1 UNIT 6 Learning UNIT PREVIEW Learning helps us adapt to our environment. Pavlov explored classical conditioning, in which we learn to anticipate events, such as being fed or experiencing pain. In his famous studies, Pavlov presented a neutral stimulus just before an unconditioned stimulus, which normally triggered an unconditioned response. After several repetitions, the neutral stimulus alone began triggering a conditioned response resembling the unconditioned response. The behaviorists optimism that learning principles would generalize from one response to another and from one species to another has been tempered. We now know that conditioning principles are cognitively and biologically constrained. While in classical conditioning we learn to associate two stimuli, in operant conditioning we learn to associate a response and its consequence. Skinner showed that rats and pigeons could be shaped through reinforcement to display successively closer approximations of a desired behavior. Researchers have also studied the effects of positive and negative reinforcers, primary and conditioned reinforcers, and immediate and delayed reinforcers. Critics point to research on latent learning to support their claim that Skinner underestimated the importance of cognitive constraints. Although Skinner s emphasis on external control also stimulated much debate regarding human freedom and the ethics of managing people, his operant principles are being applied in schools, sports, the workplace, and homes. A third type of learning that is important among higher animals is what Albert Bandura calls observational learning. Children tend to imitate what a model does and says, whether the behavior is prosocial or antisocial. Research suggests that violence on television leads to aggressive behavior by children and teenagers who watch the programs. UNIT GUIDE Introductory Exercise: Fact or Falsehood? Exercise: Defining Learning 1. Define learning, and identify three forms of learning. Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience. Nature s most important gift to us may be our adaptability our capacity to learn new behaviors that enable us to cope with ever-changing experiences. 41
2 42 Unit 6 Learning How Do We Learn? Lecture: Cultural Beliefs About Learning: Mind or Virtue? Humans and other animals learn by association; our mind naturally connects events that occur in sequence. The events linked in associative learning may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning). If a stimulus occurs repeatedly, a response may diminish; in such cases, the organism habituates. In observational learning, we learn from viewing others experiences. Classical Conditioning Exercises: Classical Conditioning: Using Potato Chips and Lemonade Powder; Classical Conditioning: Preparing for an Important Event Lecture: Human Taste Aversions PsychSim 5: Classical Conditioning Feature Film: Jaws Videos: Video Clip 6 of Digital Media Archive: Psychology, 1st ed.: Pavlov s Discovery of Classical Conditioning; Module 10 of Psychology: The Human Experience: Classical Conditioning 2. Define classical conditioning and behaviorism, and describe the basic components of classical Pavlov explored the phenomenon we call classical conditioning, in which organisms learn to associate stimuli and thus anticipate events. This laid the foundation for John B. Watson s behaviorism, which held that psychology should be an objective science that studied only observable behavior. Pavlov would repeatedly present a neutral stimulus (such as a tone) just before an unconditioned stimulus (US), such as food, which triggered the unconditioned response (UR) of salivation. After several repetitions, the tone alone (now the conditioned stimulus [CS]) began triggering a conditioned response (CR), salivation. Unconditioned means unlearned ; conditioned means learned. Thus, a UR is an event that occurs naturally in response to some stimulus. A US is something that naturally and automatically triggers the unlearned response. A CS is an originally neutral stimulus that, through learning, comes to be associated with some unlearned response. A CR is the learned response to the originally neutral but now conditioned stimulus. Exercise: Classical Conditioning With a Watergun Lecture: Classical Conditioning, Implicit Self-Esteem, and Automatic Racial Prejudice Project: Conditioning the Eyeblink 3. Summarize the processes and adaptive value of acquisition, higher-order conditioning, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination. Responses are acquired that is, initially learned best when the CS is presented half a second before the US. This finding demonstrates how classical conditioning is biologically adaptive because it helps organisms prepare for good or bad events. Higher order conditioning occurs when the conditioned stimulus from one conditioning procedure is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second, often weaker, conditioned stimulus. Extinction refers to the diminishing of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus occurs repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus. Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response. Generalization is the tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus. Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other irrelevant stimuli. Generalization can be adaptive because it extends a learned response to other stimuli in a given category, for example, fearing not only moving cars but also moving trucks and motorcycles. Discrimination has adaptive value because it limits our learned responses to appropriate stimuli, for example, fleeing from a guard dog but not from a guide dog.
