Green power. options

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Green power. options"

Transcription

1 Green power options How a our universities can hep stop cimate change by switching to green eectricity In January 2001 Peope & Panet caed on every UK university to switch to green eectricity, generated from renewabe sources that do not contribute to cimate change. Our campaign has met with considerabe success, initiay in October 2001, when Loughborough became the first university in the country to switch to using 100% green eectricity. Since then at east 10 other universities have made the switch. However over recent months various caims have been made to the effect that universities cannot switch to green eectricity - either because suppies are not avaiabe, or are prohibitivey expensive. But how accurate are these caims? To answer these questions Peope & Panet has cosey examined the suppy options which exist for universities that wish to switch to green eectricity. This report summarises our findings and detais the options that do exist for universities to make the switch. October 2002

2 Suppies of green eectricity are currenty avaiabe. suggest that those universities were unaware of a suppy options. The most recent suppy contract was Our research shows that green eectricity is avaiabe, and that any caims to the effect that it has run out are incorrect. agreed in August 2002 to suppy green eectricity to the universities of Bradford, Hu and Humberside. Within this dea Bradford University wi be suppied with There are 7 suppiers who are currenty offering green eectricity products to business customers. 100% renewabe eectricity - 15 miion kwh - from October In this rapidy deveoping market new In the course of preparing this report two of these, Ecotricity and Scottish & Southern Energy (both of whom suppy nationay), expicity confirmed that they can currenty provide universities with renewabe eectricity. Over 14 universities are now being suppied with renewabe eectricity, in proportions varying from 2% to 100%. In January 2001 ony 3 universities were in this position and suppies are continuay becoming avaiabe. Every university has a different eectricity demand pattern and consumes a different amount of power. This variabiity makes it impossibe to estimate precisey what premium (if any) universities are ikey to have to pay for green eectricity in the current market. However there is good evidence that green eectricity is avaiabe on competitive terms. no UK university was suppied with more that 40% green eectricity. In the first 8 months of 2002 at east 7 universities have entered into new green eectricity contracts. These deas were signed after other universities had caimed that suppies were not avaiabe, which 3 of the suppiers featured in this report charge no premium for their green eectricity product. At east 7 of the universities who are aready suppied with green eectricity negotiated contracts that are cost-neutra, meaning that when the effects of the Cimate Change Levy Which Universities are currenty suppied with green eectricity? Start date University Renewabe Suppier suppy % October 1999 Leeds Metropoitan University 30 - Apri 2000 Edinburgh 40 Scottish Power - York 10 - October 2001 Loughborough 100 British Energy October 2001 Surrey 6 Scottish & Southern Eectricity November 2001 Sussex 100 Ecotricity November 2001 Sheffied 2 Ecotricity/UK Eectric Power December 2001 Sheffied Haam 5 Unit [e] January 2002 Pymouth 10 Bizz Energy March 2002 Bristo 64 - Juy 2002 Gasgow 10 Scottish Power October 2002 Bradford 100 Bizz Energy October 2002 Hu 68 Bizz Energy October 2002 Huddersfied Major contract Bizz Energy Source: UK universities isted

3 are taken into account they are paying no more for green eectricity than they woud be paying for norma brown eectricity. eectricity suppiers to source a percentage of their power from renewabe sources. This is currenty 3%, rising to 10% by A system Ceary green eectricity is not as readiy avaiabe as brown suppies. Not a eectricity companies currenty provide aternative renewabe suppy products. As a resut switching to green does take more than just a phone ca to the current suppier. Instead this important move requires a modest commitment to seek out the best suppy options within what is a new and rapidy deveoping market. of Renewabe Obigation Certificates (ROCs) certifies the energy is from green sources (wind, soar, sma hydro, biofues). Suppiers without their own renewabe generation capacity, or with insufficient capacity to meet their quota, can buy ROCs from suppiers with surpus certificates. However now that a suppiers have to either generate some green energy (or purchase certificates), there is no guarantee that However there is every reason to beieve that any persistent and committed university wi quicky be abe to secure suppies at a competitive price. purchasing a CCL-exempt suppy product wi ead to environmenta benefits. In fact, according to energy market anaysts Patts, in certain cases business customers are paying extra for power that woud be generated even if Not a green power nobody paid a premium for green power. options ead to environmenta benefits. UK universities may have more than one reason Which are the best suppy options? for wishing to source their eectricity requirements from renewabe energy. Apart from heping to ensure that they meet their environmenta responsibiities and the reputationa vaue of being abe to inform students, staff and other stakehoders that they A university that wishes to purchase green power wi want to ensure that any premium they pay wi ead to rea environmenta benefits. However this wi ony be the case if the suppy product: are powered with green energy, there is often an supports new renewabe generation, or; economic incentive. is additiona to the suppier's renewabe Power generated from renewabe energy (aong obigation. with power from high quaity combined heat and power generation) is exempt from the Cimate Change Levy (CCL). The Levy is a 0.43 pence per kwh tax charged as part of the government's commitment to meet its target to cut greenhouse gas emissions under the terms of the Kyoto agreement. In response many eectricity In order to hep universities know if this is the case, Peope & Panet, using information from the Patts European Utiities Retai update, suppemented with its own research, has ranked the various green power products according to their greenness (see tabe beow). Our two main criteria were: suppiers have aunched CCL-exempt suppy products that aow universities to take advantage of the exemption. However, another government initiative designed to promote renewabe energy means that not a these suppy products wi actuay ead to environmenta benefits. The Government Renewabes Obigation, introduced in Apri 2000, egay requires a Whether suppiers support additiona renewabe generation capacity, either by investing proceeds in new capacity or by vountariy retiring ROCS (removing them from the market) The energy source, with new, genuiney renewabe sources ranked higher than arge hydro or waste incineration.

