert Bandura - John Garcia - Ivan Pavlov - Robert A. Rescorla - Martin Seligman - B. F. Skinner - Edward Thorndike - John B. Watson Vocabulary: Acquisition - The formation of a new conditioned response tendency. Avoidance learning - A conflict situation in which a choice must be made between two unattractive goals. Behavior modification - A systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning. Behavioral contract - A written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the contingencies of a behavior modification program. Classical conditioning - A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. Conditioned reinforcers - See Secondary reinforcers. Conditioned response (CR) - A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning. Conditioned stimulus (CS) - A previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response. Continuous reinforcement - Reinforcing every instance of a designated response. Cumulative recorder - A graphic record of reinforcement and responding in a Skinner box as a function of time. Discriminative stimuli - Cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response. Elicit - To draw out or bring forth. Emit - To send forth. Escape learning - A type of learning in which an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation. Evaluative conditioning - Efforts to transfer the emotion attached to a UCS to a new CS. Extinction - The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency. Fixed-interval (FI) schedule - A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed. Fixed-ratio (FR) schedule - A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of non-reinforced responses. Higher-order conditioning - A type of conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus. Instinctive drift - The tendency for an animal s innate responses to interfere with conditioning processes. Instrumental learning - See Operant conditioning. Intermittent reinforcement - A reinforcement schedule in which a designated response is reinforced only some of the time. Latent learning - Learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs. Law of effect - The principle that if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened. Learning - A relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience. Negative symptoms - Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech. Observational learning - A type of learning that occurs when an organism s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models. Operant chamber - See Skinner box. Operant conditioning - learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences. Partial reinforcement - See Intermittent reinforcement. Pavlovian conditioning - See Classical conditioning. Phobias - Irrational fears of specific objects or situations. 1

2 Positive reinforcement - Reinforcement that occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus. Primary reinforcers - Events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs. Punishment - An event that follows a response that weakens or suppresses the tendency to make that response. Reinforcement - An event following a response that strengthens the tendency to make that response. Reinforcement contingencies - The circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers. Resistance to extinction - In operant conditioning, the phenomenon that occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it has been terminated. Respondent conditioning - See Classical conditioning. Schedule of reinforcement - A specific presentation of reinforcers over time. Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers - Stimulus events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers. Shaping - The reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response. Skinner box - A small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled. Spontaneous recovery - In classical conditioning, the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus. Stimulus discrimination - The phenomenon that occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. Stimulus generalization - The phenomenon that occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus and responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus. Trial - In classical conditioning, any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli. Unconditioned response (UCR) - An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) - stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response w/o previous conditioning. Variable-interval (VI) schedule - A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed. Variable-ratio (VR) schedule - A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given after a variable number of non-reinforced responses. Did you have to learn how to yawn? Learning is relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience. For a change to be considered learning, it cannot simply have resulted from maturation, inborn response tendencies, or altered states of consciousness. You didn t need to learn to yawn; you do it naturally. Learning allows you to anticipate the future from past experiences and control a complex and ever-changing environment. This chapter reviews three types of learning: Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Cognitive Learning. All three emphasize the role of the environment in the learning process. Cognitive vs. Behavioral. Psychology is filled with controversies. For example, in the history of psychology, there has long been a debate about the causes of human behavior. Specifically, people have been interested in debating whether human behavior is best captured by understanding people's thoughts (cognitive approach) or their overt behavior (the behavioral approach). This debate began with the work of Wilhelm Wundt. He believed that if we could understand human consciousness, we could understand behavior. To gain an understanding of consciousness, Wundt advocated the use of introspection as a research technique. Introspection involved having a research participant observe his own thoughts and record them as accurately as possible. The study of introspection went on for several years as people worked feverishly to describe the contents of consciousness. However, there were rumblings of disagreement among many psychologists over the issue of introspection. Many thought that it did not place enough emphasis on observable behavior. Classical Conditioning (CC). In classical conditioning, the subject learns to give a response it already knows to a new stimulus. The subject associates a new stimulus with a stimulus that automatically and involuntarily brings about the response. A stimulus is a change in the environment that elicits (brings about) a response. A response is a reaction to a stimulus. When food -- a stimulus -- is placed in our mouths, we automatically salivate -- a response. Because we do not need to learn to salivate to food, the food is an unconditional or unconditioned stimulus, and the salivation is an unconditional or unconditional response. 2