3 Unit 6 Learning 43 Lectures: Cognitive Processes in Learning; Biological Predispositions 4. Discuss the importance of cognitive processes and biological predispositions in classical Research indicates that, for many animals, cognitive appraisals are important for learning. That is, thoughts and perceptions are important to the conditioning process. For example, animals appear capable of learning when to expect an unconditioned stimulus. The more predictable the association between the CS and the US, the stronger the CR. For example, when repeatedly faced with traumatic events over which they have no control, people come to feel helpless, hopeless, and depressed. Psychologists call this passive resignation learned helplessness. The early behaviorists view that any natural response could be conditioned to any neutral stimulus has given way to the understanding that each species is biologically prepared to learn associations that enhance its survival. Thus, humans are likely to develop an aversion to the taste of a contaminated food but not to the sight of an associated restaurant, its plates, or the music they heard there. Similarly, rats develop aversions to tastes but not to sights or sounds. Organisms are predisposed to learn associations that help them adapt. The discovery of biological constraints affirms the value of different levels of analysis, including the biological and cognitive. Lectures: The Association Principle; Watson s Colorful History; Phobias Video: Video Clip 7 of Digital Media Archive: Psychology, 1st ed.: Watson s Little Albert Psychology Video Tool Kit: Classical Conditioning and the Immune System; Combating Lupus; Overcoming Fear 5. Summarize Pavlov s contribution to our understanding of learning and to improvements in human health and well-being. Pavlov taught us that principles of learning apply across species and that classical conditioning is one way that virtually all organisms learn to adapt to their environment. Pavlov also demonstrated that significant psychological phenomena can be studied objectively. Finally, Pavlov taught us that conditioning principles have important applications, such as how to treat fear. Classical conditioning principles provide important insights into drug abuse and how it may be overcome. Classical conditioning works on the body s disease-fighting immune system. For example, when a particular taste accompanies a drug that influences immune responses, the taste by itself may come to produce those immune responses. Watson s Little Albert study demonstrated how classical conditioning may underlie specific fears. Today, psychologists use extinction procedures or even new conditioning to change our unwanted responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. Operant Conditioning 6. Identify the two major characteristics that distinguish classical conditioning from operant The two characteristics that help us distinguish the two forms of conditioning are the following: In classical conditioning, the organism learns associations between two stimuli, and its behavior is respondent, that is, automatic. In operant conditioning, the organism learns associations between its behavior and resulting events; the organism operates on the environment. Exercise: Consideration of Future Consequences Scale Exercise/Project: A Build-It-Yourself Skinner Box Lectures: Shaping HeroRATS to Detect Land Mines and Tuberculosis; Dolphins Clear Mines in Persian Gulf Videos: Video Clip 8 of Digital Media Archive: Psychology, 1st ed.: Thorndike s Puzzle Box; Module 11 of Psychology: The Human Experience: Operant Conditioning; Video Clip 9 of Digital Media Archive: Psychology, 1st ed.: B. F. Skinner Interview PsychSim 5: Operant Conditioning ActivePsych: Digital Media Archive, 2nd ed.: The Research of Carolyn Rovee-Collier: Learning and Memory in Preverbal Infants
4 44 Unit 6 Learning 7. Describe the process of operant conditioning, including the shaping procedure. Edward Thorndike s law of effect states that rewarded behavior is likely to recur. Using this as his starting point, Skinner developed a behavioral technology that revealed principles of behavior control. He explored the principles and conditions of learning through operant conditioning, in which behavior operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli. Skinner used an operant chamber (Skinner box) in his pioneering studies with rats and pigeons. In his experiments, Skinner used shaping, a procedure in which reinforcers, such as food, guide an animal s natural behavior toward a desired behavior. By rewarding responses that are ever closer to the final desired behavior (successive approximations), and ignoring all other responses, researchers can gradually shape complex behaviors. Because nonverbal animals and babies can respond only to what they perceive, their reactions demonstrate which events they can discriminate. In such