Psychology Ciccarelli and White

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1 1 Psychology Ciccarelli and White What is Learning? -Any relatively permanent change in behavior based on experience or practice Chapter Five: Learning -Learning is not maturation. Maturation is change based biological processes. Ivan Pavlov Getting the terminology down: Stimulus Response Unconditioned Conditioned Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) signal or trigger for the unconditioned response; this signal leads to a response that is NOT learned Unconditioned response (UCR) the response is typically a natural response or emotion that is also NOT learned The unconditioned stimulus is always followed by the unconditioned response. Conditioned stimulus (CS) a stimulus that is repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus so that the two become associated. Conditioned Response (CR) is the same response as the unconditioned response, however, it results from the conditioned stimulus. The conditioned stimulus is always followed by the conditioned response. Famous example: Pavlov s dogs Neutral stimulus (NS): rhythmic clicking sound NS is paired with unconditioned stimulus (UCS): food UCS Unconditioned response (UCR): salivation After conditioning: NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) CS Conditioned Response (CR): salivation

2 2 NS---UCS UCS UCR NS CS CS CR Ticking Food Food Salivation Ticking & Food become associated Ticking Salivation It is everywhere! If you salivate when you see food on T.V. If you feel fear when you hear a dentist s drill Drug addicts/environmental stimuli Remember back to the chapter on sleep Study spots or study associations Pavlov s principles for classical conditioning What comes first, the chicken or the egg? The timing of the CS/NS and the UCS Time span Repeated exposure The CS must be distinctive Other properties of Classical Stimulus generalization similar stimuli to the original CS can also elicit the CR Stimulus discrimination similar stimuli to the CS can be distinguished and do not elicit the CR Extinction CS presented without UCS; the CS will no longer elicit the CR and will once again as a NS Spontaneous recovery brief appearance of the CS and UCS association Higher Order CS paired with NS and NS also becomes a CS General : NS1(clicking) UCS (food) UCR (salivation) CS1 (clicking) CR (salivation) Higher Order : CS1 (clicking) NS2 (snapping) CR (salivation) CS2 (snapping) CR (salivation) Exercise: Explain the case of Little Albert with the proper terminology First step: decide what each of the terms relate to in this example (NS, UCS, UCR, CS, CR) Second step: explain how it works using the terms in the proper order (hint: start with the NS) Apply classical conditioning to your life Give your own life example of classical conditioning Use the same steps as above

3 3 Phobia acquired fear that is out of proportion to the actual threat Phobias heights, dogs, snakes, the dark, public speaking, getting married, etc. Systematic desensitization while experiencing fear the person/animal is also learning to relax (relaxation exercises) or experiencing something pleasant (ex: food). Can be displayed: CS (feared stimulus) CR1 (fear) CS (feared stimulus) NS/CS (relaxation exercises) CS (feared stimulus) CR2 (relaxation) Vicarious conditioning Watching others respond to a stimulus and then being conditioned to acquire the same response Ex: Children with shots Ex: Rappelling Conditioned Taste Aversion Which two of Pavlov s principles are violated? Biological preparedness associations are made to increase survival Biological Preparedness Examples: Sheep meat and coyotes Birds and the monarch butterfly Tigers and humans in India How does Classical work? Pavlov: Stimulus substitution What is the problem with this theory? (hint: think about the four principles of classical conditioning) Rescorla (1998): CS had to predict that the UCS was coming Study with rats and tones This demonstrates that the rats responded to their expectation of the shock How does Classical work? Expectancy: Cognition/mental activity Cognitive perspective.

