ACTION PLAN To Increase Employment Rates For Young Black Men In London

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1 ACTION PLAN To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 2014

2 The Back Training and Enterprise Group The Back Training and Enterprise Group is a nationa charity. Our mission is to end racia inequaity. Find out more from our website

3 ACTION PLAN To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 2014

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5 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 1 CONTENTS SECTION PAGE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...5 ONE INTRODUCTION...6 TWO WHY YOUNG BLACK MEN? Headines Young back men Unempoyment Empoyment Education Higher education Apprenticeships Work Programme Evidence of what works Evidence of barriers The cost of young back mae unempoyment...20 THREE ACTION RESEARCH FINDINGS Headines Introduction Young back men: survey responses Young back men: discussion groups Empoyment support agencies Other stakehoders...30 FOUR FIVE CONCLUSIONS...34 ACTION PLAN...36 REFERENCES...38 ANNEXES One Two Action research methodoogy...39 Research participants...42

6 2 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London CONTENTS TABLES PAGE i ii Unempoyed young back men: highest London boroughs...9 UK universities with the argest numbers and highest...16 proportions of back mae undergraduates in 2012/13 iii A age apprenticeship starts by ethnicity, London, 2012/ iv Hep with finding work...23 CHARTS i Economic activity of young men in London...8 ii UK unempoyment rates for maes and femaes...10 aged 16 to 24, 2013 iii ILO unempoyment rate for maes aged 16 to 24, UK...11 iv Young mae JSA caimants in London, 2011 to v UK empoyment rates for maes and femaes...12 aged 16 to 24, 2013 vi Maes aged 16 to 24 in London...13 vii Maes aged 16 to 24 in London who are in empoyment...13 viii Leve 2 attainment for boys in London...14 ix Leve 3 attainment for young peope in Engand...14 x Destinations of 2011/12 UK university eavers...17 xi Apprenticeship programme starts in London and Engand...18 xii Work programme attachments and outcomes for...19 young peope in London xiii Responses to socia capita questions...24 xiv Young back men s reasons for high unempoyment rates...25

7 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 3 Acknowedgements This report was written by Liz Mackie on behaf of BTEG based on research carried out by Liz Mackie and Jeremy Crook OBE. The research was made possibe through the financia support of Trust for London. The research was aso part-funded through the VCS Assist Technica Assistance project which supports third sector participation in the London European Socia Fund programme. BTEG woud ike to thank a those who contributed to this research, with particuar thanks to the Jobcentre Pus staff who heped to organise the discussion groups with young back men and to the young men who took part in these.

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9 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Young back men have higher unempoyment rates than a other groups of young peope. The gap between unempoyment rates for young back men and young white men has been persistent for many years and has grown wider in recent years. Young back men sti experience higher rates of unempoyment despite their strongy improved educationa attainment and regardess of their quaification eve: back university graduates are twice as ikey to be unempoyed as white university graduates. When asked for their views on this issue, young back men see the probem of high unempoyment as resuting from factors which are beyond their contro; racism, discrimination and negative stereotyping. They can provide an articuate and we reasoned anaysis of the historica reasons for the current situation. But they fee poweress to change things around them and concentrate on trying to do the right thing for themseves. Doing the right thing, by ooking for a job, is not perceived as an easy option and they fee argey unsupported in this by agencies such as Jobcentre Pus. A majority of young back men experience discrimination or negative stereotyping which adversey affect their prospects of empoyment. Amost two hundred young back men contributed to this research and most of them, incuding a 25 of our discussion group participants, reported that they had been unsuccessfu in job interviews because they beieved that the empoyer woud rather not empoy a back man. No compaints were made or action taken about these instances. There is itte evidence of what works in increasing empoyment rates for young back men. There is a ack of targeted data which enabes a cose understanding of how young back men are faring on job support schemes or through other pathways into work. Aong with the ack of data and other firm evidence, this research encountered reuctance from empoyers, some empoyment support providers and other stakehoders to engage in discussions about increasing empoyment rates for young back men. The overa resut is a ack of knowedge about what works for this target group and a dearth of case studies or good practice exampes from which other agencies can earn. This research points to the need for actions to tacke young back mae unempoyment in four key areas: Action is needed to estabish and work towards a common goa. The goa shoud be to increase empoyment rates for young back men so that there is no disparity between young back men and a other young men. A regiona co-ordinating group is needed to drive achievement of this goa in London. Action is needed to improve support for young back mae job seekers. Heping more young back men into work requires ocaised and personaised support deivered by advisers who understand the barriers and who care about getting young back men into work. Action is needed to create more pathways into empoyment for young back men.we need to create more networks and pathways through which young back men can meet empoyers, gain work experience, deveop career aspirations, secure empoyment and set up their own businesses. Action is needed to chaenge the negative stereotypes which society attaches to young back men. We need to hep empoyers to recognise these stereotypes for what they are and to avoid making recruitment decisions which are infuenced by these. We need to create more positive portrayas of young back men in the media and amongst empoyers.