4 Which are the greenest suppy options for universities? Rank Suppier Power source Notes 1 Unit[e] 75% wind, 25% sma hydro Green ony suppier. Retires ROCs to ensure additionaity 2 Ecotricity 100% wind Green ony suppier. Some ROCs sod to other suppiers 3= Bizz Energy 90% andfi gas, 10% wind Makes contribution to additiona renewabe investment 3= Scottish Power Wind, andfi gas, hydro (mix undiscosed) Invests proceeds in additiona renewabe capacity 5= British Gas Wind, andfi gas (mix undiscosed) No proceeds invested in additiona renewabe capacity 5= Scottish & Southern Large hydro, wind, andfi gas, waste No proceeds invested in additiona renewabe capacity incineration (mix dependent on product) 7 Powergen Mix undiscosed, caimed to be mosty wind No proceeds invested in additiona renewabe capacity Source: Patts/Peope & Panet As can be seen from the tabe, the resuts of this research show that in genera it is better for universities to purchase eectricity from green ony suppiers. These suppiers have a Suppier profies: green-ony suppiers UNIT[E] deeper commitment to environmenta sustainabiity than traditiona suppiers and are argey driven by the aim of increasing UK renewabe generation capacity. Customers receiving suppy for these companies can be assured that they are making a rea contribution to growing UK renewabes generation capacity and combating cimate change. In addition there are other traditiona suppiers, notaby Bizz Energy and Scottish Power, who are aso suppying products that shoud ead to Unit [e] is a 100% renewabe eectricity suppier that does not offer any power from non renewabe sources. It is currenty the ony suppier vountariy retiring ROCs from the market, to ensure additionaity. It currenty retires 7% of the certificates associated with the green power it suppies, meaning that Unit [e] customers can rest assured that at east 7% of the power they consume is additiona to green power that is otherwise incuded in the renewabe obigation targets. environmenta benefits, abeit with ess certainty than the green-ony suppiers. It is definitey worth taking to these suppiers. Our ast concusion is that in deaing with a suppiers, universities shoud ask directy about what environmenta benefits - and specificay what additionaity - possibe purchase decisions wi have. As ong as care is taken in seecting suppiers, universities wi be abe to avoid products that sound green but make itte positive difference. Unit[e] currenty suppies Sheffied Haam University. Athough at present it can ony suppy a imited number of other universities, it is keen to enter into partnerships with committed customers, noting that one thing that is not imited in the UK is the resource, the tota wind capacity in the UK is one of the argest in Europe and is capabe of suppying over 3 times the current UK eectricity suppy. Unit [e] state that to tap into these resources deveopers and suppiers, ike ourseves, need foresight and commitment from key institutions. Any premium that customers pay to buy power from Unit [e] is justified on the basis that it comes from the ceanest of UK sources - 75% from wind and 25% from sma hydro. Athough Unit [e] does not currenty own generation capacity, it says it wi soon be investing in its

5 own capacity foowing a successfu initia their own sites or the customers and. In pubic share offer in Juy return for a 12 year power purchase agreement a university woud receive an excusive, ong-term source of green eectricity for ess than the price of brown at ECOTRICITY no cost or financia risk. Ecotricity offers genuine green eectricity from UK wind generation. Unike Unit [e], Ecotricity does not promote additionaity by retiring ROCs from the market. Most are used to meet its own requirements, with 25% OTHER POSSIBLE SUPPLIERS Green Energy UK sod to other suppiers. However a the proceeds from the sae of ROCs are used to fund new capacity. They are currenty abe to suppy universities immediatey with 10% green eectricity, and then increase this by 10% every year for the next four years. The newy buit renewabe energy sources wi mean that in five years, 50% of eectricity wi come from new green sources. Suppier profies: traditiona suppiers BIZZ ENERGY Bizz Energy, a new entrant to the marketpace, ony suppies to business customers. It currenty suppies Bradford, Huddersfied, Hu and Pymouth universities. "Our focus is on new capacity - 10% A the green power sod comes from UK additiona new deep green eectricity per renewabe sources: wind and andfi gas. annum, an incrementa target which is 10 Bizz Energy ses a of the ROCs attached to times the Government's target for the same these saes to other suppiers, but does period," expained Ecotricity. support additionaity in that a proportion of Responding to concerns about avaiabiity Ecotricity stated that their scheme is not at a imited. We have enough in our reserves to suppy arge businesses and see no reason why this shoud change. the profits it makes on its CCL-exempt product is returned to the generators so they can invest in renewabe generation. Bizz Energy charges no premium for it s Greener Bizz product. On price they state that athough the price for brown eectricity hit rock bottom earier this year... we endeavour to match a competitor's brown price where possibe, however we most probaby wi not be in a position to match the absoute best price. However shoud we achieve an acceptabe price eve Ecotricity woud not charge a further premium as the percentage of green increments on a year by year basis. SCOTTISH POWER Scottish Power's Greensource tariff is one of the most popuar green power products amongst business customers. Whist it charges no premium, proceeds are invested in new capacity. This means that customers can support new renewabe generation without paying a premium. In addition, Ecotricity aso offer an extra suppy option for the more committed customer known as Merchant Wind Power. Under this scheme they wi suppy, insta A power sod under the tariff is UKgenerated and comes from wind, andfi and hydro. Scottish Power coud not discose how much power comes from each source. and run one or more wind turbines, either on