4 4 or Instrumental Operant conditioning Rewards Avoid punishment Edward Thorndike Puzzle box experiments with cats Stimulus: the lever Response: pushing the lever Consequence: escape and food Law of effect B.F. Skinner Voluntary operate in the world (to have agency) Consequences Learning happens after a response Concepts in operant conditioning Reinforcement a response that is strengthened and is likely to happen again Reward (something positive) Avoidance (something negative) In the Thorndike cat puzzle, what was reinforced? Reinforcers work well when: A behavior is reinforced immediately after a response (remember, learning can be associative) Only the desired behavior is reinforced (dog example) Not all reinforcers are created equal Some are more powerful than others Determined: amount of time spent on a voluntary behavior ex: spending more time on a TV show or video game than homework Premack Theory Parents use an extension of this theory Primary & secondary reinforcers Primary fulfills basic needs (ex: food, water, touch etc.) Secondary reinforcers that are paired with primary reinforcers (ex: money, praise) Secondary reinforcers work due to classical conditioning

5 5 Class Exercise In groups Discuss and write down how classical and operant conditioning are different/similar Table of Differences Increases a particular behavior (often already occurring) Voluntary Consequences provide the information to make an association. Creates a new association Involuntary Stimuli that come before a response create an association. Extinction happens when you remove the reinforcement. Extinction happens when you remove the UCS. Table of Similarities Reinforcement should be immediate. Expectancy develops for a reinforcement after a correct response. Extinction, generalization, and spontaneous recovery is possible in operant conditioning. Duration between stimuli (NS/CS & UCS) should be short. (< 5 sec) The CS is expected to come before the UCS, or in other words, to predict it. Extinction, generalization, and spontaneous recovery is possible in classical conditioning. Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforcement: addition of a positive or pleasurable consequence Negative reinforcement: removal of a negative or unpleasant consequence Key to remember: reinforcers increase the likelihood a particular response Class Exercise Positive or Negative Reinforcement? 1. Simon Cowell on American Idol has said:: Do you really believe you can become an American Idol? Well then, you are deaf. The singer began crying and never competed on American Idol again. 2. Ashton Kutcher went on David Letterman to encourage people to watch him on Two and a Half Men and the ratings for Two and a Half Men went up. Now he is looking for other talk shows he can make an appearance on to talk about Two and a Half Men. 3. Brandon Hantz, Russell Hantz s nephew decided that he was going to be a hero on Survivor unlike his uncle who was considered a villain. He noticed that he seemed to be doing well in the game when he was kind to others. So he tried to be nice to people as a strategy to try to win the game. 4. Brad Womack went on the Bachelor a second time because he wanted to clean up his image. He had been considered the worst bachelor of all time when he didn t choose a bachelorette in his first season. Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement reinforced after every correct response. A child receives a gold star after every assignment completely correctly. Factory worker gets paid for each part assembled correctly. Partial Reinforcement a correct response is only reinforced some of the time. An employee is paid weekly for a job well done everyday. A vacationer plays the slot machines in Los Vegas hoping for the big win.

6 6 Schedules of Reinforcement Advantage of continuous reinforcement learning takes place quickly Advantage of partial reinforcement responses are more resistant to extinction Disadvantage of continuous reinforcement it is more susceptible to extinction than partial reinforcement Disadvantage of partial reinforcement make take longer to learn. Partial Reinforcement Terminology Interval refers to spans of time Ratio refers to number of responses Fixed refers a set amount of time or responses for reinforcement (predictable) Variable refers to differing amounts of time or responses for reinforcement (unpredictable) Partial Reinforcement Fixed interval schedule of reinforcement reinforcement is: Has a set span of time and reinforces at a predictable time (ex: paycheck every week; ex: Christmas for children) Variable interval schedule of reinforcement Has a span of time but it reinforces unpredictably (ex: pop quizzes; fishing; hunting) Partial Reinforcement Fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement the number of responses will always be the same number for the reinforcement (predictable) (ex: a little girl sells 10 boxes of girl scout cookies to win a prize) Variable ratio schedule of reinforcement the number of responses changes for the reinforcement (unpredictable) (ex: slot machines, lotto) Punishment Punishment a response that is weakened and is less likely to happen again Types of punishment Punishment by application something is applied that is unpleasant (spanking, extra chores, writing sentences) Punishment by removal something is removed that is considered valuable (grounding a teenager, reduction in privileges, taking away an allowance; people with DUIs have their licenses taken away) Class Exercise Respond to the following examples in the following slide. First, determine if the example is Reinforcement Punishment Then, determine if: Positive or negative reinforcer Punishment by application or punishment by removal