experiments, the stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement is referred to as the discriminative stimulus. Exercise: Partial Reinforcement Schedules Lecture: Examples of Negative Reinforcement 8. Identify the different types of reinforcers, and describe the major schedules of partial reinforcement. A reinforcer is any event that increases the frequency of a preceding response. Reinforcers can be positive (presenting a pleasant stimulus after a response) or negative (reducing or removing an unpleasant stimulus). Primary reinforcers, such as food when we are hungry, are innately satisfying. Conditioned (secondary) reinforcers, such as cash, are satisfying because we have learned to associate them with more basic rewards. Immediate reinforcers, such as the enjoyment of watching late-night TV, offer immediate payback. Delayed reinforcers, such as a weekly paycheck, require the ability to delay gratification. When the desired response is reinforced every time it occurs, continuous reinforcement is involved. Learning is rapid but so is extinction if rewards cease. Partial (intermittent) reinforcement produces slower acquisition of the target behavior than does continuous reinforcement, but the learning is more resistant to extinction. Reinforcement schedules may vary according to the number of responses rewarded or the time gap between responses. Fixed-ratio schedules reinforce behavior after a set number of responses; variable-ratio schedules provide reinforcers after an unpredictable number of responses. Fixed-interval schedules reinforce the first response after a fixed time interval, and variable-interval schedules reinforce the first response after varying time intervals. Reinforcement linked to number of responses produces a higher response rate than reinforcement linked to time. Variable (unpredictable) schedules produce more consistent responding than fixed (predictable) schedules. Exercises: Negative Reinforcement Versus Punishment; The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire Lectures: Physical Punishment; Using Reinforcement Versus Punishment in the Classroom 9. Discuss how punishment and negative reinforcement differ, and list some drawbacks of punishment as a behavior-control technique. Punishment attempts to decrease the frequency of a behavior. Punishment administers an undesirable consequence, for example, spanking (positive punishment) or withdrawing something desirable, such as taking away a favorite toy (negative punishment). Unlike punishment, negative reinforcement removes an aversive event (an annoying beeping sound) to increase the frequency of a behavior (fastening a seatbelt).
5 Unit 6 Learning 45 Punishment is not simply the logical opposite of reinforcement, for it can have several drawbacks, including suppressing rather than changing unwanted behaviors, teaching discrimination and fear, and increasing aggressiveness. Lectures: The Overjustification Effect; Mindful Learning Project: Modifying an Existing Behavior Project/Exercise: Conditioning the Instructor s Behavior Videos: Module 12 of Psychology: The Human Experience: Cognitive Processes in Learning; Video Clip 10 of Digital Media Archive: Psychology, 1st ed.: Cognitive Maps PsychSim 5: Maze Learning 10. Explain the importance of cognitive processes and biological predispositions in operant Rats exploring a maze seem to develop a mental representation (a cognitive map) of the maze even in the absence of reward. Their latent learning becomes evident only when there is some incentive to demonstrate it. Some learning occurs after little or no systematic interaction with our environment. For example, we may puzzle over a problem, and suddenly, the pieces fall together as we perceive the solution in a sudden flash of insight. Research indicates that people may come to see rewards, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing a task. Again, this finding demonstrates the importance of cognitive processing in learning. By undermining intrinsic motivation the desire to perform a behavior effectively and for its own sake rewards can carry hidden costs. Extrinsic motivation is the desire to perform a behavior to receive external rewards or avoid threatened punishment. A person s interest often survives when a reward is used neither to bribe nor to coerce but to signal a job well done. As with classical conditioning, an animal s natural predispositions constrain its capacity for operant Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive. Training that attempts to override these tendencies will probably not endure because the animals will revert to their biologically predisposed patterns (instinctive drift). Exercises: A Token Economy; Assessing Self-Reinforcement Lectures: Skinner s Last Days; Beyond Freedom and Dignity; Transforming Couch Potatoes With Operant Conditioning; Remote-Controlled Rats; Superstitious Behavior; Walden