3 Pictured above: Illustration of Pavlov's Experiment in Classical Conditioning ****TIP*** If you are having trouble figuring out the difference between the UCS and the CS, ask yourself these questions: What did the organism LEARN to respond to? This is the CS. What did the organism respond to REFLEXIVELY? This is US. The UCR and the CR are usually the same response. John B. Watson was one of the psychologists who disagreed with Wundt and his ilk. Watson thought it would be more beneficial to look at the work of Ivan Pavlov as a model for understanding humans. Pavlov had recently developed a technique for understanding learned reflexes; the technique demonstrated the notion that reflexes can be brought under experimental control by controlling the association between a reflex-inducing stimulus and a neutral stimulus. Watson demonstrated classical conditioning by using emotional responses - training a young child (Albert, age 1) to show fear in the presence of a white rat. When the white rat was first brought into the room with Albert, the child showed no fear. But during conditioning phase of the experiment a metal bar was struck and it rung making a loud noise when the rat was introduced again. 6 times the rat and noise were introduced together, 6 times the child cried. Then afterwards the child began to fear the rat alone (without the loud sound). Watson - all human behavior is acquired in such a manner. All that is needed to control behavior is to control the environment surrounding humans. Strength of Conditioning and Classical Aversive Conditioning Does the timing of presentation of the NS and US matter in establishing the association for classical conditioning? Different experimental procedures have tried to determine the best presentation time for the NS and the UCS, so that the NS becomes the CS. Delayed conditioning occurs when the NS is presented just before the UCS, with a brief overlap between the two. Trace conditioning occurs when the NS is presented and then disappears before the UCS appears. Simultaneous conditioning occurs when the UCS and the NS are paired together at the same time. In backward conditioning, the UCS comes before the NS. In general, delayed conditioning produces the strongest conditioning, trace conditioning produces moderately strong conditioning, simultaneous conditioning produces weak conditioning, and backward conditioning produces no conditioning except in unusual cases. A pregnant woman who vomits hours after eating a burrito often will not eat a burrito again, which is a case of rare backward conditioning. The strength of the UCS and the saliency of the CS in determining how long acquisition takes have also been researched. In the 1920s, John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner conditioned a nine-month-old infant known as Baby 3

4 Albert to fear a rat. Their research would probably be considered unethical today. The UCS in the experiment was a loud noise made by hitting a steel rod with a hammer. Immediately Albert began to cry, a UCR. Two months later, the infant was given a harmless rat to play with. As soon as Albert went to reach for the rat (NS), the loud noise (UCS) was sounded again. Baby Albert began to cry (UCR). A week later, the rat (CS) was reintroduced to Albert and without any additional pairings with the loud noise, Albert cried (CR) and tried to crawl away. Graphs of the learning curve in most classical conditioning experiments show a steady upward trend over many trials until the CS-UCS connection occurs, but when an unconditioned stimulus is strong and the neutral stimulus is striking or salient, classical conditioning can occur in a single trial. Because the loud noise (UCS) was so strong and the white rat (CS) was salient, which means very noticeable, the connection between the two took only one trial of pairing for Albert to acquire the new CR of fear of the rat (CS). This experiment is also important because it shows how phobias and other human emotions might develop in humans through classical conditioning. Conditioning involves an unpleasant or harmful unconditioned stimulus or reinforcer, such as this conditioning of Baby Albert, is called aversive conditioning. Unfortunately, Watson and Rayner did not get a chance to rid Baby Albert of his phobia of the rat. In classical conditioning, if the CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS, eventually the CS loses its ability to elicit the CR. Removal of the UCS breaks the connection and extinction, weakening of the conditioned association, occurs. If Watson had continued to present the rat (CS) and taken away the fear-inducing noise (UCS), eventually Baby Albert would probably have lost his fear of the rat. Although not fully understood by behaviorists, sometimes the extinguished response will show up again later without the repairing of the UCS and the CS. This phenomenon is called spontaneous recovery. If Baby Albert had stopped crying whenever the rat appeared, but 2 months later saw another rat and began to cry, he would have been displaying spontaneous recovery. Sometimes a CR needs to be extinguished several times before the association is completely broken. Generalization occurs when stimuli similar to the CS also elicit the CR without any training. For example, when Baby Albert saw a furry white rabbit, he also showed a fear response. Discrimination occurs when only the CS produces the CR. People and other organisms can learn to discriminate between similar stimuli if the US is consistently paired with only the CS. In Operant Conditioning, an active subject voluntarily emits behaviors and can learn new behaviors. The connection is made between the behavior and its consequence, whether pleasant or not. Many more behaviors can be learned in operant conditioning because they do not rely on a limited number of reflexes. You can learn to sing, dance, or play an instrument as well as study or clean your room through operant conditioning. Thorndike s Instrumental Conditioning About the same time that Pavlov was classically conditioning dogs, E.L. Thorndike was conducting experiments with hungry cats. He put the cats in puzzle boxes and placed fish outside. To get to the fish, the cats had to step up on a pedal, which released the door bolt on the box. Through trial and error, the cats moved about the box and clawed at the door. Accidentally at first, they stepped on the pedal and were able to get the reward of the fish. A learning curve shows that the time it took the cats to escape gradually fell. The random movements disappeared until the cat learned that just stepping on the pedal caused the door to open. Thorndike called this instrumental learning, a form of associative learning in which a behavior becomes more or less probable depending on its consequences. He studied how the cats actions were instrumental or 4