7 7 Class Exercise Reinforcement or Punishment? 1. In Extreme Makeover Home Edition, Ty Pennington and his team built a house for a family with a little boy who has a rare disease. His bones are susceptible to breaking. They put in elevators throughout the house. The boy uses the elevators without exception to move around the house to avoid strain on his bones. 2. In a few of the final seasons of Buffy, the Vampire Slayer many of her friends failed to recognize her leadership due to her affiliation with Spike, a vampire with a bad reputation. They looked to Faith, another vampire slayer for direction and leadership. 3. In the Harry Potter series, Dolores Umbridge made Harry write out that he must not tell lies on a sheet a paper with a special pen with no ink. Harry realized after writing a few sentences that the pen was not intended for the paper but instead, by magic, it was engraving the sentence on his hand! 4. When Ellen began her own talk show she decided to start the show by dancing. The audience members decided to dance as well. It seemed to be a popular way to begin the show, so Ellen continues to open her show with an impromptu dance. The problem with some types of punishment First of all, it may be easier to encourage behaviors than to eliminate them. A child continues a behavior when someone is not looking Punishment may be temporary A child stops when punished but continues the behavior later Some types of punishment can become abuse Punishment Punishment that may lead to abuse (severe spankings, removal of food, etc.) An association is made between the person who is delivering the punishment and the punishment instead of associating the undesired behavior with the punishment Punishment may not weaken the response because other negative reinforcements are used to continue with the behavior and avoid the punishment (successful lying) Punishment Fear and anxiety really don t help anyone learn anything except fear and anxiety. Abusive behavior creates a model for aggression Cultural point: Japanese positive/negative reinforcement Austria, Denmark, Israel, and Italy have banned physical punishment in schools and homes How can punishment be effective? Most child development specialists recommend punishment by removal There should be a short duration between the undesired behavior and the punishment Punishment should be consistent Follow through Intensity Punishment/correct behavior More concepts in Operant Discriminate stimulus a stimulus that cues behavior for a particular reinforcement (see a cop car/starts raining and you slow down in your car) Shaping a type of operant conditioning in which an ultimate complex goal is reached using small steps. The purpose of shaping is to mold behavior. The small steps are referred to as successive approximation.

8 8 More Concepts in Operant Shaping is used in a variety of ways/settings: Train dogs for obedience or to do tricks Train dogs for people with handicaps or to sniff out drugs During the Iraq war, dolphins were used by the U.S. Navy to search for explosives in the Persian Gulf. More Concepts in Operant Behavior modification operant conditioning typically to change pre-existing behavior Applied behavior analysis (ABA) Analysis of current behavior Behavior: socially relevant Biofeedback (involuntary responses) Neurofeedback (brain wave activity) More Concepts in Operant Extinction, generalization, and spontaneous recovery Extinction: removal of the consequence Generalization ex: child who calls everyone and everything as Dada Spontaneous recovery ex: dog trying to perform old tricks Constraints on Operant Instinctive drift Pigs picking up coins; rooting Obvious constraint: limits to various capabilities Edward Tolman Wolfgang Kohler Martin Seligman Tolman and his rats Three groups of rats Latent learning Kohler and his chimps Food outside of cage Two sticks that fit together Insight or problem solving

9 9 Seligman and his dogs Shocking dogs with no escape When given an escape, they found Learned helplessness Fear interfered with the ability to learn Depression Observational Learning A model demonstrates a behavior and the viewer learns (whether or not they demonstrate the behavior) Albert Bandura and the Bobo Doll Modeled/Aggression or not Reward/Punishment Observational Learning Attention Memory Imitation Motivation

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