Two and the Twin Oaks Community 11. Describe the controversy over Skinner s views of human behavior, and identify some ways to apply operant conditioning principles at school, in sports, at work, and at home. Skinner was criticized for repeatedly insisting that external influences, not internal thoughts and feelings, shape behavior and for urging the use of operant principles to control people s behavior. Critics argue that he dehumanized people by neglecting their personal freedom and by seeking to control their actions. Skinner countered: People s behavior is already controlled by external reinforcers, so why not administer those consequences for human betterment? Operant principles have been applied in a variety of settings. For example, in schools, Web-based learning, online testing systems, and interactive student software embody the operant ideal of individualized shaping and immediate reinforcement. In sports, performance is enhanced by first reinforcing small successes and then gradually increasing the challenge. In the workplace, positive reinforcement for jobs well done has boosted employee productivity. At home, parents can reward their children s desirable behaviors and not reward those that are undesirable. To reach our personal goals, we can monitor and reinforce our own desired behaviors and cut back on incentives as the behaviors become habitual. Biofeedback, a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, has been used successfully to enable people to treat tension headaches.
6 46 Unit 6 Learning Exercise: Conditioning Honeybees, Wasps, and Fish TV Episode: The Office: Jim Conditions Dwight 12. Identify the major similarities and differences between classical and operant Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of associative learning. They both involve acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination. Both classical and operant conditioning are influenced by biological and cognitive predispositions. The two forms of learning differ in an important way. In classical conditioning, organisms associate different stimuli that they do not control and respond automatically. In operant conditioning, organisms associate their own behaviors with their consequences. Learning by Observation Video: Video Clip 11 of Digital Media Archive: Psychology, 1st ed.: Bandura s Bobo Doll Experiment PsychSim 5: Monkey See, Monkey Do ActivePsych: Digital Media Archive, 2nd ed.: Bandura on Social Learning With Clips From Original Experiment 13. Describe the process of observational learning and Bandura s findings on what determines whether we will imitate a model. Among higher animals, especially humans, learning does not occur through direct experience alone. Observational learning also plays a part. The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior is often called modeling. Mirror neurons, located in the brain s frontal lobes, demonstrate a neural basis for observational learning. Our brain s mirror neurons underlie our intensely social nature. Bandura believes that we imitate because of reinforcements and punishments those received by the model as well as by the imitator. By watching others, we learn to anticipate a behavior s consequences in situations like those we are observing. We tend to imitate models that we perceive as similar to us, successful, or admirable. Lectures: Germans Who Helped Jews Escape; Observational Learning; Media Violence and Aggression; Parents and Television Watching Project: Acquiring a Skill Through Observation Psychology Video Tool Kit: Do Video Games Teach People to Be Violent? 14. Discuss the impact of prosocial modeling and the relationship between watching violent TV and antisocial behavior. Prosocial models have prosocial effects. People who show nonviolent, helpful behavior prompt similar behavior in others. Models are most effective when their actions and words are consistent. Exposed to a hypocrite, children tend to imitate the hypocrisy by doing what the model does and saying what the model says. Research indicates that much violence shown on television goes unpunished, is portrayed as justified, and involves an attractive perpetrator. These conditions provide a recipe for a violenceviewing effect. However, correlational studies that link viewing violence with violent behavior do not indicate the direction of influence. Those who behave violently may enjoy watching violence on TV, or some third factor may cause observers both to behave violently and to prefer watching violent programs. To establish cause and effect, researchers have designed experiments in which some participants view violence and others do not. Later, given an opportunity to express violence, the people who viewed violence tend to be more aggressive and less sympathetic. In addition to imitating what they see, observers may become desensitized to brutality, whether on TV or in real life.