6 As with Gasgow University, Scottish Power imits new business customers to 10% renewabe suppy. generation. British Gas coud not discose source percentages but assured Patts that probaby a of the power suppied under this tariff comes from renewabes rather than CHP or waste incineration. It shoud aso be noted that the mix of generation types coud soon change. It does SCOTTISH & SOUTHERN Scottish and Southern Energy (S&SE) currenty provides over 35% of the UK's renewabe energy, mainy generated from arge hydropower not charge a premium for this product but no proceeds from the tariff are invested in additiona capacity. instaations in Scotand. S&SE currenty suppies customers UK wide, POWERGEN incuding Surrey University. S&SE offers two different products, a CCL-exempt product (which incudes 30% waste incineration and 20% arge hydro) and a 'greener' option from renewabe sources (5% wind, 95% hydro). None of the ROCs attached to these saes are retired from the market, nor does S&SE invest any of the proceeds from either product in new renewabe capacity. It does charge premiums on Powergen ony offers a CCL-exempt product, which appears not to promote any additionaity. It has not reveaed detais of its power sourcing, other than to say that this was mosty wind power. Patts were unabe to determine whether any of the rest comes from mixed municipa waste or CHP. It aso indicated that not a its power is sourced in the UK. a per contract basis. "A premium for the green tariff is justified on the grounds of high refurbishment and maintenance costs associated OTHER POSSIBLE SUPPLIERS with od, arge hydro stations (and their infrastructure), which receive no other subsidy," SWEB expained S&SE S&SE currenty has significant suppies avaiabe and woud be deighted to discuss the eectricity requirements of any UK university and to taior a package to the universities specific needs. Any university interested in being suppied with green energy shoud tak to us. What is green eectricity? Green eectricity is generated in a manner that both reduces carbon dioxide emissions and is environmentay sustainabe. In Peope & Panet s definition this means that With regard to price S&SE state they suppy at very competitive prices and that the utimate price paid by the individua university woud be dictated by a number of factors, incuding the it comes from the foowing renewabe sources: wind; hydropower; andfi gas; tida; wave; soar (photovotaic); geotherma and energy crops. customer s pattern of demand, and the amount and type of green required. This definition excudes two power sources that are sometimes caimed to be 'renewabe': nucear power and waste incineration. Both of these controversia sources have significant negative BRITISH GAS environmenta impacts, the atter being Centrica's British Gas Trading subsidiary offers a CCL-exempt tariff. Like Bizz Energy, a the power sod under this scheme comes from UK pouting in its own right as we as providing a disincentive to more sustainabe waste management strategies.

7 A question of commitment "Cimate Change poses a serious threat to mankind. It wi not go away - and the 'do nothing' option is not an option. We have to reduce greenhouse gas emissions." Michae Meacher MP Minister for the Environment remember that currenty universities are not paying the fu cost of their conventiona brown eectricity suppies. Athough industriaised countries ike the UK are causing cimate change, it is mainy the word's poor who are suffering the consequences. In the words of the Roya Commission on Environmenta Poution "The prices consumers pay for fossi fues do not, for Today, and ooking forward through the century, the ives and iveihoods of one biion peope are threatened by the effects of cimate change. By 2025 the United Nations estimates that over haf of a peope iving in deveoping countries wi be highy vunerabe to foods and storms. Cimate-reated natura disasters are increasing in frequency. According to Munich Re, one of the word s argest reinsurance companies, the most part, refect the harm their use is doing and wi continue to do as the impacts of increasing cimate change make themseves fet." In view of the human cost of cimate change we very much hope that many more universities wi decide to foow the ead set by their coeagues at Loughborough, Sussex, Bradford and esewhere, and make the switch to green eectricity. during the 1960s there were 16 cimate-reated Peope & Panet, October 2002 natura disasters, a figure which increased to 70 during the 1990s. Ninety six percent of deaths from such disasters occur in deveoping countries. These stark facts highight some of the many severe negative impacts of cimate change that need to be avoided. As we hope this report demonstrates, there are practica opportunities for universities, as major eectricity consumers, to drive the deveopment of the renewabe energy market in ways that wi reduce greenhouse gases and ead to rea environmenta benefits. What is needed is a commitment, both to invest time in seeking suitabe suppies and in some case money to pay the sma premiums that are necessary to produce eectricity that does not cause environmenta harm. Some universities may find it easy to switch. Some universities may find it more difficut. Others may be reuctant to pay any premium above the owest possibe market rate. However when considering how much time and money to invest in securing green eectricity suppies, and ensuring those suppies ead to environmenta benefits, it is important to

8 About this report This report has been produced for the institutiona stakehoders of UK universities, incuding Vice-Chanceors, Energy & Environmenta Managers and interested students. It was pubished by Peope & Panet, the nationa student network campaigning to end word poverty, defend human rights and protect the panet. Peope & Panet woud ike to thank Pau Whitehead, editor of Patts European Utiity Retai, the Nationa Energy Foundation and the many Energy Managers, university staff and student campaigners who provided assistance. Printed on 100% recyced paper by a printer operating to the EMAS environmenta standard. Designed using eectricity from 100% renewabe sources. FOR MORE INFORMATION ON ANY OF THE OPTIONS DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT PLEASE CONTACT PEOPLE & PLANET. Write: 51 Union Street, Oxford OX4 1JP Phone: Emai: Onine:

Early access to FAS payments for members in poor health

Early access to FAS payments for members in poor health Financia Assistance Scheme Eary access to FAS payments for members in poor heath Pension Protection Fund Protecting Peope s Futures The Financia Assistance Scheme is administered by the Pension Protection

More information

The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results

The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results insurance services Sma Business Insurance a market opportunity being missed Einstein may not have known much about insurance, but if you appy his definition to the way existing brands are deveoping their

More information

Pay-on-delivery investing

Pay-on-delivery investing Pay-on-deivery investing EVOLVE INVESTment range 1 EVOLVE INVESTMENT RANGE EVOLVE INVESTMENT RANGE 2 Picture a word where you ony pay a company once they have deivered Imagine striking oi first, before

More information

Business Banking. A guide for franchises

Business Banking. A guide for franchises Business Banking A guide for franchises Hep with your franchise business, right on your doorstep A true understanding of the needs of your business: that s what makes RBS the right choice for financia

More information

AA Fixed Rate ISA Savings

AA Fixed Rate ISA Savings AA Fixed Rate ISA Savings For the road ahead The Financia Services Authority is the independent financia services reguator. It requires us to give you this important information to hep you to decide whether

More information

Infrastructure for Business

Infrastructure for Business Infrastructure for Business The IoD Member Broadband Survey Infrastructure for Business 2013 #5 The IoD Member Broadband Survey The IoD Member Broadband Survey Written by: Corin Tayor, Senior Economic

More information

Uncovered Report: Cash Plan and Private Health Insurance Explained

Uncovered Report: Cash Plan and Private Health Insurance Explained Uncovered Report: Cash Pan and Private Heath Insurance Expained Contents 3 Introduction 4 Cash pan products 6 Private heath insurance products 9 How the two pans match up? 10 Concusion 33256_ONEGI_GEN3480_BRO.indd

More information

Key Features of Life Insurance

Key Features of Life Insurance Key Features of Life Insurance Life Insurance Key Features The Financia Conduct Authority is a financia services reguator. It requires us, Aviva, to give you this important information to hep you to decide

More information

Monopoly 8. 3 the local refuse disposal service 4 your school 5 the national telephone service 6 the national postal service.