10 6 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION This is an action pan for increasing empoyment rates for young back men in London. The unempoyment rate for young back men in the UK is more than doube the rate for young white men and higher than for any other ethnic group. This fact aone shoud be cause for great concern among a those invoved in educating, training, supporting and empoying young peope. This action pan is the resut of a six month action research project carried out by the Back Training and Enterprise Group (BTEG) between October 2013 and Apri We use the term action research to refect the participative, probem soving approach which we took to the research. The action research investigated the reasons why young back men experience far higher rates of unempoyment than any other group of young peope, and sought to identify ways of tacking this probem. By young we mean peope aged 16 to 24 and within the term back we incude peope from back British, back African, back Caribbean, other back and mixed back ethnic groups. The research was supported by Trust for London and carried out in cose cooperation with Jobcentre Pus. This action pan provides a framework for a agencies that have a roe to pay in ending the inequaities experienced by young back men who are trying to find jobs. The agencies we hope wi use this framework incude Jobcentre Pus, Work Programme providers and other empoyment support agencies, coeges and universities, vountary and community organisations, empoyers, funders and the London Enterprise Pane. This action pan comes at a time of growing recognition of the probems facing young back mae job seekers. The research to deveop this action pan was conducted in parae with an initiative by Jobcentre Pus to provide targeted support to young back men in four London boroughs; Haringey, Hackney, Lambeth and Brent. At an event to aunch this Jobcentre Pus initiative the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, Iain Duncan Smith MP, endorsed the need for targeted action to improve empoyment opportunities for young back men: The rea issue is this is a big probem, I recognise that. There shoud be absoutey no difference between peope of different ethnic backgrounds finding work. It s quite iogica reay when you think about it that too many back men and back women find that the proportion going into work is ower than for other groups, it s uttery iogica. And the rea point is just how much taent and capabiity are businesses missing by not ooking to empoy peope from back communities at the same rate as they might have done for anybody ese. And that s the rea chaenge - to get across to peope the idea that businesses need to rethink the way they ook at everybody that comes to them for a job. 1 During the course of this research we were frequenty asked Why young back men? To show why, Section Two of this document draws on officia statistics and pubished research to show the disparities for young back men in empoyment and unempoyment in London and across the UK. We beieve that these findings demonstrate why there needs to be a concerted effort to tacke the higher eve of unempoyment experienced by young back men. Findings from the six month action research project are presented in Section Three of this document. The action research engaged young back men, empoyment support providers, oca authorities, Jobcentre Pus, further education 1 Iain Duncan Smith, speaking at a Department for Work and Pensions event to aunch oca action pans to tacke young back mae unempoyment in four London boroughs. The event took pace at the Tottenham Hotspur Foundation, London, on 3 March 2014.

11 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 7 and higher education institutions, and other stakehoders in discussions about the reasons for high young back mae unempoyment and ways of improving this situation. Where we found exampes of agencies that are aready doing this successfuy, we have incuded these in the action pan. However, we were disappointed that the action research was unabe to uncover more exampes, and that very few agencies appeared wiing to promote the work that they do with young back men. We therefore intend to update this action pan on a reguar basis, to incude more exampes of what works as we find them. Section Four presents the concusions from our action research. These concusions are the basis for the suggested actions set out in Section Five. The Action Pan shows the actions which agencies shoud focus on to improve empoyment opportunities and reduce unempoyment rates for young back men. The action pan is intended to be a ive document which wi be updated to show new actions as we make progress towards the overa goa of ending the ethnic inequaities in unempoyment rates for young back men. SECTION TWO: WHY YOUNG BLACK MEN? 2.1 Headines At the time of the 2011 Census, 87,011 back men aged between 16 and 24 ived in London. That is around haf of a the young back men in Engand and Waes. The unempoyment rate for young back men in the UK is more than doube the rate for young white men. Young back men have a higher unempoyment rate than young men and young women in a other ethnic groups. The gap between the unempoyment rate for young back men and young white men has grown wider each year since Over one third of the unempoyed young back men in London are resident in just five London boroughs - Lambeth, Lewisham, Croydon, Southwark and Hackney - where amost 3,500 young back men were unempoyed at the time of the 2011 Census. The unempoyment rate for young back men has remained persistenty high despite improvements in their educationa attainment. Back boys now perform amost as we as white boys at Leve 2 and young back peope have performed better than young white peope at Leve 3 in each of the ast six years. Young back men have higher rates of post-16 education than white young men. At the time of the 2011 Census, 44 per cent of the young back men in London were students, compared with 47 per cent of Asian