Skinner and Operant Conditioning Slide One: Two characteristics help us distinguish between the two forms of associative learning. As you learned in classical conditioning, the organism learns associations
UNIT 6: LEARNING HOW DO WE LEARN? OBJECTIVE 1: Define learning, and identify two forms of learning. 1. A relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience is called LEARNING. 2. More
CHAPTER 7 Learning CHAPTER 7: LEARNING How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Extending Pavlov s Understanding Pavlov s Legacy Operant Conditioning Skinner s Experiments Extending
EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition) David Myers Chapter 7 How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Operant Conditioning Skinner s Experiments Contrasting Classical & Operant Conditioning
Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Association *We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years
Module 10 Operant & Cognitive Approaches OPERANT CONDITIONING Thorndike s law of effect states that behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative consequences
Chapter 7 Learning Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Association We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence
Unit 6: Learning Introduction Learning a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience. Habituation an organism s decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it.
LEARNING MEYERS AND DEWALL CHAPTER 6 LEARNING OVERVIEW HOW DO WE LEARN? CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OPERANT CONDITIONING BIOLOGY, COGNITION, AND LEARNING LEARNING BY OBSERVATION LEARNING Learning the process
Koch AP Psych Unit VI Reading Guide Learning Module 26: How We Learn and Classical Conditioning (pg. 262-274) Learning: What does it mean that we learn by association? Habituation: Associative Learning:
Learning Processes Chapter 5: Learning Classical conditioning Behaviorism Operant conditioning Adaptation to the Environment Learning any process through which experience at one time can alter an individual
Learning Processes Chapter 5 Learning Classical conditioning Behaviorism Operant conditioning Adaptation to the Environment Learning any process through which experience at one time can alter an individual
1 Chapter in Review 1. Learning is difficult to define, but most psychologists would agree that: In learning the organism acquires some new knowledge or behavior as a result of experience; learning can
Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning Chapter Summary Definitions Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. A stimulus is anything that comes in through your senses.
Chapter Introduction : Classical Conditioning : Operant Conditioning : Social Learning Operant Conditioning Explain how operant conditioning occurs when the consequences that follow a behavior increase
Modules 18-19-20 Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Learning by Observation Vocabulary Stimulus (Plural: Stimuli): an agent (as an environmental change) that directly influences the activity
Acquisition The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. (See page 229) Associative learning Linking two stimuli, or events, that occur together. (see page
Exam 2 Results Top Score: 49 Mean: 35.80 Bimodal: 34 and 37 Median: 36 Standard Deviation: 5.81 To calculate your approximate grade, divide 49 by your score. Example: 36/49 = 73.5% = C Chapter 8 1 2 How
Operational Definitions Learning Learning Page 1 of 8 o A relatively change in behavior (or behavior potential) due to Behaviorism experience o Research on learning has been influenced by this approach
Multiple Choice 1 ) Jenna walks into her science class laboratory, and she immediately feels queasy. Today is the day her class is dissecting frogs and she is sickened by the smell of the formaldehyde.
Name: Period: Reading Guide Chapter 7: Learning How do we learn? (pp. 291-293) Before reading SURVEY pp. 291-293. Look at the pictures, tables, cartoons, read any quotations and anything else in the margins.
Learning Notes I think this is a fun lesson! Anyone with pets or children has seen how these principles are applied to behavior. Learning is more than taking classes! It changes your behavior and how you
BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE City University of New York Department of Social Sciences General Psychology: Psy100-1904 and Psy100-1405 Prof. Zorn, Adjunct Instructor-FALL 2015 Quiz on Chapter
a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience. LEARNING Learning by association; involves involuntary response & reflexive behavior CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Russian physiologist studying
How do we learn? Psych 101 Learning Learning A relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience 3 main types Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Observational learning Association
Name: Test Review Chapter 7 Period: 1. An unconditioned stimulus: A) becomes a response to the conditioned stimulus. B) causes the conditioning to happen. C) is a previously neutral response that becomes
Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? A. Psychologists define learning as a process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of an individual s experience.
