1 Applied Behavior Analysis Reinforcement Elisabeth (Lisa) Kinney, M.S. September 19, 2007
2 Skinner Box & Reinforcement In operant conditioning, behavior is also affected by its consequences, but the process is not trial-and-error learning A hungry rat placed in a semi-soundproof box For several days bits of food occasionally delivered into a tray by an automatic dispenser Rat soon goes to the tray immediately upon hearing the sound of the dispenser A small horizontal section of a lever protruding from the wall has been resting in its lowest position, but it is now raised slightly so that when the rat touches it, it moves downward In doing so it closes an electric circuit and operates the food dispenser Immediately after eating the delivered food the rat begins to press the lever fairly rapidly The behavior has been strengthened or reinforced by a single consequence The rat was not "trying" to do anything when it first touched the lever and it did not learn from "errors."
3 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning Consequence = reinforcer Behavior selected by its consequences Talking, walking, playing the piano, baking a pie, hitting a curveball, laughing at a joke Individuals whose behavior is most sensitive to consequences are more likely to survive and reproduce Cooper, Heron, Heward, 2007
4 Principle of Reinforcement What is reinforcement? A principle Gravity doesn t work
6 Defining Reinforcement Reinforcer - A stimulus or event that will increase the future probability of a behavior when delivered contingent on the occurrence of the behavior. Necessary conditions Response has consequences Response increases Consequence causes the increase
7 Reinforcer Effect What does reinforcement do? Increase behavior
8 Reinforcer Definition What is a reinforcer? (p. 11) 1. it is an item or event that is delivered after a person has engaged in a behavior 2. results in an increase in that occurrence of that behavior
9 Examples of Reinforcement A man waiting for a bus opens his umbrella when it rains. A woman picks up her paycheck at the end of the week. A workshop attendee smiles and nods when the speaker makes a particularly important point.
10 Examples of Reinforcement A child cries at night when put to bed, and her parents come to her room to comfort her. A two-year-old has a tantrum in a grocery store when denied candy. His mother then buys him the candy to quiet him down. A teacher praises her student when he stays in his seat and pays attention.
11 Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement: any event or environmental change that increases the likelihood that an individual will repeat a behavior that occurred just before the event or change was delivered (p. 8). Negative Reinforcement: any event or environmental change that increases the likelihood that an individual will repeat a behavior that occurred just before the event of change was removed (p. 10).
12 Positive & Negative Positive reinforcement: a contingency wherein a particular stimulus is presented following a given target behavior (Behaviorspeak, 2003). no ; time out ; other examples Negative Reinforcement: a CONTINGENCY such that the removal of a stimulus is contingent upon the EMITTING of a particular behavior (Behaviorspeak, 2003). AVOIDANCE; not punishment; examples
13 Positive and Negative Reinforcement Both increase the probability that the behavior will occur in the future. Positive reinforcement is the addition of a stimulus that results in an increase in behavior Negative reinforcement is the removal of a stimulus that results in an increase in behavior Negative reinforcement is not punishment
14 Examples Positive Reinforcement A woman pops the top of a soft drink can and takes a drink Negative Reinforcement A man waiting for a bus opens his umbrella when it rains
15 Examples Positive Reinforcement A woman pops the top of a soft drink can and takes a drink A teacher praises her student when he stays in his seat and pays attention Negative Reinforcement A man waiting for a bus opens his umbrella when it rains A teacher allows her student to take a break once her work is done
16 Examples Positive Reinforcement A woman pops the top of a soft drink can and takes a drink Negative Reinforcement A man waiting for a bus opens his umbrella when it rains A teacher praises her student when he stays in his seat and pays attention A mother gives her child some candy in order to quell his tantrum A teacher allows her student to take a break once the child s work is done A child stops his tantrum when his mother gives him candy
18 Behavior definition Behavior is both what you don t want your student to do, and what you want your student to do Measurable In operant conditioning behavior is selected by its consequences which can be reinforcers
19 Is Behavior Antecedent give me hi Behavior Hands item to you Puts toy in mouth screams Consequence no
20 Is Not Behavior Antecedent Tucked into bed Person goes up to child Parent answered the phone Behavior Stayed up all night wanted a drink, played with toys, went back to bed Doesn t like me Wants attention all the time Consequence
22 How Do We Identify Someone s Reinforcers? Reinforcement varies from person to person No common properties allow us to identify reinforcers, other than their effect on behavior We need to assess reinforcers on an individual basis
23 Identifying Reinforcers I Like That! 1. Watching / observing for preferences 2. Structured Reinforcer or Preference Assessments 3. Teaching new reinforcers via pairing
28 Stimulus Choice Assessment Teachers, family members, therapists identify preferred objects or activities Individual identifies preferred objects or activities Free Access Paired Comparison
29 Preference Assessment Date(s): Items List of items/activities tested Instructions: Randomly select a pair to be tested. Place both items about 2ft apart and equidistant from D. If D approaches one item/activity, allow access for 5sec and remove the other item. Write the number of the selected item in the appropriate box above Block attempts to approach/contact both items simultaneously If no approach is made in 5sec, give each item to D and allow sampling. Then repeat test.