12 8 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London young men and 32 per cent of white young men. But spending onger in education is not eading to any reductions in the higher unempoyment rates experienced by young back men. Young back men in higher education are concentrated within a sma number of universities. Six universities, a in London, accounted for amost one quarter of a the UK s back mae undergraduates in 2012/13. These universities are in the bottom haf of the university eague tabe, have higher than average dropout rates and ower than average scores for future career prospects. In contrast, fewer than one per cent of the UK s back mae undergraduates are studying at the six highest ranked universities. The unempoyment rate for back graduates is more than doube the unempoyment rate for white graduates. 2.2 Young back men At the time of the 2011 Census, 125,066 back men aged between 16 and 24 were iving in Engand and Waes. Of these, 71,021 were in London, which is 58 per cent of a the young back men in Engand and Waes (excuding young men of mixed back/white ethnicity). In addition, 56,480 young men of mixed back/white ethnic origin were iving in Engand and Waes, 15,990 of them in London, giving a tota of 87,011 young back men in London, which is 48 per cent of a the young back men in Engand and Waes (incuding young men of mixed back/white ethnicity). According to the Census data, of the 87,011 young back men in London, 43,210 (50%) were economicay inactive (i.e. neither empoyed nor unempoyed), 26,056 (30%) were in empoyment and 17,745 (20%) were unempoyed. As shown in chart i, more young back men (44%) than young white men (32%) were students but unempoyment was far higher for young back men than for young men from other ethnic groups; 20 per cent of a young back men in London were unempoyed at the time of the 2011 Census, compared with 13 per cent of young Asian men and 12 per cent of young white men. Chart i: Economic activity of young men in London 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% White Asian Back Unempoyed Empoyed Student Other Source: 2011 Census

13 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 9 Young back mae unempoyment is high throughout London. But because some London boroughs have arger young back mae popuations, unempoyment within this target group is a bigger probem in some areas of London than in others. Over one third of the unempoyed young back men in London are resident in just five London boroughs; Lambeth, Lewisham, Croydon, Southwark and Hackney, where amost 3,500 young back men were unempoyed at the time of the 2011 Census. Tabe i: Unempoyed young back men: highest London boroughs Young back mae popuation Lambeth 6227 Southwark 5697 Croydon 5513 Lewisham 5344 Newham 4846 Hackney 4614 Brent 4470 Enfied 4219 Haringey 4048 Watham Forest 3663 Tota in these boroughs 48,641 Tota in London 87,011 56% of a young back men in London ive in these ten boroughs Unempoyed young back men Lambeth 857 Lewisham 687 Croydon 664 Southwark 628 Hackney 609 Brent 593 Newham 543 Watham Forest 476 Haringey 469 Enfied 459 Tota in these boroughs 5,985 Tota in London 10,262 58% of a unempoyed young back men in London ive in these ten boroughs Source: 2011 Census The government does not routiney pubish statistics on unempoyment rates by ethnicity, gender and age group, so it is not easy to track the unempoyment rate for young back men. The figures in this section are drawn from ad hoc statistica reports pubished by the government and our own anaysis of pubicy avaiabe data. There are two important points to note about the data presented in the remainder of this section: This research study incudes young men of mixed back/white ethnicity within our definition of young back men. However, not a data sources enabe the figures for young back men and young men of mixed

14 10 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London back/white ethnicity to be combined. Therefore, for the remainder of this section, a figures for young back men are for those from back (African, Caribbean, Other) groups and do not incude those from mixed back/white groups. In chart i unempoyment is shown as a percentage of a young men in London, within each ethnic group. This differs from our preferred measure of unempoyment which is the Internationa Labour Organisation (ILO) unempoyment rate. This is the internationay agreed definition of unempoyment and the measure used by the Office for Nationa Statistics to produce officia UK unempoyment rates. The ILO unempoyment rate shows the proportion of the economicay active popuation which is unempoyed. The economicay active popuation is made up of those in work (empoyed) and those who are not in work but are avaiabe for and activey seeking work (unempoyed). The ILO unempoyment rate is cacuated as economicay active/ unempoyed. The ILO unempoyment rate is used throughout the remainder of this report, uness otherwise stated. 2.3 Unempoyment Young back men have the highest unempoyment rate of any group of young peope in the UK. For the 12 month period ending June 2013, the unempoyment rate for young back men was over 48 per cent. That means that of a the young back men in the UK who were avaiabe for work, amost haf were unempoyed. This compares with just under a quarter of young white men and around one third of young Asian men. Chart ii shows the ILO unempoyment rates for young peope in the UK from different ethnic groups in the 12 months to June The ILO unempoyment rate for young back men is higher than for a other ethnic and gender groups. Chart ii: ILO unempoyment rates for maes and femaes aged 16 to 24, UK, 2006 to White Asian Mixed Back Other Ethnic Group Maes Femae Source: Annua Popuation Survey Juy 2012 to June 2013