Classical of Adaptation to the Environment any process through which experience at one time can alter an individual s behavior at a future time Adaptation to the Environment the process of learning the
PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Classical Conditioning Module 21 2 Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn?
Unit VI: Learning Ms. Justice AP Psychology 2014-2015 Unit VI - Overview 26 How We Learn & Classical Conditioning 27 Operant Conditioning 28 Operant Conditioning s Applications, and Comparison to Classical
Unit 6 Learning 7-9% Terms Students Make Mistakes On Unit 6 Role Playing and Learning Social Learning Theory Punishment e.g. quite gambling after loss Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning Observation
Behaviorism & Learning I. Classical Conditioning A. Ivan Pavlov B. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) C. Unconditioned Response (UCR) D. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) E. Conditioned Response (CR) F. Major conditioning
EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition) David Myers PowerPoint Slides by Aneeq Ahmad Modified by Leland Swenson 1 Learning Chapter 7 2 Learning How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Extending
PSYCHOLOGY Practice Practice Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill
AP Psych Unit 6 Practice Quiz 1. The most crucial ingredient in all learning is A) shaping. B) modeling. C) experience. D) intrinsic motivation. E) maturation. 2. If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives
Lecture 6 Learning Dr. Wan Lai Yin Sarah Dr. Chan Siu Mui Hong Kong Institute of Education Department of Psychological Studies What is Learning? Classical Conditioning Conditioned Emotional Response Stimulus
CHAPTER 5 Learning CHAPTER OUTLINE Adaptation is adjustment to changes in the environment. The process of development, from birth to death, involves adapting to increasingly complex, ever-changing environments,
Learning Consists of changes in behavior as a result of experience Types of Learning Habituation Sensitization Social Learning, (also called Modeling or Imitation) Classical Conditioning Instrumental Conditioning
PSYC 1001 Page 1 Chapter 6 Phobias: Irrational fears of specific objects or situations, often the result of a type of learning called classical conditioning Learning: A relatively durable change in behaviour
Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Billy's parents beg him not to smoke, but his parents smoke themselves. If Billy continues to smoke, he has been
PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Classical Conditioning Module 21 2 Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments
Name: Date: 1. The type of learning associated with Skinner is: A) classical conditioning. B) operant conditioning. C) respondent conditioning. D) associative learning. 2. Which of the following statements
Learning Relatively permanent behavior change that is acquired through experience Learning vs Maturation Not all behavior change is best described as learning Maturation (neuromuscular development) usually
Term Explanation Application/Example/Extension Classical conditioning is a type of learning where a previously neutral stimulus that is continuously paired with an unconditioned stimulus (a natural stimulus
Psychology Dr. Saman Lecture 2 - Learning Learning refers to relatively permanent changes in behavior resulting from practice or experience Observation can lead to learning Learning requires an operational
Unit 5: Learning and Conditioning For many species, including of course human beings, the ability to survive depends upon our ability to modify our behavior based upon experience. In other words, our survival
LEARNING YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO! Define learning.! Explain what classical conditioning is, how it works, and how it was discovered.! Describe the mechanisms of operant conditioning,
CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE OF BSc. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Learning may be defined as a change in behavior that occurs
Classical Conditioning Basic form of learning Not the most sophisticated, but important Eysenck s patient Pavlov: His background and discovery Background info Background info In any animal species, there
HONORS PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW QUESTIONS The purpose of these review questions is to help you assess your grasp of the facts and definitions covered in your textbook. Knowing facts and definitions is necessary
Chapter 6 Learning Learning is defined as any relatively permanent change in behavior that is based upon experience. It is an area of psychology that seems simple to evaluate but is in fact quite complex.