31 Reinforcer Assessment Reinforcer Assessment: one of the hallmarks of INDIVIDUALIZATION in ABA, this is a procedure to identify the stimuli and activities that a student finds reinforcing. This can be accomplished by simple leaving an individual alone with stimuli and activities, and seeing what the student gravitates towards. It can also be accomplished by presenting stimuli in pairs, and constructing a hierarchy based upon which [items] are chosen (Behaviorspeak, 2003). Drawbacks of the assessment: doesn t allow for teaching reinforcers.
32 Reinforcer Assessment Identify high and low preference stimuli Choose a behavior Compare high/low preference stimuli for ability to increase the behavior Use the identified reinforcer to increase the adaptive behavior
34 Conditioned Reinforcers Conditioned reinforcer: a reinforcer that was previously neutral, but has become a reinforcer through PAIRING with a previously-established reinforcer (Behaviorspeak, 2003). practice; examples
35 Types of Reinforcers Unconditioned Reinforcers Food Water Human contact Conditioned Reinforcers Praise Stickers Tokens Money
36 Primary & Secondary Primary reinforcer: a reinforcer that is effective without any prior learning (i.e., is in-born) (Behaviorspeak, 2003). often biologically based; examples Secondary Reinforcer: a consequence that was previously NEUTRAL, but has become a reinforcer through PAIRING with a previously established reinforcer (Behaviorspeak, 2003). conditioned or generalized reinforcer learned; born a clean slate?; token economies; examples
37 Pairing to Teach New Reinforcers Avoiding satiation Helping child mature Avoiding cavities Creating interest in peer activities Getting ready for school reinforcers The bottom line: money Establishing people & praise as reinforcers
38 Autism and Reinforcers What is autism? What are reinforcers for typically developing children? What are reinforcers for children with autism? How do we marry the two? Intrinsic & extrinsic reinforcement
39 Thank you! Elisabeth (Lisa) Kinney, M.S. Behavior Analyst Woodfords Preschool 6 Opportunity Lane Waterville, ME (207)
What is Applied Behavior Analysis? Elisabeth (Lisa) Kinney, M.S. September 12, 2007 Autism Research Lovaas, O. I. (1987) "Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young
Practical Principles Using Applied Behavior Analysis Annie Baghdayan, PhD, BCBA-D, LBA email@example.com May 28 th, 2014 The Oklahoma Autism Network The Oklahoma Autism Network Established in October
Unit 5: Learning and Conditioning For many species, including of course human beings, the ability to survive depends upon our ability to modify our behavior based upon experience. In other words, our survival
Behavior & Sensory Strategies for Individuals with ASD Kathleen Mo Taylor, OTR/L The Autism Programs Center for Development and Disability University of New Mexico This presentation is made possible, in
Learning Notes I think this is a fun lesson! Anyone with pets or children has seen how these principles are applied to behavior. Learning is more than taking classes! It changes your behavior and how you
Quiz: Operant Conditioning 1 1. The food given to a mouse in the Skinner Box would be classified as a. a) positive reinforcer b) negative reinforcer c) punishment d) neutral stimulus 2. Ellen is training
Operant Conditioning Skinner and Thorndike Operant Conditioning Organisms learn to do things, or not to do things, because of the consequences of their behavior Example: Avoid M&M s because they made you
33 Chapter 4 Basic communication skills People usually communicate by using words or signs. But children begin to communicate long before they learn these skills. Communication happens when: one person
Building Blocks: Effective Practices for Including Young Children with Disabilities in Community Based Programs Cassandra Cerros Jaime Martin Gail Joseph Head Start Center for Inclusion University of Washington
Agenda ACI Learning Centers Functions of Behavior Corresponding Treatments Responding to Written Questions Behavior Must Be Treated by its Function *Behavior can be described by its function or topography
Fry High Frequency Words and Dolch 220 Comparison List The Dolch List has not been revised for decades, while the Fry list is more current. The Fry list also is more comprehensive in that it includes 1,000
I. What is reinforcement? REINFORCEMENT Reinforcement is something that occurs daily in all of our lives. It means getting something that we like. We are reinforced for working by getting a paycheck. We