Monopoly 8. 3 the local refuse disposal service 4 your school 5 the national telephone service 6 the national postal service. Monopoy 8 By the end of this chapter, you shoud be abe to: HL expain the assumptions of monopoy HL define, expain, and give exampes of sources of monopoy power/ barriers to entry HL define, expain, and

More information

The guaranteed selection. For certainty in uncertain times

The guaranteed selection. For certainty in uncertain times The guaranteed seection For certainty in uncertain times Making the right investment choice If you can t afford to take a ot of risk with your money it can be hard to find the right investment, especiay

More information

Perfect competition. By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: 7 Perfect competition. 1 Microeconomics. 1 Microeconomics

Perfect competition. By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: 7 Perfect competition. 1 Microeconomics. 1 Microeconomics erfect 7 12 By the end of this chapter, you shoud be abe to: HL expain the assumptions of perfect HL distinguish between the demand curve for the industry and for the firm in perfect HL expain how the

More information

Learning from evaluations Processes and instruments used by GIZ as a learning organisation and their contribution to interorganisational learning

Learning from evaluations Processes and instruments used by GIZ as a learning organisation and their contribution to interorganisational learning Monitoring and Evauation Unit Learning from evauations Processes and instruments used by GIZ as a earning organisation and their contribution to interorganisationa earning Contents 1.3Learning from evauations

More information

Introduction the pressure for efficiency the Estates opportunity

Introduction the pressure for efficiency the Estates opportunity Heathy Savings? A study of the proportion of NHS Trusts with an in-house Buidings Repair and Maintenance workforce, and a discussion of eary experiences of Suppies efficiency initiatives Management Summary

More information

AUSTRALIA S GAMBLING INDUSTRIES - INQUIRY

AUSTRALIA S GAMBLING INDUSTRIES - INQUIRY Mr Gary Banks Chairman Productivity Commission PO Box 80 BELCONNEN ACT 2616 Dear Mr Banks AUSTRALIA S GAMBLING INDUSTRIES - INQUIRY I refer to the Issues Paper issued September 1998 seeking submissions

More information

How to deal with personal financial problems

How to deal with personal financial problems How to dea with persona financia probems D I S P U T E R E S O L U T I O N Introduction Heping you face the future with confidence In 2014, the eve of consumer debt in the UK grew to reach a seven-year

More information

Australian Bureau of Statistics Management of Business Providers

Australian Bureau of Statistics Management of Business Providers Purpose Austraian Bureau of Statistics Management of Business Providers 1 The principa objective of the Austraian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in respect of business providers is to impose the owest oad

More information

endorsed programmes With our expertise and unique flexible approach NOCN will work with you to develop a product that achieves results.

endorsed programmes With our expertise and unique flexible approach NOCN will work with you to develop a product that achieves results. endorsed programmes With our expertise and unique fexibe approach NOCN wi work with you to deveop a product that achieves resuts. NOCN is a eading reguated UK awarding organisation that has been creating

More information

ICAP CREDIT RISK SERVICES. Your Business Partner

ICAP CREDIT RISK SERVICES. Your Business Partner ICAP CREDIT RISK SERVICES Your Business Partner ABOUT ICAP GROUP ICAP Group with 56 miion revenues for 2008 and 1,000 empoyees- is the argest Business Services Group in Greece. In addition to its Greek

More information

DigitalKitbag. Email marketing

DigitalKitbag. Email marketing Emai marketing Who are Digita Kitbag? We re your business marketing team Digita Kitbag is owned and operated by Johnston Press, one of the argest regiona media pubishers in the UK and Ireand. We have a

More information

Let s get usable! Usability studies for indexes. Susan C. Olason. Study plan

Let s get usable! Usability studies for indexes. Susan C. Olason. Study plan Let s get usabe! Usabiity studies for indexes Susan C. Oason The artice discusses a series of usabiity studies on indexes from a systems engineering and human factors perspective. The purpose of these

More information

Energy Performance Certificate

Energy Performance Certificate Energy Performance Certificate Sampe EPC TheDomesticEnergyAssessorcom Dweing type: Date of assessment: Date of certificate: Reference number: Tota foor area: Mid-terrace house 09 June 2007 31 August 2007

More information

ELEVATING YOUR GAME FROM TRADE SPEND TO TRADE INVESTMENT

ELEVATING YOUR GAME FROM TRADE SPEND TO TRADE INVESTMENT Initiatives Strategic Mapping Success in The Food System: Discover. Anayze. Strategize. Impement. Measure. ELEVATING YOUR GAME FROM TRADE SPEND TO TRADE INVESTMENT Foodservice manufacturers aocate, in

More information

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING Part 1 A conceptua framework: setting the scene 1 Who needs accounting? 2 A systematic approach to financia reporting: the accounting equation 3 Financia statements from the accounting

More information

Business schools are the academic setting where. The current crisis has highlighted the need to redefine the role of senior managers in organizations.

Business schools are the academic setting where. The current crisis has highlighted the need to redefine the role of senior managers in organizations. c r o s os r oi a d s REDISCOVERING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS SCHOOLS The current crisis has highighted the need to redefine the roe of senior managers in organizations. JORDI CANALS Professor and Dean, IESE

More information

A Description of the California Partnership for Long-Term Care Prepared by the California Department of Health Care Services

A Description of the California Partnership for Long-Term Care Prepared by the California Department of Health Care Services 2012 Before You Buy A Description of the Caifornia Partnership for Long-Term Care Prepared by the Caifornia Department of Heath Care Services Page 1 of 13 Ony ong-term care insurance poicies bearing any

More information

Older people s assets: using housing equity to pay for health and aged care

Older people s assets: using housing equity to pay for health and aged care Key words: aged care; retirement savings; reverse mortgage; financia innovation; financia panning Oder peope s assets: using housing equity to pay for heath and aged care The research agenda on the ageing

More information

Subject: Corns of En gineers and Bureau of Reclamation: Information on Potential Budgetarv Reductions for Fiscal Year 1998

Subject: Corns of En gineers and Bureau of Reclamation: Information on Potential Budgetarv Reductions for Fiscal Year 1998 GAO United States Genera Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20548 Resources, Community, and Economic Deveopment Division B-276660 Apri 25, 1997 The Honorabe Pete V. Domenici Chairman The Honorabe Harry

More information

No longer living together: how does Scots cohabitation law work in practice?