15 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 11 The higher rate of unempoyment for young back men is not new. There has aways been a significant gap between the unempoyment rates for young back men and white young men. But this gap has been increasing since Chart iii shows the average ILO unempoyment rates for young men from back, white and Asian ethnic groups from 2006 to The unempoyment rate for white young men has been owest in every year and the rate for back young men has been the highest in every year. The gap between these two groups narrowed to 13 percentage points in 2009 but since then the unempoyment rate for young back men has risen more steepy and the gap has grown wider each year. By 2012, the unempoyment rate for young back men was 28 percentage points higher than the rate for white young men. The number of peope caiming and receiving Jobseekers Aowance has been decining steadiy since The rates of decine have been sharper for white young men than for back young men, as iustrated in chart iv. The decrease in Jobseekers Aowance caimants has not atered the arge disparity between the unempoyment rates for white and back young men. Chart iii: ILO unempoyment rates for maes aged 16 to 24, UK, 2006 to White Asian Back Source: DWP Ad Hoc statistica anaysis of LFS data, The DWP notes for this anaysis state that From Q1, 2011 there were changes in the recording of ethnicity in the LFS.This resuted in a discontinuity in the number of peope reporting that they beonged to an ethnic minority group Therefore the resuts presented here shoud be interpreted with caution. The categories used to record back ethnic groups are consistent from 2006 to 2012 and shoud be unaffected by the 2011 changes in ethnicity recording.

16 12 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London Chart iv: Young mae JSA caimants in London, Apri 2011 to February , ,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 APR JUN AUG OCT DEC FEB APR JUN AUG OCT DEC FEB APR JUN AUG OCT DEC FEB White Asian Back Source: DWP data accessed via NOMIS 2.4 Empoyment Young back men have the owest empoyment rate in the UK of a young peope by ethnic and gender group. For the 12 month period to June 2013, ony 22 per cent of young back men in the UK were in empoyment, compared with haf of a young white men. Chart v: Empoyment rates for maes and femaes aged 16 to 24, UK, White Asian Mixed Back Other Ethnic Group Maes Femae Source: Annua Popuation Survey, Juy 2012 to June 2013

17 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 13 Back maes make up nine per cent of a young maes in London who are in empoyment; that is, around 1 in 11 of the young mae workforce in London is back. This is ower than the proportion of young back maes in the London popuation, where 14 per cent, or around 1 in 7 young maes are back. Chart vi: Maes aged 16 to 24 in London Chart vii: Empoyment rates for maes and femaes aged 16 to 24, UK, 2013 Others 4.2 Back 14.2 Others 2.7 Back 9.4 Asian 23.4 White 51.6 Asian 19.5 White 62.5 Mixed 6.5 Mixed Education One reason why reativey fewer young back men are in empoyment is because more are in education. Forty four per cent of young back men were students at the time of the 2011 Census, compared with 32 per cent of young white men. But spending onger in education is not eading to any reductions in the higher unempoyment rates experienced by young back men. Unempoyment rates have remained far higher for young back maes than for a other groups of young peope, despite their strong improvements in educationa attainment. Leve 2 attainment (5+ GCSEs at grades A* to C) has increased for a ethnic groups over the ast five years but the increase has been sharper for back boys. Nationay, the gap between attainment for back boys and white boys had narrowed to just two percentage points in 2012/13. The attainment gap has narrowed in London, athough not so cosey; from a nine percentage point gap in 2008/09 to a five percentage point gap in 2012/13, a iustrated in chart viii.

18 14 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London Chart viii: Leve 2 attainment for boys in London (% of eigibe pupis attaining 5+GCSEs A*-C incuding Engish and Maths) / / / / /13 White Asian Back Source: Department for Education, 2014a. Data vaues shown in chart are for back boys. At Leve 3 (2+ A Leves or equivaent) young back peope have been outperforming young white peope since In 2013, 63 per cent of young back peope aged 19 attained Leve 3 quaifications, compared with 55 per cent of young white peope (no gender breakdown is avaiabe for this data). Leve 3 attainment for young peope by ethnic group is iustrated in chart ix. Chart ix: Leve 3 attainment for young peope in Engand (% of 19 year ods attainment 2+ A eves or equivaent) White Asian Back Source: Department for Education 2014b. Data vaues shown in the chart are for young back peope.

19 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London Higher education The gains which have been made by young back peope at Leves 2 and 3 are not yet transating into improved achievements in higher education. The percentage of young back peope in higher education is increasing. In 20011/12, back students made up six per cent of a UK domicied students in higher education, up from four per cent in 2003/04. The percentage of young peope aged 16 to 24 who were students at the time of the 2011 Census was far higher for young back peope (44%) than for young white peope (32%). However, higher eve educationa attainment is sti ower for back young peope than for young peope from other ethnic groups. Figures from the 2011 Census show that of young peope aged 16 to 24, 27 per cent of Asian young peope had a Leve 4 or higher quaification, 24 per cent of white young peope, but ony 16 per cent of back young peope. Young back men in higher education are concentrated within a sma number of universities. Six universities, a in London, accounted for amost one quarter of a UK back mae undergraduates in 2012/13 3. These were the University of East London, London South Bank University, London Metropoitan University, Kingston University, Middesex University and University of Greenwich. These six institutions accounted for four per cent of a UK undergraduates in 2012/13 but 23 per cent of the UK s back mae undergraduates. Back maes made up eight per cent of a undergraduates across these six universities. A of these universities are in the bottom haf of the university eague tabe and five of the six are in the bottom twenty of the 119 institutions ranked. The average career score for these six universities is 52 per cent (The Guardian, 2014). 4 In contrast, the six UK universities which are ranked highest in the university eague tabe (Cambridge, Oxford, London Schoo of Economics, St Andrews, University Coege London and Durham) had a tota of just 346 back mae undergraduates in 2012/13. These six universities accounted for three per cent of a UK undergraduates in 2012/13 but just 0.9 per cent of the UK s back mae undergraduates. Back maes made up 0.7 per cent of the undergraduates across these six institutions. The average career score for these six universities is 79 per cent (The Guardian, 2014). 3 These figures, and a others in this section, refer to UK domicied undergraduates in UK higher education institutions. 4 The average career score from The Guardian University League rankings for 2014 is defined as the percentage of graduates who find graduate eve jobs or are studying fu time within six months of graduation.