The ABC s of ABA Claire Benson Kimberly Snyder Sarah Kroll Judy Aldridge ABA Overview Applied Behavior Analysis is NOT one set of procedures that can be applied to everyone. Applied Behavior Analysis is
Module 10 Operant & Cognitive Approaches OPERANT CONDITIONING Thorndike s law of effect states that behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative consequences
What is ABA? Basic ABA Kiersten Johnson Milestones Autism Organization Milestones.org 216-371-4765 Applied Behavior Analysis B.F. Skinner www.lovaas.com Based on learning and behaviors principals Reinforcement
GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING LEARNING LEARNING= Is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience Some behaviours are learnt, but
ABA & Teaching Methods C H A P T E R 7 E A S T E R S E A L S S O U T H E A S T W I S C O N S I N S T A R T E A R L Y, S T A R T S T R O N G P R O G R A M ABA ABA = Applied Behavior Analysis Science devoted
The Cognitive Dog ABC S OF LEARNING THEORY How Dogs Learn The Basics CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Also known as Pavlovian, Associative and Respondent OPERANT CONDITIONING What we know as training CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
A Parenting Roadmap Understanding Applied Behavioral Analysis and Using Behavioral Strategies at Home By Deborah Hammer Autism Coordinator Arlington Public Schools (703) 228-2133 firstname.lastname@example.org
Behaviorism & Education Early Psychology (the use of nonobjective methods such as Introspection) Learning = behavior change movement toward objective methods Behaviorism Pavlov, Skinner (Focus on Sà R)
Developing & Implementing Appropriate Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP) Sonja R. de Boer, Ph.D., B.C.B.A Presentation Overview Developing a Comprehensive BIP Implementing an BIP Examples of BIPs Common
Learning Theories Taught in EDFL 2240: Educational Psychology Behavioral Learning Theories (Learning is defined as a change in behavior) Pavlov & Watson s Classical (Reflexive) Conditioning Definition:
Practical Solutions for Addressing Challenging Behaviors Jonathan Tarbox, PhD, BCBA-D Denver, CO October 8 th, 2011 Outline Purpose of functional assessment The common functions of behavior Indirect assessment
Overview of the three subsections of the Functional Assessment Project How to Effectively Use Reinforcement to Increase Academic and Social Behaviors SPCD 519 Week 8 Select participant Interview and begin
Going to School and Being Effective Doreen Granpeesheh, Ph.D., B.C.B.A. Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc. Today s Presentation What is Applied Behavior Analysis? How does it apply to Autism?
Operant Conditioning! Definition! Classical vs. Operant Conditioning! Four Basic Operant Procedures! Factors that make Operant procedures more effective! Primary and Secondary Reinforcers! Shaping Conditioning!
EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition) David Myers Chapter 7 How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Operant Conditioning Skinner s Experiments Contrasting Classical & Operant Conditioning
Heather Maurin, MA, EdS, PPS, LEP, BICM School Psychologist-Stockton Unified School District THE ABC S OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS WHAT IS BEHAVIOR Every behavior has a purpose. There is no behavior that
AN ABA APPROACH TO TEACHING THE DIFFICULT CHILD By: Lindsay Rice and Stephanie Beaulieu Overview Defining the behavior Data collection and how to begin this process The why : Why is this behavior occurring
Name: Test Review Chapter 7 Period: 1. An unconditioned stimulus: A) becomes a response to the conditioned stimulus. B) causes the conditioning to happen. C) is a previously neutral response that becomes
Focus area: Assemblies and other special events (field trips, classroom speakers, etc) :,, Objective: The students will be respectful to the presenter(s) and others by demonstrating safe and responsible
LISTENING GROUPS In the Foundation Stage and Key Stage 2 Before you start you will need: LOCATION: One quiet area with space for table top and carpet activities ADULT: One group leader TIME: 15 minutes
Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning (R S RF ) A voluntary response (R) is followed by a reinforcing stimulus (S RF ) The voluntary response is more likely to be emitted by the organism.