No longer living together: how does Scots cohabitation law work in practice? Centre for Research on Famiies and Reationships Briefing 51 October 2010 No onger iving together: how does Scots cohabitation aw work in practice? crfr In response to the greater diversity of famiy ife

More information

Aviva Times of our Lives Report. Autumn 2012

Aviva Times of our Lives Report. Autumn 2012 Aviva Times of our Lives Report Autumn 2012 Contents Introduction Introduction Materia Weath Weath: What we re Worth Contents, Cars and Homes Mind the Gap The Insurance Gap The Income Gap Emotiona Heath

More information

Online Media Information

Online Media Information Onine Media Information www.sciencedirect.com The vita daiy source for 16 miion researchers and scientists around the gobe 70 miion pageviews each month Broad advertising product portfoio SciVerse ScienceDirect:

More information

Corporate Governance f o r M a i n M a r k e t a n d a i M C o M p a n i e s

Corporate Governance f o r M a i n M a r k e t a n d a i M C o M p a n i e s Corporate Governance f o r M a i n M a r k e t a n d a i M C o M p a n i e s Shepherd and Wedderburn is one of the UK s eading aw firms. We have an uncompromising commitment to our cients, with quaity

More information

Solar Panels - (Photovoltaics) on Church Buildings

Solar Panels - (Photovoltaics) on Church Buildings Soar panes Soar Panes - (Photovotaics) on Church Buidings As Christians it is our duty to care for the word with which we have been entrusted. It is now cear that our modern, energy-hungry ifestyes are

More information

CERTIFICATE COURSE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY. Course Offered By: Indian Environmental Society

CERTIFICATE COURSE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY. Course Offered By: Indian Environmental Society CERTIFICATE COURSE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY Course Offered By: Indian Environmenta Society INTRODUCTION The Indian Environmenta Society (IES) a dynamic and fexibe organization with a goba vision

More information

A short guide to making a medical negligence claim

A short guide to making a medical negligence claim A short guide to making a medica negigence caim Introduction Suffering from an incident of medica negigence is traumatic and can have a serious ong-term impact on both the physica and menta heath of affected

More information

Know your. Everything you need to know when it comes to renting and paying bills

Know your. Everything you need to know when it comes to renting and paying bills Know your rights! Everything you need to know when it comes to renting and paying bis Know your rights! Research Starting university is a ife changing and exciting miestone in every student s ife, and

More information

Specification of fibre raw material. For the documentation of fibre raw material:

Specification of fibre raw material. For the documentation of fibre raw material: Appendix 1A Specification of fibre raw materia Suppier: Product: Manufacturer/suppier: For the documentation of fibre raw materia: Type of wood/pant and geographica origin (country/state and region/ province).

More information

How to Cut Health Care Costs

How to Cut Health Care Costs How to Cut Heath Care Costs INSIDE: TEN TIPS FOR MEDICARE BENEFICIARIES What is one of the biggest financia surprises in retirement? Heath care costs. It s a growing concern among many Medicare beneficiaries,

More information

professional indemnity insurance proposal form

professional indemnity insurance proposal form professiona indemnity insurance proposa form Important Facts Reating To This Proposa Form You shoud read the foowing advice before proceeding to compete this proposa form. Duty of Discosure Before you

More information

Chapter 3: Investing: Your Options, Your Risks, Your Rewards

Chapter 3: Investing: Your Options, Your Risks, Your Rewards Chapter 3: Investing: Your Options, Your Risks, Your Rewards Page 1 of 10 Chapter 3: Investing: Your Options, Your Risks, Your Rewards In This Chapter What is inside a mutua fund? What is a stock? What

More information

We are XMA and Viglen.

We are XMA and Viglen. alearn with Microsoft 16pp 21.07_Layout 1 22/12/2014 10:49 Page 1 FRONT COVER alearn with Microsoft We are XMA and Vigen. Ca us now on 0115 846 4900 Visit www.xma.co.uk/aearn Emai alearn@xma.co.uk Foow

More information

l l ll l l Exploding the Myths about DETC Accreditation A Primer for Students

l l ll l l Exploding the Myths about DETC Accreditation A Primer for Students Expoding the Myths about DETC Accreditation A Primer for Students Distance Education and Training Counci Expoding the Myths about DETC Accreditation: A Primer for Students Prospective distance education

More information

Serving the Millennial Generation - The Challenge and Opportunity for Financial Services Companies

Serving the Millennial Generation - The Challenge and Opportunity for Financial Services Companies Serving the Miennia Generation - The Chaenge and Opportunity for Financia Services Companies May 2015 Christopher J. Perry, CFA Equity Research Anayst Today, the Miennia Generation (or Generation Y), broady

More information

Key Features and Terms & Conditions of the Stocks & Shares Junior ISA

Key Features and Terms & Conditions of the Stocks & Shares Junior ISA June 2013 Key Features and Terms & Conditions of the This document shoud be read in conjunction with an up-to-date Key Investor Information Document (KIID) for the fund in which you want to invest. You

More information

ASSET MANAGEMENT OUR APPROACH

ASSET MANAGEMENT OUR APPROACH ASSET MANAGEMENT OUR APPROACH CONTENTS FOREWORD 3 INTRODUCTION 4 ASSET MANAGEMENT? 6 THE NEED FOR CHANGE 6 KEY PRINCIPLES 7 APPENDIX 1 19 GLOSSARY 20 2 FOREWORD Few things affect our customers ives as

More information

Distribution of Income Sources of Recent Retirees: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey

Distribution of Income Sources of Recent Retirees: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey Distribution of Income Sources of Recent Retirees: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey by Linda Drazga Maxfied and Virginia P. Rena* Using data from the New Beneficiary Survey, this artice examines

More information

Aviva Equity Release A guide to our lifetime mortgages. Lifestyle Lump Sum Max Lifestyle Flexible Option

Aviva Equity Release A guide to our lifetime mortgages. Lifestyle Lump Sum Max Lifestyle Flexible Option Aviva Equity Reease A guide to our ifetime mortgages Lifestye Lump Sum Max Lifestye Fexibe Option Contents An introduction to equity reease and ifetime mortgages 3 Who might quaify? 4 What you need to

More information

Online Security. Savings

Online Security. Savings Onine Security Savings What is onine security? This booket is designed to make you aware of some of the atest threats that exist when managing your money onine so you can protect your money in the same

More information

Qualifications, professional development and probation

Qualifications, professional development and probation UCU Continuing Professiona Deveopment Quaifications, professiona deveopment and probation Initia training and further education teaching quaifications Since September 2007 a newy appointed FE ecturers,

More information

READING A CREDIT REPORT

READING A CREDIT REPORT Name Date CHAPTER 6 STUDENT ACTIVITY SHEET READING A CREDIT REPORT Review the sampe credit report. Then search for a sampe credit report onine, print it off, and answer the questions beow. This activity

More information

Recognition of Prior Learning

Recognition of Prior Learning Recognition of Prior Learning Information Guideines for Students EXTENDED CAMPUS This subject materia is issued by Cork Institute of Technoogy on the understanding that: Cork Institute of Technoogy expressy

More information

The Economic Risks of Reducing the U.S. Electricity Supply CO, Control and the U.S. Electricity Sector

The Economic Risks of Reducing the U.S. Electricity Supply CO, Control and the U.S. Electricity Sector The Economic Risks of Reducing the U.S. Eectricity Suppy CO, Contro and the U.S. Eectricity Sector PRESENTED BY Resource Data Internationa, Inc. 1320 Pear Street, Suite 300 Bouder, Coorado 80302 Phone

More information

Income Protection Options

Income Protection Options Income Protection Options Poicy Conditions Introduction These poicy conditions are written confirmation of your contract with Aviva Life & Pensions UK Limited. It is important that you read them carefuy

More information

INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL

INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL Finance TM NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE TAX & PARKING PROGRAM OPERATIONS DIVISION INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL ABATEMENT PROGRAM PRELIMINARY APPLICATION AND INSTRUCTIONS Mai to: NYC Department of Finance,

More information

Order-to-Cash Processes

Order-to-Cash Processes TMI170 ING info pat 2:Info pat.qxt 01/12/2008 09:25 Page 1 Section Two: Order-to-Cash Processes Gregory Cronie, Head Saes, Payments and Cash Management, ING O rder-to-cash and purchase-topay processes

More information

(David H T Lan) Secretary for Home Affairs

(David H T Lan) Secretary for Home Affairs Message We sha make every effort to strengthen the community buiding programme which serves to foster among the peope of Hong Kong a sense of beonging and mutua care. We wi continue to impement the District

More information

Apprenticeships. Everything you need to know about Apprenticeships with West Sussex County Council. Apprenticeships

Apprenticeships. Everything you need to know about Apprenticeships with West Sussex County Council. Apprenticeships Apprenticeships Everything you need to know about Apprenticeships with West Sussex County Counci Apprenticeships Apprenticeships September 2013 What is an Apprenticeship? An apprenticeship is a nationay

More information

ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS. l l l. l l. l l l. l l l

ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS. l l l. l l. l l l. l l l Program Organization = Number "1060" = Type "123342" = "ETM2LAZCD" For = "502859" "TCCUS" "" Name "WK Number = Name "First "1001" = "1" Eectronic = "1001" = Financia "Jane Funds Doe" Northwest Xfer PG1

More information

Message. The Trade and Industry Bureau is committed to providing maximum support for Hong Kong s manufacturing and services industries.

Message. The Trade and Industry Bureau is committed to providing maximum support for Hong Kong s manufacturing and services industries. Message The Trade and Industry Bureau is committed to providing maximum support for Hong Kong s manufacturing and services industries. With the weight of our economy shifting towards knowedge-based and

More information

ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES. l l

ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES. l l ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES The Eectronic Fund Transfers we are capabe of handing for consumers are indicated beow some of which may not appy your account Some of these may

More information

Tom Deevy (left) from Bastion, Joanne Pratt from FW Capital and Mark Irving from Irving and Ramsay who advised on the investment.

Tom Deevy (left) from Bastion, Joanne Pratt from FW Capital and Mark Irving from Irving and Ramsay who advised on the investment. ISSUE 2 - Spring 2011 FINANCE FOR NORTH EAST FINANCE NEWS Bastion secures investment for the future Fund ceebrates year of investment Businesses in the region benefitted from investment funding to the

More information

3.3 SOFTWARE RISK MANAGEMENT (SRM)

3.3 SOFTWARE RISK MANAGEMENT (SRM) 93 3.3 SOFTWARE RISK MANAGEMENT (SRM) Fig. 3.2 SRM is a process buit in five steps. The steps are: Identify Anayse Pan Track Resove The process is continuous in nature and handed dynamicay throughout ifecyce

More information

US 20060288075Al (19) United States (12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2006/0288075 A1 Wu (57) A sender is selectively input- S301

US 20060288075Al (19) United States (12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2006/0288075 A1 Wu (57) A sender is selectively input- S301 US 20060288075A (19) United States (12) Patent Appication Pubication (10) Pub. No.: US 2006/0288075 A1 Wu (43) Pub. Date: Dec. 21, 2006 (54) ELECTRONIC MAILBOX ADDRESS BOOK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND METHOD

More information

Corporate Governance f o r M a i n M a r k e t a n d a i M C o M p a n i e s

Corporate Governance f o r M a i n M a r k e t a n d a i M C o M p a n i e s Corporate Governance f o r M a i n M a r k e t a n d a i M C o M p a n i e s 23. Corporate governance towards best-practice corporate reporting John Patterson, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP Reporting is