20 16 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London Tabe ii: UK universities with the argest numbers and highest proportions of back mae undergraduates in 2012/13 Largest number of back mae undergraduates University of East London 1,936 London South Bank University 1,757 London Metropoitan University 1,501 Kingston University 1,453 Middesex University 1,314 University of Greenwich 1,288 Tota 9249 Highest proportion of back mae undergraduates (%) University of East London 14.6 London South Bank University 12.4 London Metropoitan University 12.3 University of West London 8.9 Birkbeck, University of London 8.9 Kingston University 8.8 Average 11% Source: Higher Education Statistica Agency Non continuation rates Non continuation rates measure the percentage of students who are no onger in higher education one year after entry. Back peope have the highest non-continuation rate of a ethnic groups. Of higher education entrants in 2010/11, 11 per cent of back students were no onger in higher education one year ater, compared with seven per cent of white students and eight per cent of Asian students (Equaity Chaenge Unit, 2013). The average non continuation rate for a higher education institutions in Engand, for entrants in 2010/11, was seven per cent. The average non continuation rate for 2010/11 entrants in the six universities with the highest proportions of back mae students was 11 per cent. In contrast, the average non continuation rate for the six highest ranked universities in the UK, where fewer than one per cent of back mae graduates were students in 2012/13, was just two per cent (HESA, 2014). Graduate unempoyment Back graduates are ess ikey to be empoyed and more ikey to be unempoyed than either white or Asian graduates, one year after graduating. Of those who graduated from university in 2011/12, 15 per cent of back graduates were unempoyed one year ater, compared with 13 per cent of Asian graduates and 6 per cent of white graduates. 2.7 Apprenticeships It has not been possibe for us to determine how many young back men are in apprenticeships. This data

21 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 17 Chart x: Destinations of 2011/12 UK university eavers Empoyment Fu Time Further Study Unempoyment White Asian Back Source: Equaity Chaenge Unit 2013 is coected but is not made pubicy avaiabe by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skis. Pubished data on apprenticeship participation by ethnic group (for a ages and genders) shows that back peope are over-represented in apprenticeships in London. Nineteen per cent of a apprenticeship starts in London in 2012/13 were by peope from back ethnic groups. Tabe iii: A age apprenticeship starts by ethnicity, London, 2012/13 ondon apprenticeship starts London popuation start (16-64) number % number % Back/African/Caribbean/Back British 8, , White 25, ,325, Asian/Asian British 5, ,035, Mixed/Mutipe Ethnic Group 2, , Other Ethnic Group 1, , Not known/not provided , TOTA 45, ,439, Source: Nationa Apprenticeship Service

22 18 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London Whie peope from back ethnic groups are we represented in the apprenticeship starts for London, it is worth noting that there are fewer apprenticeship paces in London than in most other regions in Engand. London is home to over 16 per cent of Engand s working age popuation but had ess than nine per cent of Engand s apprenticeship starts in 2012/13. Chart xi: Apprenticeship programme starts in London and Engand 600, , , , , , , , , , , , , , /6 2006/7 2007/8 2008/9 2009/ / / /13 London Engand Source: FE Data Library 2014 Around haf of the young back men in Engand ive in London, where there are reativey fewer apprenticeship paces than in most other regions. Competition for apprenticeship paces is tougher for back candidates than for white. Our anaysis of the recorded apprenticeship appications in 2011/12 and the apprenticeship starts in the same year, in Engand, shows that whie one white person started an apprenticeship for every two white peope who appied, one back person started for every four back peope who appied. 2.8 Work Programme The Work Programme was aunched in June 2011 and operates nationay. The cost of the programme to March 2013 was 736 miion. It is not cear what the outcomes are for young back men on the Work Programme in London. The Work Programme outcomes data pubished by Department for Work and Pensions aows ony three fieds of enquiry, and it is not possibe to generate data for the four fieds required to identify outcomes by contract + gender + ethnicity + age. Our anaysis of the Work Programme data by contract + age + ethnicity shows that young back peope in London are over-represented in the Work Programme attachments (those who engage with a provider) when compared with the proportion of young back peope in the London popuation and