Content Area II: Operant Conditioning Reinforcement and punishment Topic: Law of effect and Baseline Behavior_. Activity Type: In-class demonstration, Group activity, (could be a worksheet) Description:
A Note to Parents This Wordbook contains all the sight words we will be studying throughout the year plus some additional enrichment words. Your child should spend some time each week studying this Wordbook
Helping Children with Challenging Behaviors Succeed in the Classroom Susan R. Sandall and Ilene S. Schwartz One of the reasons that a child might have difficulty playing or participating in play activities
PSYCHOLOGY Practice Practice Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill
All Saints (or All Hallows) Celebration Bible base: Mark 10:46 52 Aim: To present an alternative focus to the Hallowe en events that dominate this time of year. Note to leaders Our focus this week will
Choosing to Change Behavior Operant Conditioning Module 18 1 Operant Conditioning Unlike Classical Conditioning, behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or weakened if followed by a punisher.
Power of Positive Reinforcement Tara Warwick, MS, OTR/L (405) 271-7476 October 21, 2008 The Oklahoma Autism Network The Oklahoma Autism Network Established in October 2003 First step for implementation
BRIEF INTERVENTIONS : BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION BI-PED PROJECT (BRIEF INTERVENTIONS: PEDIATRICS) Emotional Health Committee Maryland Chapter American Academy of Pediatrics RATIONALE Alice Heisler M.D. Behavior
Screening for Sensitivities 31 SENSORY SCREENING TOOL: HOME Child s Name: Your Name: Relationship to Child: Child s Age: Date: Touch Sense Objects to washing face, hair, or body Reacts negatively to unexpected
THE WASHING MACHINE Written by Lorena Padilla email@example.com INT. DINING ROOM - DAY A very messy dining room. There are empty beer bottles and ashtrays with cigarettes on the table. (12) cleans
INTRODUCTION THE NURSERY CLASS Purpose Letter to Parents The purpose of the nursery class is to help children learn the restored gospel of Jesus Christ and live it. The nursery class should help the children
Joint Attention and Social Referencing Joint attention occurs when two people share interest in an object or event and there is understanding between the two people that they are both interested in the
MODULE 4: Communication Materials Flipchart paper, pens, toffees (or other chewy sweets), empty crisp packets, other items with different textures or sounds such as rattles, squeaky toys, ball, doll, cell
Steps for Implementation: Positive Reinforcement Neitzel, J. (2009). Steps for implementation: Positive reinforcement. Chapel Hill, NC: The National Professional Development Center on, Frank Porter Graham
The Use of TAG for Children with Autism Kerry Madden and Robert Hanson Behavior Analysts Applied Behavior Consultants Inc. June 2006 ABC School ABC School uses reinforcement strategies to teach children
DISCONNECTED KIDS THE GROUNDBREAKING BRAIN BALANCE PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM, ADHD, DYSLEXIA, AND OTHER NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS BY DR. ROBERT MELILLO Table 1: Normal Vital Signs Table 2: Curl-Ups
Steps for Implementation: Token Economy Programs Neitzel, J. (2009). Steps for implementation: Token economy programs. Chapel Hill, NC: The National Professional Development Center on, Frank Porter Graham
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF DIRECT INSTRUCTION FOR FAMILIES INFORMATION FOR FAMILIES CENTER FOR EFFECTIVE COLLABORATION AND PRACTICE Some children with emotional and behavioral problems need to be systematically
Tips for Teaching Young Children with Autism Developed by Laura Maddox & Annette Wragge, 2005 The following suggestions were compiled as a resource for teachers, therapists, or family members working with
Project ID:30156 - Art Therapy for Autistic Preschool Kindergarten School Authority: 9879- Society For Treatment of Autism (Calgary Region) Scope: 60 Students, Grades prek to K, 1 School PROJECT PLAN Project
Contact Information Rebecca.firstname.lastname@example.org Phone 773-3678 Learning Behavior/Changing Behavior Students learn any behavior in the same way they learn to read through instruction/modeling, practice, feedback,
Proloquo2Go 4.0 How do I find the words? Introduction Proloquo2Go 4.0 s Crescendo vocabulary gives you easy access to core words those words that account for about 80% of what we say or write every day.