5 important in producing the consequences. His Law of Effect states that behaviors followed by satisfying or positive consequences are strengthened (more likely to occur), while behaviors followed by annoying or negative consequences are weakened (less likely to occur). Operant Conditioning (OC). Instead of antecedents of behavior (what comes before) a new focus on consequences of behavior. BF Skinner argued that, CC did not explain complex behavior. 2 categories of consequences: Reinforcement & Punishment: Reinforcement is designed to increase the probability that a behavior will occur again. Punishment is designed to decrease the probability that a behavior will occur again. (see Premack) Positive reinforcement - when something is given (apply an aversive stimulus). Negative reinforcement - when something is removed (remove an aversive stimulus). Skinner - punishment should be judicious, immediate, consistent, & severe enough actually to be a punishment. Efficient systems of reinforcement: 1. Fixed-interval - after a certain time has gone by - reinforce. 2. Fixed-ratio - after a certain fixed number of behaviors have been emitted - reinforce. 3. Variable-interval - reinforce after time has gone by, but the amount of time between reinforces varies. 4. Variable-ratio - reinforce after a number of behaviors have been emitted, but the numbers of behaviors required for reinforcement varies. 5. Extinction - when reinforcement schedule is fixed-ratio, behavior is performed until reinforcement is stopped. (variable schedule will correct) 6. Shaping - reinforcement by watching others vicariously. 7. Imitative learning or social learning - Bandura showed in several studies that both reinforcement and punishment influence an observer's subsequent behavior. Essential Questions: 1. Every time a tone sounds, Diana has a puff of air blown into her eyes. This causes Diana to twitch. After a while, she twitches as soon as the tone sounds. The twitching that is caused by the air puff is called. (A) the conditioned stimulus (B) the unconditioned response (C) the unconditioned stimulus (D) the conditioned response 2. Every time Mario does well on his report card, his parents take him out for ice cream. This is an example of. (A) negative reinforcement (B) negative punishment (C) positive punishment (D) positive reinforcement 5

6 3. Heidi is interested in helping her daughter learn manners. Each time her daughter says something that is close to appropriate, Heidi rewards her. Eventually, her daughter should learn good manners. This is an example of. (A) habituation (B) positive reinforcement (C) generalization (D) shaping 4. If a dog named Gryff is provided with reinforcement after every 10 commands that his owner gives to him, the schedule is called. (A) fixed-ordinal (B) fixed- interval (C) variable-interval(d) fixed-ratio 5. An example of a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is. (A) a dog getting a treat every time it sits on command (B) winning money at a slot machine (C) getting paid each widget you sell (D) being paid by the week 6. Aidan is eating a 5 Guys Burger and Fries cheeseburger. Shortly after eating the burger, he comes down with the flu. After this, Aidan hates eating burgers. Even the thought of any cheeseburgers makes him sick. In this example, the flu is. (A) generalized (B) the unconditioned response (C) the unconditional stimulus (D) the conditioned stimulus 7. Tom is given candy each time he studies for an hour. Eventually, his parents observe an increase in studying behavior for Tom. This is an example of. (A) positive reinforcement (B) negative punishment (C) positive punishment (D) shaping 8. The tendency for stimuli similar to a conditioned stimulus to elicit the conditioned response is referred to as. (A) response bias (B) generalization (C) extinction (D) priming 9. According to Skinner, punishment is effective only under very specific conditions. Which of the following is one of these conditions? (A) the punishment is mild (B) the punishment is delayed (C) the punishment is threatened but not given (D) the punishment immediately follows the behavior 10. An example of positive punishment is. (A) time out (B) spanking (C) taking away privileges (D) removing chores 11. An example of negative reinforcement is. (A) receiving candy (B) spanking (C) taking away privileges (D) removing chores 12. One of the biggest differences between negative reinforcement and punishment is that. (A) only punishment involves the use of aversive stimuli (B) only negative reinforcement involves the use of aversive stimuli (C) negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of a desired behavior (D) negative reinforcement decreases the likelihood of a desired behavior 13. According to Skinner, the most important environmental aspect that controls human behavior is the. (A) antecedents of the behavior (B) consequences of the behavior (C) strength of the behavior 14. Witnessing the reinforcement of someone else's behavior has been found to increase the likelihood of that behavior in the witness. This is referred to as. (A) differential reinforcement (B) shaping (C) vicarious reinforcement (D) habituation 15. The person responsible for developing the framework of classical conditioning was. (A) Pavlov (B) Watson (C) Skinner (D) Bandura 16. After having been struck by a car, a dog now exhibits fear response every time a car approaches. The dog also exhibits a fear response to the approach of a bus, a truck, a bicycle, and even a child s wagon. The dog has undergone a process of (A) stimulus discrimination (B) stimulus generalization (C) spontaneous recovery (D) backward conditioning 17. The psychologist who was responsible for developing the framework for operant conditioning was. (A) Pavlov (B) Skinner (C) Watson (D) Bandura 18. In a classic study, John Watson demonstrated that he could create fear in a child in response to a neutral stimulus (a rat). By pairing the rat with a fear-inducing stimulus (a loud noise), the child eventually became fearful of related stimuli. That is called. (A) habituation (B) spontaneous recovery (C) unconditioned stimulus (D) generalization 6

7 19. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning differ in that classical conditioning deals with behavior. (A) Classical conditioning deals with voluntary behavior. (B) Operant conditioning deals with reflexive behavior. (C) Classical conditioning deals with shaping. (D) Classical conditioning deals with reflexive behavior. 20. Getting paid a piecework at (x dollars per item made) is an example of schedule of reinforcement. (A) Habituation (B) Fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. (C) Variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement. (D) Fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement. 21. Kohler s studies involving problem solving in chimpanzees are associated with (A) negative reinforcement (B) positive reinforcement (C) insight learning (D) vicarious reinforcement 22. According to Albert Bandura, observational learning can occur even in the absence of (A) observed consequences of behavior (B) direct attention to the behavior (C) retention of the observed behavior over time (D) ability to reproduce the behavior 23. In the Little Albert experiment conducted by John B. Watson, the white rat, prior to conditioning, served as what? (A) Neural stimulus (NS) (B) Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) (C) Unconditioned response (UCR) (D) Conditioned stimulus (CS) (E) Conditioned response (CR) 24. Jake is training his dog to sit on command. Jake gives his dog a treat every time the dog sits. Which type of reinforcement schedule is Jake displaying? (A) Partial reinforcement (B) Continuous reinforcement (C) Fixed-interval reinforcement (D) Variable-interval reinforcement 25. Lian has an intense phobia of birds. Her psychologist believes that in order to alleviate her phobia, Lian must be placed in a room where she is surrounded by birds. Lian s therapist believes in the effectiveness of what type of phobia- reduction technique? (A) Systematic desensitization (B) Counterconditioning (C) Flooding (D) Second-order conditioning 7