Behavioral Principles S-R Learning Classical conditioning The most basic form of learning; one stimulus comes to serve as a signal for the occurrence of a second stimulus (the response) Stimulus a physical
Links to Objectives DEFINITION OF LEARNING LO 5.1 OPERANT CONDITIONING (Part 2) LO 5.8 ling behavior and resistance LO 5.9 Behavior modification CLASSICAL CONDITIONING LO 5.2 Study of and important elements
Name: Date: Chapter 5 Quiz 1. Psychologists formally define learning as: A) a process that produces a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience. B) a process that
CHAPTER 9 Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning 151. What is one major difference between operant conditioning and classical conditioning? (A) Operant conditioning takes place as a result of some
Chapter 7: Learning PSY 110: General Psychology Learning Monkeys beginning to wash their food before they eat it The rituals that athletes perform before/during contests Birds learning to flutter their
Psychology with Mr. Duez UNIT 3 "Learning" LEARNING TARGETS If you learn only 6 things from this chapter... 1. Learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behavior based on experience. 2. Classical
/17/015 General Psychology PSYC 00 Outline 0) Definition of Learning 1) Habituation ) Classical Conditioning ) Operant Conditioning Learning Definition Learning = change in behavior or thought as a result
Quiz Learning Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Graded exposure in imagination to a feared stimulus occurs in. A) exposure B)
UNIT 6: LEARNING Learning: Stressing the lasting change/permanent Behaviorist Psychologists vs. Cognitive Psychologists Behavioral: Learning only occurs with behavior since they can observe behavior. Cognitive:
1. Which of the following is the best example of the overjustification effect? A) Zeke loses interest in playing baseball after the coach suspends him for a throwing error. B) Bill dislikes doing homework
Chapter 9 LEARNING: Principals and Applications Learning: a relevantly permanent change in behavior that results from experience. Not all behaviors are learned the same way: Dentist Pain Dentist Parents
Your first assessment task begins here!! Below you will find some reading about an approach in psychology called behaviourism. This is not the only type of psychology that we will consider but it was one
Learning Practice Exam 1. The most crucial ingredient in all learning is: B. modeling. C. maturation. D. experience. E. continuous reinforcement. 2. By directly experiencing a thunderstorm, we learn that
Thinking About Psychology Charles T. Blair-Broeker & Randal M. Ernst PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek Germantown High School Worth Publishers, 2012 Development and Learning Domain Drbimages/istockphoto
The Behavioral Approach It s all about observable behavior! In order to understand another person, you must simply understand the consequences he/she experienced during a lifetime. Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner
Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice Permanent Experience Practice Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian Physiologist Father= Village Priest Father-in-law=
Learning the acquisition of information or a behavioral tendency that persists over a relatively long period of time Typically changes behavior Long-term once you learn to read, you remember it for the
What is Operant Conditioning? Operant Conditioning Learning in which behavior change is brought about by CONSEQUENCES of behavior Why study Operant Conditioning? How is different than Classical Conditioning?
GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING LEARNING LEARNING= Is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience Some behaviours are learnt, but
How Do We Learn? Learning Learning: Classical Conditioning Chapter 7 One way is through Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Extending Pavlov s Understanding Pavlov s Legacy Psy 12000.003 1 2 Definition
PS1050i NAU Introduction to Psychology Student Study Guide Chapter 7 & 10 Week Seven Page 1 CHAPTER SEVEN: Learning and Conditioning STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES Identify the two types of conditioning
Links to Objectives DEFINITION OF LEARNING LO 5.1 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING LO 5.2 Study of and important elements LO 5.3 Conditioned emotional response OPERANT CONDITIONING (Part 1) LO 5.4, Skinner and Thorndike
Chapter 5 CC (Classical Conditioning) Practice "Quiz" Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Conditioned taste aversions