California Treasures High-Frequency Words Scope and Sequence K-3 Words were selected using the following established frequency lists: (1) Dolch 220 (2) Fry 100 (3) American Heritage Top 150 Words in English
TODDLERS Learning Objectives Alignment with MN Early Learning Guidelines Birth to Three PLAYBOOK Toddlers Learning Objectives Social and Emotional Development Form and Maintain Relationships Toddlers develop
Applied Behavior Analysis Session 1: Course overview and basic concepts My background Special Ed teacher in Victoria Special Ed teacher in junior vocational high schools in Canada BEd, MSc University of
Behavioral & Cognitive Approaches to Learning Learning is a relatively permanent influence on behavior, knowledge, and thinking skills, which comes about through experience. Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches
Preventing and Responding to Challenging Behaviors in the Home Michael Boardman, MA, BCBA Learning Objectives 1. Understanding Problem Behaviors 2. A behavior analytic perspective on behavior 3. Defining
T h e C o p a n d t h e A n t h e m p The Cop and the Anthem S OAPY MOVED RESTLESSLY ON HIS SEAT in Madison Square. There are certain signs to show that winter is coming. Birds begin to fly south. Women
Teaching Students with Epilepsy: Children with epilepsy often experience learning issues as a result of their seizures. These may include ongoing problems with motor skills or cognitive functions, as well
Introduction to Challenging Behavior Getting Started Readings What is Challenging Behavior? Why is Challenging Behavior Produced? What are Social Functions (Reasons) for Challenging Behavior? How is Challenging
Doonfoot Primary School Helping your child with Spelling at Home Information for Parents Introduction Being able to spell words correctly is one of the most important writing skills that your child can
Effectively Using Applied Behavior Analysis Interventions in Home Settings Prepared by Sheri Kingsdorf, MA, BCBA, CABAS TI, TII, MT What do you think?? That. Effectively Using Applied Behavior Analysis
Sample Behavior Intervention Plan for Child With Attention Deficit Disorder and Conduct Problems for Developed by: Date: This behavior intervention plan has been created to support the goals and objectives
JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 2003, 36, 355 359 NUMBER 3(FALL 2003) ALTERING THE TIMING OF ACADEMIC PROMPTS TO TREAT DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY ESCAPE MERCEDES E. EBANKS MARCUS INSTITUTE
Behavior Impedes Learning ARSD 24:05:27:01.02. (1) In the case of a student whose behavior impedes his or her learning or that of others, consider the use of positive behavioral interventions and supports
Social Studies Activities for your Preschooler Presentation courtesy of WCESC Preschool Community Include toys related to methods of transportation into play. Discuss the need to transport goods and people.
DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Directions: Read the following scenarios carefully. Determine if it is an example of operant or classical conditioning. Then, if it is classical
SENSORY FRIENDLY CLASSROOMS- SUPPORTING SENSORIAL LEARNING AND INTEGRATION FOR SCHOOL READINESS Julia Childs Andrews, Disabilities Coordinator Cindy S. Jones, MFT, Mental Health Coordinator Neighborhood
Understand the ideas Ways to help people out of poverty 1. Read about poverty and ideas to help people out of it What is poverty? Nitin is a ten-year old boy living in a small village in central India.
Several Different Models Psychological Models of Abnormality Psychoanalytic Models Learning Models Cognitive Models Psychology 311 Abnormal Psychology Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides
Managing Challenging Behavior Laura Taddei PQAS #CI-0036000 Learning Objectives o Participants will identify managing behaviors that may occur while caring for children o Participants will analyze positive
Autism and Occupational Therapy Optimizing Function Occupational Therapy Enhancing function in activities of daily living: dressing, bathing, toileting, eating Promoting participation in play and social
Operant Conditioning EDS 248 Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D.,NCSP Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning (R S RF ) A voluntary response (R) is followed by a reinforcing stimulus (S RF ) As a result,
Hand-Over-Hand Method written by, Jean M. Slater, MS Speech/Language Pathologist 2000 Slater Software, Inc. Have you ever told your child to give you something that is dangerous and he or she ignores you?