23 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 19 with the proportion who are JSA caimants. Young back peope in London are simiary over-represented in Work Programme job outcomes, when compared with the proportion of young back peope who are JSA caimants. However, a comparison of attachments by ethnicity with job outcomes by ethnicity for the London Work Programme contracts shows that outcomes are higher than attachments for white and Asian young peope, but ower for back young peope. These comparisons are iustrated in chart xii. Chart xii: % of JSA caimants, Work Programme attachments and outcomes for each ethnic group of young peope in London JSA Caimants Dec 2013 Work Programme Attachments Work Programme Outcome To Dec 2013 To Dec 2013 White Asian Back Source: DWP Work Programme tabuation too. Data for JSA caimants is from DWP via NOMIS The chart shows percentage of ethnic group within each fied i.e. of young JSA caimants in London in Dec 2013 percentage which is white, Asian, back Evidence of what works There is no evidence of what works in improving empoyment rates specificay for young back men in the UK. A review of the evidence base on what works in tacking workessness, carried out for the Greater London Authority in 2006, did not identify any evidence that was specific to young back peope, or young peope from ethnic minority groups. In terms of evidence of what works in tacking workessness for young peope, the review concuded that programmes aimed at young peope are generay ess effective than those aimed at aduts. For peope of back, Asian and other minority ethnic origin, the review concuded that the imited UK evidence indicates that empoyment support programmes were ess effective than for white participants, and some evidence of possibe empoyer discrimination may be a factor in this (Meadows, 2006) Evidence of barriers Research evidence shows that some empoyers raciay discriminate in job appication processes,

24 20 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London based on ikey ethnicity determined by the names of job appicants (Wood and others, 2009). There is aso evidence that the portraya of young back men in the media is argey negative. Researchers at the University of Cardiff examined the media presentation of young back men and boys in the media and found that cose to 7 in 10 stories of back young men and boys reated in some form to crime, and that this figure was comparativey higher than in coverage of young men and boys more generay. The report concudes that it is reasonabe to assume that the negative portraya of back boys and young back men in news media may we impact on the wider readership and viewing pubic s perceptions of these groups (Cushion et a 2011, p4). There does not appear to be any research which has investigated possibe inks between negative media portraya and decisions made by empoyers about young back mae job candidates The cost of young back mae unempoyment We have not identified any research which cacuates the costs of the disproportionatey high unempoyment rate for young back men in London. The ACEVO Commission on Youth Unempoyment cacuated the cost of youth unempoyment in Based on the approximatey 800, to 24 year ods in the UK who were NEET in 2012 (as indicated by the Work and Pensions Longitudina Survey), this research cacuated a cost to the exchequer of 4.8 biion pus 10.7 biion in ost economic output. Periods of youth unempoyment cause scarring effects for individuas in terms of a higher ikeihood of future unempoyment and reduced future earnings. The scarring effects for young peope unempoyed in 2012 were cacuated at 2.9 biion (cost to the Exchequer) pus 6.3 biion (ost economic output) each year. The research concuded that youth unempoyment in 2012 woud cost 28 biion over the next ten years (ACEVO, 2012). Research by the Nationa Audit Office for the Department for Work and Pensions in 2008 cacuated that the gap in the empoyment rate between the ethnic minority and the genera popuation (at that time 14.2 percentage points) costs the economy some 8.6 biion annuay ( 1.3 biion cost to the Exchequer and 7.3 biion in ost output) (Nationa Audit Office, 2008). Further research woud be required to cacuate the economic cost of young back mae unempoyment in London. Based on the existing research, it is ikey that the current cost of young back mae unempoyment in London amounts to tens of miions of pounds. The future costs are ikey to be reativey higher than for young peope on average, as the scarring effects of youth unempoyment for maes are higher than for femaes in terms of reduced earnings (ACEVO, 2012) and whie the onger term penaties of youth unempoyment for back peope are unknown it woud not be surprising to discover that they are higher than for other ethnic groups.