More information

The BBC s management of its Digital Media Initiative

The BBC s management of its Digital Media Initiative The BBC s management of its Digita Media Initiative Report by the Comptroer and Auditor Genera presented to the BBC Trust s Finance and Compiance Committee, 13 January 2011 Department for Cuture, Media

More information

briefing for the Business and enterprise committee october 2008 Performance of the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform 2007-08

briefing for the Business and enterprise committee october 2008 Performance of the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform 2007-08 briefing for the Business and enterprise committee october 2008 Performance of the Department for Business, Enterprise and Reguatory Reform 2007-08 Our vision is to hep the nation spend wisey. We promote

More information

Art of Java Web Development By Neal Ford 624 pages US$44.95 Manning Publications, 2004 ISBN: 1-932394-06-0

Art of Java Web Development By Neal Ford 624 pages US$44.95 Manning Publications, 2004 ISBN: 1-932394-06-0 IEEE DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS ONLINE 1541-4922 2005 Pubished by the IEEE Computer Society Vo. 6, No. 5; May 2005 Editor: Marcin Paprzycki, http://www.cs.okstate.edu/%7emarcin/ Book Reviews: Java Toos and Frameworks

More information

Budgeting Loans from the Social Fund

Budgeting Loans from the Social Fund Budgeting Loans from the Socia Fund tes sheet Pease read these notes carefuy. They expain the circumstances when a budgeting oan can be paid. Budgeting Loans You may be abe to get a Budgeting Loan if:

More information

Your role as a parent 3. Leaving Certificate explained 6. Applying for college 9. What can CIT offer your child? 12. Access to education 15

Your role as a parent 3. Leaving Certificate explained 6. Applying for college 9. What can CIT offer your child? 12. Access to education 15 Contents Page Your roe as a parent 3 Find out what practica steps you can take to hep your chid choose a coege course to study Leaving Certificate expained 6 Find out more about the different options Appying

More information

SABRe B2.1: Design & Development. Supplier Briefing Pack.

SABRe B2.1: Design & Development. Supplier Briefing Pack. SABRe B2.1: Design & Deveopment. Suppier Briefing Pack. 2013 Ros-Royce pc The information in this document is the property of Ros-Royce pc and may not be copied or communicated to a third party, or used

More information

Space for People. Targeting action for woodland access

Space for People. Targeting action for woodland access Space for Peope Targeting action for woodand access Contents Summary 2 Section 1 Context 3 The Woodand Trust 3 The case for accessibe woodand 3 Section 2 Deveoping targets 6 Woods for Peope 6 The Woodand

More information

A guide to understanding Childcare Proceedings

A guide to understanding Childcare Proceedings A guide to understanding Chidcare Proceedings About this guide Care Proceedings are one of the most traumatic and emotiona episodes that can happen in anyone s ife. When Chidren s Services (formery Socia

More information

TMI ING Guide to Financial Supply Chain Optimisation 29. Creating Opportunities for Competitive Advantage. Section Four: Supply Chain Finance

TMI ING Guide to Financial Supply Chain Optimisation 29. Creating Opportunities for Competitive Advantage. Section Four: Supply Chain Finance TMI171 ING info pat :Info pat.qxt 19/12/2008 17:02 Page 29 ING Guide to Financia Suppy Chain Optimisation Creating Opportunities for Competitive Advantage Section Four: Suppy Chain Finance Introduction

More information

Maturity Fixed Rate Bonds

Maturity Fixed Rate Bonds Savings Maturity Fixed Rate Bonds Effective from 15 September 2016 The current issue numbers and interest rates for our Maturity 1, 2 and 3 Year Fixed Rate Bonds are detaied in the Summary Boxes beow.

More information

Nordic Ecolabelling of Copy and printing paper - supplementary module

Nordic Ecolabelling of Copy and printing paper - supplementary module rdic Ecoabeing of Copy and printing paper - suppementary modue Version 4.1 22 June 2011 30 June 2016 rdic Ecoabeing Content What is rdic Ecoabeed copy and printing paper? 3 Why choose the rdic Ecoabe?

More information

Key Features of the Term Assurance (with options) For use in business protection planning

Key Features of the Term Assurance (with options) For use in business protection planning Key Features of the Term Assurance (with options) For use in business protection panning Term Assurance (with options) Key features The Financia Conduct Authority is a financia services reguator. It requires

More information

MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS)

MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS) LESSON 4 MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS) CONTENTS 4.0 Aims and Objectives 4.1 Introduction 4.2 MIS 4.2.1 Database 4.2.2 Interna Records 4.2.3 Externa Sources 4.3 Computer Networks and Internet 4.4 Data

More information

Chapter 2 Developing a Sustainable Supply Chain Strategy

Chapter 2 Developing a Sustainable Supply Chain Strategy Chapter 2 Deveoping a Sustainabe Suppy Chain Strategy Bakan Cetinkaya Learning Goas. By reading this chapter you wi: Know the basics of competitive strategy and suppy chain strategy and understand their

More information

Teamwork. Abstract. 2.1 Overview

Teamwork. Abstract. 2.1 Overview 2 Teamwork Abstract This chapter presents one of the basic eements of software projects teamwork. It addresses how to buid teams in a way that promotes team members accountabiity and responsibiity, and

More information

IMPLEMENTING THE RATE STRUCTURE: TIERING IN THE FEE-FOR-SERVICE SYSTEM

IMPLEMENTING THE RATE STRUCTURE: TIERING IN THE FEE-FOR-SERVICE SYSTEM The New Jersey Department of Human Services Division of Deveopmenta Disabiities 1 IMPLEMENTING THE RATE STRUCTURE: TIERING IN THE FEE-FOR-SERVICE SYSTEM Eizabeth M. Shea Assistant Commissioner Thomas S.