Chapter 6. Chapter 6 Preview. What is Learning? Learning defined

Chapter 6. Chapter 6 Preview. What is Learning? Learning defined Learning defined Chapter 6 Learning and Behavior Analysis Chapter 6 Preview The Study of Learning Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals Operant Conditioning: Learning About Consequences

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 10: Operant & Cognitive Approaches. Module 10. Operant & Cognitive Approaches

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 10: Operant & Cognitive Approaches. Module 10. Operant & Cognitive Approaches Module 10 Operant & Cognitive Approaches OPERANT CONDITIONING Thorndike s law of effect states that behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative consequences

More information

Chapter 7: Learning. Learning. Learning. PSY 110: General Psychology

Chapter 7: Learning. Learning. Learning. PSY 110: General Psychology Chapter 7: Learning PSY 110: General Psychology Learning Monkeys beginning to wash their food before they eat it The rituals that athletes perform before/during contests Birds learning to flutter their

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7 1 Chapter in Review 1. Learning is difficult to define, but most psychologists would agree that: In learning the organism acquires some new knowledge or behavior as a result of experience; learning can

More information

Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning

Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning Chapter Summary Definitions Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. A stimulus is anything that comes in through your senses.

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience Classical Conditioning Type of learning where a stimulus gains the power to cause a response The stimulus

More information

Test Review Chapter 7

Test Review Chapter 7 Name: Test Review Chapter 7 Period: 1. An unconditioned stimulus: A) becomes a response to the conditioned stimulus. B) causes the conditioning to happen. C) is a previously neutral response that becomes

More information

Phobias: Irrational fears of specific objects or situations, often the result of a type of learning called classical conditioning

Phobias: Irrational fears of specific objects or situations, often the result of a type of learning called classical conditioning PSYC 1001 Page 1 Chapter 6 Phobias: Irrational fears of specific objects or situations, often the result of a type of learning called classical conditioning Learning: A relatively durable change in behaviour

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 9: Classical Conditioning. Module 9. Classical Conditioning

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 9: Classical Conditioning. Module 9. Classical Conditioning Module 9 Classical Conditioning THREE KINDS OF LEARNING 1. Classical conditioning a kind of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response that was originally produced

More information

Visualizing Psychology

Visualizing Psychology Visualizing Psychology by Siri Carpenter & Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 6: Learning Siri Carpenter, Yale University Karen Huffman, Palomar College Lecture Overview Classical

More information

Definition Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience.

Definition Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience. EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition) David Myers Chapter 7 How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Operant Conditioning Skinner s Experiments Contrasting Classical & Operant Conditioning

More information

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Association *We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years

More information

2. Which of the following would be an example of second-order conditioning?

2. Which of the following would be an example of second-order conditioning? Princeton-Learning 1. After having been struck by a car, a dog now exhibits fear response every time a car approaches. The dog also exhibits a fear response to the approach of a bus, a truck, a bicycle,

More information

Welcome to Psychology, The First Assessment

Welcome to Psychology, The First Assessment Your first assessment task begins here!! Below you will find some reading about an approach in psychology called behaviourism. This is not the only type of psychology that we will consider but it was one

More information

Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? learning Conditioning II. Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli Ivan Pavlov

Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? learning Conditioning II. Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli Ivan Pavlov Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? A. Psychologists define learning as a process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of an individual s experience.

More information

Chapter Outline. Learning. Ch. 6 Learning and Behavior General Psychology Jeffrey D. Leitzel, Ph.D.

Chapter Outline. Learning. Ch. 6 Learning and Behavior General Psychology Jeffrey D. Leitzel, Ph.D. Ch. 6 Learning and Behavior General Psychology Jeffrey D. Leitzel, Ph.D. Chapter Outline Types of Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning 2 Learning Learning: Relatively

More information

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Chapter 7 Learning Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Association We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence

More information

Psychology Teach Yourself Series Topic 10: Learning Theories

Psychology Teach Yourself Series Topic 10: Learning Theories Psychology Teach Yourself Series Topic 10: Learning Theories A: Level 14, 474 Flinders Street Melbourne VIC 3000 T: 1300 134 518 W: tssm.com.au E: info@tssm.com.au TSSM 2013 Page 1 of 6 Contents Learning

More information

GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION

GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING LEARNING LEARNING= Is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience Some behaviours are learnt, but

More information

5) A reinforcer that removes something unpleasant from a situation is a(n) reinforcer. A) negative B) secondary C) positive D) primary

5) A reinforcer that removes something unpleasant from a situation is a(n) reinforcer. A) negative B) secondary C) positive D) primary CH 5 review Name If you haven't outlined the chapter in its entirety, please do so by Jan 1. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A

More information

Learning. Classical Conditioning. Neutral stimulus (NS)- a stimulus that does not cause a response. Before Conditioning

Learning. Classical Conditioning. Neutral stimulus (NS)- a stimulus that does not cause a response. Before Conditioning Term Explanation Application/Example/Extension Classical conditioning is a type of learning where a previously neutral stimulus that is continuously paired with an unconditioned stimulus (a natural stimulus

More information

Slide 1: What is Learning? Learning- a relatively durable change in behavior that is due to experience.