25 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 21 SECTION THREE: ACTION RESEARCH FINDINGS 3.1 Headines Young back men want to work. In our on-ine survey, 88 per cent of NEET young back men say they are trying very hard or quite hard to find a job. Young back men are finding it difficut in the job market. 100 per cent of survey respondents who are trying to find work had appied for jobs in the ast six months and 50 per cent had appied for 100 or more jobs in the ast six months. Amost haf (46%) said they had not been shortisted for any jobs they had appied for in the ast six months. Fewer than one third of survey respondents fet that they get a the hep they need to hep them to find jobs. A majority of young back men identify racism, discrimination and negative stereotyping as the main reasons why young back men experience such high unempoyment rates. In a series of discussion groups with young back mae job seekers, a of the 25 participants beieved that a prospective empoyer had turned them down at interview stage because they woud prefer not to empoy a back man. The overa sense from these discussion groups was that these young men are trying hard to make their way in a society where they perceive that the odds are stacked against them. A few are doing this with a degree of optimism but others are more doubtfu and some expressed utter despair. Young back men who are ooking for work fee they are resisting peer pressure to foow this route rather than an aternative path into gangs and crime. They fee isoated from their peers and unsupported in their efforts to do the right thing. Young back men have mixed but mainy poor experiences of support from Jobcentre Pus and Work Programme providers. They fee that advisers are not interested in them and that very few do anything to encourage, motivate or support them. Young back men consider that back communities have few resources to hep them to find work. They have no contact with professiona back men who can hep them to access job opportunities. They fee that back communities are not good at working together. Agencies which support peope to find work have mixed views about the reasons why unempoyment is so high for young back men. Not a Work Programme prime contractors were aware of this fact. It is not possibe to identify the number of young back men who have been heped into jobs through the Work Programme. The avaiabe data shows that young back peope are we represented on the Work Programme but that job outcomes are sighty ower than for young white peope.

26 22 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London Some London oca authorities have a ong track record of targeted support for back communities and for young peope, and are now beginning to prioritise support for young back men in order to tacke the disparities in unempoyment rates for this group. There is itte evidence of what works to increase empoyment rates for young back men. Some London boroughs are working on producing firmer evidence of this and others woud wecome more information about good practice and effective approaches to support this group of young peope. 3.2 Introduction This section presents the main findings from the six month action research project carried out by BTEG from October 2013 to Apri The methodoogy for the research study is detaied in Annex One. The main components of the research were: An on-ine survey of young back men, which attracted 160 responses; Four discussion groups with young back mae job seekers, in which 25 young back men participated; Discussions with agencies which support job seekers to find work, incuding three prime contractors for the Work Programme in London and seven ocay based, vountary sector providers; Discussions with Jobcentre Pus, oca authorities in the Jobcentre Pus target boroughs (Hackney, Haringey, Brent and Lambeth), the Nationa Apprenticeship Service and the Greater London Authority; Attempts to coect the views of empoyabiity and careers advisers in FE and HE institutions in London, incuding through an on-ine survey, discussion group and interviews, which resuted in contributions from ony two institutions; Attempts to identify and tak to empoyers which have been active and successfu in recruiting young back men, but which resuted in ony one empoyer agreeing to contribute. 3.3 Young back men: survey responses We conducted an on-ine survey in ate The target group of survey respondents was back men aged between 16 and 24, iving in London. There is no samping frame for this popuation, so we used a network samping approach by asking organisations working with young back men in London to pass on a web-ink to the survey and encourage young back men to compete the survey questionnaire. Because of the samping approach used, the survey findings cannot be considered representative of a young back men in London. However, the profie of survey respondents in terms of quaifications and empoyment status is not dissimiar from the profie for a young back men in London.

27 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 23 Young back men in empoyment The survey asked respondents who are currenty in empoyment about their experiences. Job satisfaction: 52 per cent said they were satisfied with their current job. Quaified for job: 50 per cent said they were in a job which matches their quaifications; 39 per cent said they were over-quaified for their current job and 11per cent said they were under-quaified for their current job. Opportunities for career progression: 58 per cent said that they did not have good opportunities for progression in their current job Young back men not in education, empoyment or training (NEET) The survey asked respondents who are NEET about their experiences of ooking for work. Registered unempoyed: 61 per cent are registered as unempoyed and 39 per cent are not registered as unempoyed Looking for work: 77 per cent said they are trying very hard to find a job and 88 per cent said they are trying very hard or trying quite hard to find a job Pans for the future: 63 per cent said they wi carry on ooking for a job; 12 per cent said they wi try to return to education, 17 per cent said they wi try to find an apprenticeship or another training opportunity. Appying for jobs: 100 per cent said they had appied for 10 or more jobs in the ast six months; 50 per cent said they had appied for 100 or more jobs in the ast six months; 36 per cent said they had appied for 200 or more jobs in the ast six months; 46 per cent said they had not been shortisted for any jobs they had appied for in the ast six months Who has heped you to find work: Tabe iv: Hep with finding work (% of a NEET respondents) Friends Famiy Jobcentre Schoo or Charity or Pus coege community centre Writing a CV Fiing in appication forms Interview practice Where to ook for jobs Source: BTEG survey of young back men