More information

ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES. l l l. l l

ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES. l l l. l l ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES The Eectronic Fund Transfers we are capabe of handing for consumers are indicated beow, some of which may not appy your account Some of these

More information

An advanced course in design options with aluminium profiles

An advanced course in design options with aluminium profiles Sapa UK in brief An advanced course in design options with auminium profies Profie Academy in brief: Principes of auminium extrusion and die design. Auminium aoys and materia properties. Profie design

More information

Bringing risk assessments to life by integrating with process maps

Bringing risk assessments to life by integrating with process maps Bringing risk assessments to ife by integrating with process maps Gordon Seers 1, Aan Webb 2 and Chris Thornton 3 1 Safety Management Consutant, 34 Westbury Road, Northwood HA6 3B, UK. E-mai: gordon.seers@ds.pipex.com

More information

The Future of Over 50s. Home

The Future of Over 50s. Home The Future of Over 50s Home Contents Foreword: The future wi be here sooner than you think 3 The word of 2042: Setting the scene 4 The home of 2042: Designed with age in mind 5 The day of 2042: A typica

More information

Group Income Protection. Technical Guide

Group Income Protection. Technical Guide Group Income Protection Technica Guide Aviva By choosing Aviva, part of the UK s argest insurance group, you benefit from our financia strength. Together with miions of customers wordwide you can fee certain

More information

Technical Support Guide for online instrumental lessons

Technical Support Guide for online instrumental lessons Technica Support Guide for onine instrumenta essons This is a technica guide for Music Education Hubs, Schoos and other organisations participating in onine music essons. The guidance is based on the technica

More information

ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES. l l

ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES. l l ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES The Eectronic Fund Transfers we are capabe of handing for consumers are indicated beow some of which may not appy your account Some of these may

More information

Advanced ColdFusion 4.0 Application Development - 3 - Server Clustering Using Bright Tiger

Advanced ColdFusion 4.0 Application Development - 3 - Server Clustering Using Bright Tiger Advanced CodFusion 4.0 Appication Deveopment - CH 3 - Server Custering Using Bri.. Page 1 of 7 [Figures are not incuded in this sampe chapter] Advanced CodFusion 4.0 Appication Deveopment - 3 - Server

More information

Offices DTH UK PACKAGE & PRICING SB/PP/OFFUK/0715

Offices DTH UK PACKAGE & PRICING SB/PP/OFFUK/0715 SB/PP/OFFUK/0715 Offices DTH UK PACKAGE & PRICING Give your empoyees and cients more with Sky The word of business moves fast and keeping up to speed has never been so important. With a fantastic range

More information

Switch and Save Today gasnetworks.ie

Switch and Save Today gasnetworks.ie Natura gas, the cheaper, faster soution for your business Switch and Save Today gasnetworks.ie Financia benefits of changing to natura gas Over haf of a Irish companies have taken action to improve their

More information

SPOTLIGHT. A year of transformation

SPOTLIGHT. A year of transformation WINTER ISSUE 2014 2015 SPOTLIGHT Wecome to the winter issue of Oasis Spotight. These newsetters are designed to keep you upto-date with news about the Oasis community. This quartery issue features an artice

More information

Bite-Size Steps to ITIL Success

Bite-Size Steps to ITIL Success 7 Bite-Size Steps to ITIL Success Pus making a Business Case for ITIL! Do you want to impement ITIL but don t know where to start? 7 Bite-Size Steps to ITIL Success can hep you to decide whether ITIL can

More information

Construction Plant and Health & Safety Training

Construction Plant and Health & Safety Training Construction Pant and Heath & Safety Training The Driving Force Behind Your Training Monks Training Services based in Leyand has for severa years been providing construction pant and heath & safety training.

More information

Annual Notice of Changes for 2016

Annual Notice of Changes for 2016 Easy Choice Best Pan (HMO) offered by Easy Choice Heath Pan, Inc. Annua Notice of Changes for 2016 You are currenty enroed as a member of Easy Choice Best Pan (HMO). Next year, there wi be some changes

More information

What makes a good Chair? A good chair will also: l always aim to draw a balance between hearing everyone s views and getting through the business.

What makes a good Chair? A good chair will also: l always aim to draw a balance between hearing everyone s views and getting through the business. Chairing a meeting An important job of the Chairperson is chairing meetings. Prior House 6 Tibury Pace Brighton BN2 0GY Te. 01273 606160 Fax. 01273 673663 info@resourcecentre.org.uk www.resourcecentre.org.uk

More information

A Conversation with enx@pacbell.net enx@pacbell.net www.enxmag.com

A Conversation with enx@pacbell.net enx@pacbell.net www.enxmag.com The #1 Sourcing Pubication in the Document Imaging Industry The #1 Sourcing Voume 11 Pubication No.7 in the Document Imaging Industry The #1 Sourcing Pubication in the Document Imaging Industry Sourcing

More information

Income Protection Solutions. Policy Wording

Income Protection Solutions. Policy Wording Income Protection Soutions Poicy Wording Wecome to Aviva This booket tes you a you need to know about your poicy, incuding: what to do if you need to caim what s covered, and expanations of some of the

More information

CONTRIBUTION OF INTERNAL AUDITING IN THE VALUE OF A NURSING UNIT WITHIN THREE YEARS

CONTRIBUTION OF INTERNAL AUDITING IN THE VALUE OF A NURSING UNIT WITHIN THREE YEARS Dehi Business Review X Vo. 4, No. 2, Juy - December 2003 CONTRIBUTION OF INTERNAL AUDITING IN THE VALUE OF A NURSING UNIT WITHIN THREE YEARS John N.. Var arvatsouakis atsouakis DURING the present time,

More information

What to do before, during and after a flood

What to do before, during and after a flood Suffok Food Risk Management Partnership What to do before, during and after a food Practica advice on what to do to protect yoursef and your property "Over 5.5 miion properties in Engand and Waes are at

More information

ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES The Eectronic Fund Transfers we are capabe of handing for consumers are indicated beow, some of which may not appy your account Some of these

More information

Finance 360 Problem Set #6 Solutions

Finance 360 Problem Set #6 Solutions Finance 360 Probem Set #6 Soutions 1) Suppose that you are the manager of an opera house. You have a constant margina cost of production equa to $50 (i.e. each additiona person in the theatre raises your

More information