Slide 1: What is Learning? Learning- a relatively durable change in behavior that is due to experience. Slide 1: What is? - a relatively durable change in behavior that is due to experience. Common examples- Language Sports Mastery Social Behavior Reading etc Types of to be studied Observational (Bandura)-

More information

CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE OF BSc. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE OF BSc. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE OF BSc. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Learning may be defined as a change in behavior that occurs

More information

Section One: Classical Conditioning

Section One: Classical Conditioning Operational Definitions Learning Learning Page 1 of 8 o A relatively change in behavior (or behavior potential) due to Behaviorism experience o Research on learning has been influenced by this approach

More information

Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions

Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions #1) Describe Pavlov's demonstration of classical conditioning and the key elements in this form of learning (pp 170 171) What is classical conditioning?

More information

Module 26: How We Learn and Classical Conditioning (pg ) Learning: What does it mean that we learn by association? Habituation: o Example:

Module 26: How We Learn and Classical Conditioning (pg ) Learning: What does it mean that we learn by association? Habituation: o Example: Koch AP Psych Unit VI Reading Guide Learning Module 26: How We Learn and Classical Conditioning (pg. 262-274) Learning: What does it mean that we learn by association? Habituation: Associative Learning:

More information

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience. It is a continuous process. It is a gradual process.

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience. It is a continuous process. It is a gradual process. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience. It is a continuous process. It is a gradual process. Process of Learning A stimulus could be an event, situation,

More information

LEARNING MEYERS AND DEWALL CHAPTER 6

LEARNING MEYERS AND DEWALL CHAPTER 6 LEARNING MEYERS AND DEWALL CHAPTER 6 LEARNING OVERVIEW HOW DO WE LEARN? CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OPERANT CONDITIONING BIOLOGY, COGNITION, AND LEARNING LEARNING BY OBSERVATION LEARNING Learning the process

More information

Classical Conditioning Notes by Dr. Ilija Gallego. The Simplest Type of Learning: Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Notes by Dr. Ilija Gallego. The Simplest Type of Learning: Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning Classical Conditioning Notes by Dr. Ilija Gallego The Simplest Type of Learning: Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning Classical conditioning is based on Stimulus > Response A stimulus in anything you can

More information

Introduction to Learning. Chapter 1

Introduction to Learning. Chapter 1 Introduction to Learning Chapter 1 A Definition of Learning Learning is: An experiential process Resulting in a relatively permanent change Not explained by temporary states, maturation, or innate response

More information

Programmed Learning Review

Programmed Learning Review Programmed Learning Review L-HO1-121907 Take another sheet of paper and cover the answers located in the right hand column. Then read through the unit filling in the blanks as you go. After filling in

More information

Chapter 5 CC (Classical Conditioning) Practice "Quiz" Name Period Date

Chapter 5 CC (Classical Conditioning) Practice Quiz Name Period Date Chapter 5 CC (Classical Conditioning) Practice "Quiz" Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Conditioned taste aversions

More information

UNIT 6: LEARNING. 6. When the US is presented prior to a neutral stimulus, conditioning DOES NOT (does/does not) occur.

UNIT 6: LEARNING. 6. When the US is presented prior to a neutral stimulus, conditioning DOES NOT (does/does not) occur. UNIT 6: LEARNING HOW DO WE LEARN? OBJECTIVE 1: Define learning, and identify two forms of learning. 1. A relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience is called LEARNING. 2. More

More information

UNIT 6: LEARNING A. SIMPLE FORMS OF LEARNING

UNIT 6: LEARNING A. SIMPLE FORMS OF LEARNING UNIT 6: LEARNING Learning: Stressing the lasting change/permanent Behaviorist Psychologists vs. Cognitive Psychologists Behavioral: Learning only occurs with behavior since they can observe behavior. Cognitive:

More information

Skinner and Operant Conditioning. Slide One:

Skinner and Operant Conditioning. Slide One: Skinner and Operant Conditioning Slide One: Two characteristics help us distinguish between the two forms of associative learning. As you learned in classical conditioning, the organism learns associations

More information

Learning CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER OUTLINE

Learning CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER OUTLINE CHAPTER 5 Learning CHAPTER OUTLINE Adaptation is adjustment to changes in the environment. The process of development, from birth to death, involves adapting to increasingly complex, ever-changing environments,

More information

Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience

Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience 1 Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience What are some ways that you learn? Seeing Doing Associating Other ways? 3 Unlike some animals we are not necessarily born with a

More information

Study Test Chapter 6. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Study Test Chapter 6. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: _ Date: _ Study Test Chapter 6 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is

More information

Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date

Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Thorndike was known for his

More information

Psychology Dr. Saman Lecture 2 - Learning

Psychology Dr. Saman Lecture 2 - Learning Psychology Dr. Saman Lecture 2 - Learning Learning refers to relatively permanent changes in behavior resulting from practice or experience Observation can lead to learning Learning requires an operational

More information

Learning: Classical Conditioning

Learning: Classical Conditioning Learning: Classical Conditioning Outline Learning Overview Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov & his dogs Watson Terminology Applications Transitioning from classical conditioning to operant conditioning