28 24 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London Young back men s socia networks We asked a respondents about their socia networks. These questions sought to identify whether young back men have socia networks which might be hepfu or infuentia in terms of education or empoyment. The responses are shown in chart viii beow. There are significant differences in the responses from EET (in empoyment, education or training) and NEET (not in empoyment, education or training) respondents to three of the questions. Respondents who are NEET are significanty ess ikey to say that most of the friends are in work or education, that most of their famiy are in work or education, or that their friends or famiy coud hep them to get a job. Chart xiii: Responses to socia capita questions (% of a respondents) Most of my friends are working or in education 48 A my famiy are working or in education My friends or famiy coud hep me to a job 55 I know where to go for advice about getting a job 31 I get a the hep I need to hep me to get a job Tota EET NEET Source: BTEG survey of young back men, Nb. Separate responses for EET and NEET respondents are ony shown where the difference in responses is statisticay significant. Reasons for high unempoyment rate for young back men The survey asked: The officia unempoyment rate for young back men in Engand is 50% compared with 22% for young white men. What do you think are the reasons for this? Just over haf of a respondents (82 respondents) gave a response to this question. The responses provide an interesting and important insight into what young back men consider the factors affecting their empoyment opportunities. The responses ranged in ength from 1 word ( racism ) to 800 words. Severa respondents wrote detaied and moving persona accounts of their own experiences of searching for jobs. The reasons for high unempoyment given by the survey respondents can be broady grouped into intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The intrinsic factors are those which are within the contro of young back men and over which they

29 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London 25 coud be seen to have some choice; these incude having a bad attitude and aziness. The extrinsic factors are those which are beyond the contro of individua young back men and where they cannot exercise any choice, such as some empoyers are racist or negative media stereotypes of young back men. Chart xiv shows the extrinsic factors to the eft and the intrinsic factors to the right. As the chart iustrates, the young back men who responded to this survey question identified amost equa numbers of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, with the extrinsic factors cited by many more respondents. There are 72 mentions for extrinsic factors (62% of a factors cited) and 44 mentions for intrinsic factors (38% of a factors cited). Chart xiv: Young back men s reasons for higher unempoyment rate (% of a respondents) Racism Negative stereotypes 20 jobs Not enough Not enough support Poor home environment 10 Poor 6 network Bad 16 attitudes Lower quaifications Lower ambitions Not prepared to take some jobs Crimina records Source: BTEG survey of young back men, 2013 The foowing comments from survey respondents refect the range of views expressed about why unempoyment rates are so high for young back men: I honesty think it s a mix of young back men getting invoved with gang ife and having that gang mentaity to get money through means of drug deaing vioence and other iega ways. The other reason for it is because of racism and I fee that the stereotype of back peope foows them wherever they go. For exampe, I was on the bus the other day and a woman with a baby buggy was getting off the bus. She had dropped her bag and I picked it up for her and tried to hand it to her and she snatched it and just gave me a dirty ook. Empoyers may aso have a bad impression of back boys thinking that they have no work ethic or ambition, or that the boys are no good and wi cause troube.

30 26 To Increase Empoyment Rates For Young Back Men In London Because back maes are not shown in the best way in the pubic eye. Peope stereotype them, in being in gangs and this effects back maes chances of getting a job. From my observation I see some young back men fee disconnected with mainstream society and aienated from most other communities. We don t have a ot of reaistic professiona roe modes. A ot of young back men are sociaised within the sma bubbe of their economic status and are thus cuturay deprived of the necessary exposure that is needed in the modern professiona work pace. This is sowy improving over time but more can be done. A ot of the time job opportunities are more to do with who you know rather than are you best suited for the job. This means the easiest way to get a job is if a reative or someone who can give you a good reference works for the company. In this case this woud put white peope at an advantage as you usuay find a ot of white peope in high positions such as manager, etc. Aso because there are not as many back peope that own businesses, meaning not as many back peope in a position of authority to hep out younger back peope such as mysef. So we are at a disadvantage. I fee that back peope can make it harder on themseves as we possiby due to aziness or ateness or a bad attitude. Aso sometimes back peope can become mixed up in the wrong crowd and end up with a crimina record which makes their job search that much harder. I don t beieve it is a society s faut but there is a stigma around back mae youth due to the portraya of media and other things. For instance in the news they wi document a back on back crime usuay a few young back maes, but won t show the good things back peope are currenty doing in this country. This is another reason why I fee empoyers maybe are more cautious when it comes to hiring back maes. A very infuentia back man in my ife tod me for a back man to get a job they cannot be equas with a white man, they must be better than them (educationay and genera ife skis ike communication, teamwork, etc) or the white man wi get the job. 3.4 Young back men: discussion groups Twenty five young back men took part in four discussion groups hed in March and Apri The discussion groups took pace in Jobcentre Pus offices in Hackney, Haringey, Lambeth and Brent and the participants were a active job seekers. A participants were aged between 18 and 24 and were from back African, back Caribbean, back British or mixed ethnic groups. They were invited to participate vountariy in a 90 minute discussion about the experiences of young back men who are ooking for work. The participants had very mixed backgrounds. The majority had grown up in the oca area but some were recent migrants to the UK. Some had eft schoo with no quaifications but more were university graduates or current undergraduates. A few participants had crimina records or had experienced homeessness or famiy breakdown and others were from stabe backgrounds. The groups incuded some young men with previous work experience, one had served in the armed forces for exampe, whie other participants were sti seeking a first job, for exampe one young man with a postgraduate quaification was seeking an opening in a ega practice. The diversity of the participants backgrounds is important because their views and experiences of unempoyment and job seeking were remarkaby simiar.

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