More information

Learning. Relatively permanent behavior change that is acquired through experience

Learning. Relatively permanent behavior change that is acquired through experience Learning Relatively permanent behavior change that is acquired through experience Learning vs Maturation Not all behavior change is best described as learning Maturation (neuromuscular development) usually

More information

HONORS PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW QUESTIONS

HONORS PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW QUESTIONS HONORS PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW QUESTIONS The purpose of these review questions is to help you assess your grasp of the facts and definitions covered in your textbook. Knowing facts and definitions is necessary

More information

Psychology Unit 5 Test

Psychology Unit 5 Test Psychology Unit 5 Test 1 Choose the best answer. (2 pts each). Psychology Unit 5 Test 1. Twenty years after graduating, a subject is able to correctly identify photographs of students she attended high

More information

Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning

Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning Psychology Behavior 01 Notes Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning Behaviorism is essentially the study of how we learn. Humans are different from many animals in that we possess very little instinct, or

More information

A. Learning Process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior.

A. Learning Process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior. Woolfolk, A. (2010). Chapter 6: Behavioral Views of Learning. In A. Woolfook (Ed.), Educational psychology (11th ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. This chapter begins by defining learning and

More information

Behavioral Principles. S-R Learning. Pavlov & Classical Conditioning 12/2/2009

Behavioral Principles. S-R Learning. Pavlov & Classical Conditioning 12/2/2009 Behavioral Principles S-R Learning Classical conditioning The most basic form of learning; one stimulus comes to serve as a signal for the occurrence of a second stimulus (the response) Stimulus a physical

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7 1 Chapter Test 1. Knowing how to do something, like drive a car or play a sport, is referred to as a. explicit knowledge b. behavioral knowledge c. procedural knowledge d. implicit knowledge 2. All of

More information

What is learning? - I

What is learning? - I What is learning? - I Learning is a continuous process of interaction between an organism and its environment. Learning involves the perception and processing of information at a number of levels. At a

More information

A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING

A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING Chapter 10 Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning: The Story of Dogs and Little Albert A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING As you read below you may come to think that behavioral learning theories seem

More information

Learning Theories 4- Behaviorism

Learning Theories 4- Behaviorism LEARNING THEORIES - BEHAVIORISM CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER Learning Theories 4- Behaviorism LEARNING OUTCOMES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain the principles of classical conditioning,

More information

Practice. PSYCHOLOGY Practice

Practice. PSYCHOLOGY Practice PSYCHOLOGY Practice Practice Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill

More information

Learning. Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. Permanent Experience Practice

Learning. Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. Permanent Experience Practice Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice Permanent Experience Practice Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian Physiologist Father= Village Priest Father-in-law=

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning CHAPTER 8 Classical Conditioning 131. A group of ranchers attempts to discourage coyotes from attacking their sheep by placing a substance on the wool of the sheep that makes coyotes violently ill if they

More information

Learning from Experience. Definition of Learning. Psychological definition. Pavlov: Classical Conditioning

Learning from Experience. Definition of Learning. Psychological definition. Pavlov: Classical Conditioning Learning from Experience Overview Understanding Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning Definition of Learning Permanent change Change in behavior or knowledge Learning

More information

CHAPTER TEN. SKINNER AND STAATS: The Challenge of Behaviorism 10/14/08. Personality Psychology. Chapter Overview. Chapter Overview

CHAPTER TEN. SKINNER AND STAATS: The Challenge of Behaviorism 10/14/08. Personality Psychology. Chapter Overview. Chapter Overview Personality Psychology Psychology 370 Sheila K. Grant, Ph.D. Professor California State University, Northridge CHAPTER TEN SKINNER AND STAATS: The Challenge of Behaviorism Chapter Overview RADICAL BEHAVIORISM:

More information

During this unit, we will be looking at the following topics:

During this unit, we will be looking at the following topics: Unit 5: Learning and Conditioning For many species, including of course human beings, the ability to survive depends upon our ability to modify our behavior based upon experience. In other words, our survival

More information

Chapter 5. Learning. Outline

Chapter 5. Learning. Outline Chapter 5 Learning Outline I. What Is Learning? A. Learning is demonstrated by a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as the result of practice or experience. 1. Learning cannot be observed

More information

Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning

Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning Understanding Learning The ABC s of Behavior Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Classroom Behavioral Interventions Problems & Issues Applied Behavior

More information

Today. Learning. Learning. What is Learning? The Biological Basis. Hebbian Learning in Neurons

Today. Learning. Learning. What is Learning? The Biological Basis. Hebbian Learning in Neurons Today Learning What is Learning? Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Intro Psychology Georgia Tech Instructor: Dr. Bruce Walker What is Learning? Depends on your purpose and perspective Could be

More information

Learning. Learning. Associations 2/2/11. Classical Conditioning

Learning. Learning. Associations 2/2/11. Classical Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning Learning Any relatively permanent change in the behavior, thoughts, and feelings of an organism Learning differs from reflex Our minds naturally connect events appearing

More information

Classical Conditioning. Classical and Operant Conditioning. Basic effect. Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning. Classical and Operant Conditioning. Basic effect. Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Classical and Operant Conditioning January 16, 2001 Reminder of Basic Effect What makes for effective conditioning? How does classical conditioning work? Classical Conditioning Reflex-basic

More information

Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning

Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning CHAPTER 9 Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning 151. What is one major difference between operant conditioning and classical conditioning? (A) Operant conditioning takes place as a result of some

More information

Unit VI: Learning. Ms. Justice AP Psychology

Unit VI: Learning. Ms. Justice AP Psychology Unit VI: Learning Ms. Justice AP Psychology 2014-2015 Unit VI - Overview 26 How We Learn & Classical Conditioning 27 Operant Conditioning 28 Operant Conditioning s Applications, and Comparison to Classical

More information

IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES

IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES PAVLOV THORNDIKE SKINNER PAVLOV S CLASSICAL CONDITIONING I. Introduction: Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a Russian Physiologist who won Nobel Prize

More information

Behaviorism & Education

Behaviorism & Education Behaviorism & Education Early Psychology (the use of nonobjective methods such as Introspection) Learning = behavior change movement toward objective methods Behaviorism Pavlov, Skinner (Focus on Sà R)

More information

REVISION NOTES. Intermediate 1 & 2 Psychology LEARNING THEORIES. Understanding the Individual

REVISION NOTES. Intermediate 1 & 2 Psychology LEARNING THEORIES. Understanding the Individual Intermediate 1 & 2 Psychology Understanding the Individual LEARNING THEORIES REVISION NOTES 1 www.curriculumpress.co.uk Number 55 Psychology Factsheets s 2 3 4 OPERANT CONDITIONING Trial and Error Learning

More information

Psychology of Learning

Psychology of Learning Classical Conditioning Pavlov and the Dogs Little Albert UCS UCR Neutral stimulus CS CR Stimulus discrimination Stimulus generalization Extinction Spontaneous recovery Conditioned compensatory response

More information

The Behavioral Approach

The Behavioral Approach The Behavioral Approach It s all about observable behavior! In order to understand another person, you must simply understand the consequences he/she experienced during a lifetime. Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner

More information

Psychology Basics Pavlovian Conditioning

Psychology Basics Pavlovian Conditioning Psychology Basics Pavlovian Conditioning DATE: 1890's forward TYPE OF PSYCHOLOGY: Learning FIELDS OF STUDY: Pavlovian conditioning Pavlovian conditioning is a basic process of learning that relates especially

More information

GCSE Psychology Learning

GCSE Psychology Learning GCSE Psychology Learning Student: Tutor: Unit 2: Understanding other people 1 Learning What is classical conditioning? What do we mean when we say we have learnt something? Read the statements below and

More information

Classical Conditioning I

Classical Conditioning I Classical Conditioning I Pavlov s Discovery Basic Procedure Acquisition, Extinction, And Spontaneous Recovery Ivan Pavlov Russian Physiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 for work on the role of the nervous system

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Classical Conditioning Module 21 2 Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn?

More information

Outline. General Psychology PSYC 200. Definition. Habituation. Habituation. Classical Conditioning 3/17/2015. Learning

Outline. General Psychology PSYC 200. Definition. Habituation. Habituation. Classical Conditioning 3/17/2015. Learning /17/015 General Psychology PSYC 00 Outline 0) Definition of Learning 1) Habituation ) Classical Conditioning ) Operant Conditioning Learning Definition Learning = change in behavior or thought as a result

More information

Behavioural Therapy A GUIDE TO COUNSELLING THERAPIES (DVD) Published by: J & S Garrett Pty Ltd ACN 068 751 440

Behavioural Therapy A GUIDE TO COUNSELLING THERAPIES (DVD) Published by: J & S Garrett Pty Ltd ACN 068 751 440 Behavioural Therapy A GUIDE TO COUNSELLING THERAPIES (DVD) Published by: J & S Garrett Pty Ltd ACN 068 751 440 All Case Histories in this text are presented as examples only and any comparison which might

More information

How do we Learn? How do you know you ve learned something? CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is learning? What is Classical Conditioning? Chapter 6 Learning

How do we Learn? How do you know you ve learned something? CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is learning? What is Classical Conditioning? Chapter 6 Learning How do we Learn? Chapter 6 Learning CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is learning? What is Classical Conditioning? How do you know you ve learned something? 1 Can our beliefs and attitudes be a result of learning??

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning What is Classical Conditioning and how does it work... Conditioning involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism's environment. Classical Conditioning

More information

LEARNING. Chapter 6 (Bernstein), pages 194-229

LEARNING. Chapter 6 (Bernstein), pages 194-229 LEARNING Chapter 6 (Bernstein), pages 194-229 What is LEARNING? LEARNING is the adaptive process through which experience modifies preexisting behavior and understanding; relatively permanent change in

More information

Chapter 11: Behaviorism: After the Founding Dr. Rick Grieve PSY 495 History and Systems Western Kentucky University Neobehaviorism

Chapter 11: Behaviorism: After the Founding Dr. Rick Grieve PSY 495 History and Systems Western Kentucky University Neobehaviorism Chapter 11: Behaviorism: After the Founding Dr. Rick Grieve PSY 495 History and Systems Western Kentucky University Neobehaviorism Operationism Operationism: the doctrine that a physical concept can be

More information

The Adaptive Mind 4/15/15. Reflexes. Instincts. Reflexes are simple, inflexible (we can t stop them), and are not learned through experience.

The Adaptive Mind 4/15/15. Reflexes. Instincts. Reflexes are simple, inflexible (we can t stop them), and are not learned through experience. The Adaptive Mind What Is Classical Conditioning? What Is Operant Conditioning? What Is Observational Learning? Reflexes Reflexes are simple, inflexible (we can t stop them), and are not learned through

More information

Animal learning is often subdivided in several categories:

Animal learning is often subdivided in several categories: Experiences change the way we perceive, perform, think and plan. They do so physically by changing the structure of the nervous system, alternating neural circuits that participate in perceiving, performing,

More information

Learning UNIT 6 UNIT PREVIEW UNIT GUIDE

Learning UNIT 6 UNIT PREVIEW UNIT GUIDE UNIT 6 Learning UNIT PREVIEW Learning helps us adapt to our environment. Pavlov explored classical conditioning, in which we learn to anticipate events, such as being fed or experiencing pain. In his famous

More information

Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.

Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Content Outline Lesson 1 Attributes of Learning and Classical Conditioning I. Attributes of learning Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.

More information

Learning It is all about Change. Important terms in Classical Conditioning. John Watson and Little Albert Jones Conditioning Emotional Responses

Learning It is all about Change. Important terms in Classical Conditioning. John Watson and Little Albert Jones Conditioning Emotional Responses Learning It is all about Change Humans as well as animals have instincts. Relatively consistent reactions to some stimuli or events in our environments. But it would not be adaptive to have all our responses

More information

FREEDOM FROM DECISION The Psychology of B.F. Skinner. science. Many times while learning science, students are exposed to the notion that

FREEDOM FROM DECISION The Psychology of B.F. Skinner. science. Many times while learning science, students are exposed to the notion that FREEDOM FROM DECISION The Psychology of B.F. Skinner Adam Gallagher Learning Objectives The overall objective of this module is to illustrate the progression of an idea in science. Many times while learning

More information

Term paper. PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since Charles Darwin ( )

Term paper. PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since Charles Darwin ( ) PSY 3360 / CGS 3325 Historical Perspectives on Psychology Minds and Machines since 1600 Dr. Peter Assmann Summer 2016 Term paper Due next Thursday (July 21) by midnight Upload your term paper to E-Learning:

More information

Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning Classical conditioning Video clips http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/videos/view/ 20609/ 2 and a half men clip http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ja96fba- WHk Big Bang theory clip positive reinforcement http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/_hotpotatoes/

More information

Operant Conditioning. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Human Development and Learning

Operant Conditioning. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Human Development and Learning Operant Conditioning EDS 248 Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D.,NCSP Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning (R S RF ) A voluntary response (R) is followed by a reinforcing stimulus (S RF ) As a result,

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Chapter 5 Learning Classical Conditioning Learning relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience Behaviorism emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as determinant

More information

STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Identify the two types of conditioning shown by behaviorists to explain human behavior.

STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Identify the two types of conditioning shown by behaviorists to explain human behavior. PS1050i NAU Introduction to Psychology Student Study Guide Chapter 7 & 10 Week Seven Page 1 CHAPTER SEVEN: Learning and Conditioning STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES Identify the two types of conditioning

More information

Exposure Therapy Primer. Classical Conditioning. History Pavlov s Dogs. Learning through associations (3 Steps)

Exposure Therapy Primer. Classical Conditioning. History Pavlov s Dogs. Learning through associations (3 Steps) Exposure Therapy Primer Classical Conditioning Learning through associations (3 Steps) Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response (UCSUCR) Conditioned Stimulus + Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned

More information

John Watson: Little Albert Study

John Watson: Little Albert Study Three Types of Learning Learning Chapter 6 Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Observational learning John Watson: Little Albert Study Pavlov Classical Conditioning Neutral Stimulus (NS) Unconditioned

More information

Psychology Ciccarelli and White

Psychology Ciccarelli and White 1 Psychology Ciccarelli and White What is Learning? -Any relatively permanent change in behavior based on experience or practice Chapter Five: Learning -Learning is not maturation. Maturation is change

More information

Chapter 9 - Escape, Avoidance & Punishment. Lecture Outline

Chapter 9 - Escape, Avoidance & Punishment. Lecture Outline Chapter 9 - Escape, Avoidance & Punishment Lecture Outline Escape & avoidance Two-factor theory of avoidance Avoidance conditioning & phobias Avoidance conditioning & OCD Punishment Types of punishment

More information

Chapter 15. Historical Perspective. How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory

Chapter 15. Historical Perspective. How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory Chapter 15 How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory Learning 2 stimuli events, things, or people repeatedly experienced together will eventually come to elicit the same

More information

Classical vs. Operant Conditioning

Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning (R S RF ) A voluntary response (R) is followed by a reinforcing stimulus (S RF ) The voluntary response is more likely to be emitted by the organism.

More information

Why do people like extra credit?

Why do people like extra credit? Why do people like extra credit? CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is Operant Conditioning? Ch.6-Learning 1 Classical Conditioning was a good start but B. F. Skinner believed that more behaviors can be explained

More information

AP Psychology-Leaning Mod Practice Exam Final Page 1 Choose the best response to each question.

AP Psychology-Leaning Mod Practice Exam Final Page 1 Choose the best response to each question. AP Psychology-Leaning Mod Practice Exam Final Page 1 Choose the best response to each question. 1.To be effective in promoting observational learning, models should be: A) successful. D) consistent in

More information

Operant Conditioning. Skinner and Thorndike

Operant Conditioning. Skinner and Thorndike Operant Conditioning Skinner and Thorndike Operant Conditioning Organisms learn to do things, or not to do things, because of the consequences of their behavior Example: Avoid M&M s because they made you

More information