EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OP-AMP

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OP-AMP"

Transcription

1 1.17 EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP OBJECTIVE 1. To sketch and briefly explain an operational amplifier circuit symbol and identify all terminals 2. To list the amplifier stages in a typical opamp and briefly discs each stage. 3. To explain the negative feedback control in opamp circuits. 4. To discuss the opamp modes and most important opamp parameters. 5. To measure the input bias current, input offset current, input offset voltage, input and output voltage ranges, the slew rate and bandwidth of op amp HARDWARE REQUIRED a. Power supply : Dual variable regulated low voltage DC source b. Equipments : CRO, AFO, DMM (Digital Multimeter), DRBs c. Resistors : d. Semiconductor : IC741 opamp e. Miscellaneous : Bread board and wires PRE LAB QUESTIONS 1. Determine the output voltage of an opamp for the input voltages of V i1 =150µV and V i2 =140µV. The amplifier has a differential gain of A d =4000 and the value of CMRR is Calculate the output voltage of an inverting amplifier for values of V S =1V, R f =500K and R 1 =100K. 3. Calculate the output voltage of a noninverting amplifier for values of V S =1V, R f =500K and R 1 =100K. 4. Calculate the output offset voltage of the circuit in Fig (a). The opamp spec lists V IO =1.2mV. 5. Calculate the offset voltage for the circuit in fig (a) for opamp spec listing I IO =100nA. 6. Calculate the total offset voltage for the circuit of fig (a) for an opamp with specified values of V IO =1.2mV and I IO =100nA.

2 k V1 2k + +VCC VCC Fig (a) 7. Calculate the input bias current at each input of an opamp and input offset current having specified values of IIO=5nA and IIB=30nA. 8. For an opamp having a slew rate of 2 V/µs, what is the maximum closed loop voltage gain that can be used when the input signal varies by 0.5V in 20µs. 9. How long does it take the output voltage of an opamp to go from 10V to +10V if the slew rate is 0.5V/µs. 10. Determine the input bias current and input offset current, given that the input currents of an opamp are 8.3µA and 7.9µA THEORY An opamp is a high gain, direct coupled differential linear amplifier choose response characteristics are externally controlled by negative feedback from the output to input, opamp has very high input impedance, typically a few mega ohms and low output impedance, less than 100Ω. Opamps can perform mathematical operations like summation integration, differentiation, logarithm, antilogarithm, etc., and hence the name operational amplifier opamps are also used as video and audio amplifiers, oscillators and so on, in communication electronics, in instrumentation and control, in medical electronics, etc Circuit symbol and opamp terminals The circuit schematic of an opamp is a triangle as shown below in Fig. 121 opamp has two input terminal. The minus input, marked () is the inverting input. A signal applied to the minus terminal will be shifted in phase 180 o at the output. The plus input, marked (+) is the noninverting input. A signal applied to the plus terminal will appear in the same phase at the output as at the input. +V CC denotes the positive and negative power supplies. Most opamps operate with a wide

3 1.19 range of supply voltages. A dual power supply of +15V is quite common in practical opamp circuits. The use of the positive and negative supply voltages allows the output of the opamp to swing in both positive and negative directions. +Vcc inverting input offset null output noninverting input + Vcc offset null Fig 121 opamp circuit symbol Negative feedback control The basic circuit connection using an opamp is shown below in fig. 122 Rf R1 +VCC Vs + VCC Fig 122 opamp circuit connection in the inverting mode An input signal, Vs is applied through resistor R, to the minus input. The output is then connected back to the same minus input through resistor R f. The plus input is connected to ground since the signal is essentially applied to the minus input the resulting output is opposite in phase to the input signal Note that the output is feedback to the minus input terminal (inverting input terminal) in order to provide negative feedback for the amplifier. This circuit arrangement is called inverting amplifier. For this amplifier, the output can be defined as R f V O = ( ) VS (121) R1 The minus sign indicates that the sign of the output is inverted as compared to the input. The equation for gain of this amplifier is Rf Gain = ( ) (122) R 1

4 1.20 It is also possible to operate the opamp as a noninverting amplifier by applying the signal to the plus input (noninverting input terminal), as shown below in fig Rf R1 +VCC + Vs VCC Fig 123 opamp circuit connection in the noninverting mode Note that the feedback network is still connected to the inverting input. For this amplifier circuit, the output of the amplifier is defined by Rf V = (1 + ) (123) O V S R1 R f and its gain is Gain = 1+ (124) R The opamp transfer characteristics The transfer characteristics of a typical opamp are sketched in fig. 124 and it shows three regions of operation, namely the linear region, the negative saturation region and the positive saturation region. range of input for linear operation +Vcc +Vsat +ve saturation linear region (V1 V2) ve saturation Vsat Vcc Fig 124 opamp transfer characteristics

5 1.21 In the linear region, the output voltage V O is linearly related to the difference in the input voltage (V 1 V 2 ). The supply voltage limits the maximum value of the output voltage. The OUTPUT voltage is normally 2 to 3 volts lower than the power supply voltage, ie., V O < V CC Also, V O = A (V 1 V 2 ) (125) Therefore (V 1 V 2 ) < V CC /A (126) For V CC = 15V and A = 10 5, V 1 V 2 < 150µV. Thus, for very high gain opamps, the input voltages V 1 and V 2 are almost equal. Unequal input voltages characterize the operation in saturation region. If V 1 > V 2 by 150µV, will be saturated at a positive voltage and if V 1 < V 2 by the same amount, will be saturated at a negative voltage V sat. Although the opamp has distinct nonlinear characteristics bias as a linear devices under certain conditions and the principles of linear circuit theory can be used to design and analyses opamp is operated in the linear region. Since the magnitude of the input voltage for linear operations is quite small, opamps are seldom used in openloop configuration. Feedback from output to inverting () terminal tends to extend the range of input for linear operation Equivalent circuit of opamp In the linear region of operation, the opamp can be modeled as a VCVS. Fig. 125 shown an equivalent circuit of opamp. Fig 125 opamp equivalent circuit

6 1.22 Here R id is the differential input resistance, AV id is the Thevenin voltage source and R O is the Thevenin equivalent output resistance looking back into output terminals. The output voltage V O is V O = AV id = A (V 1 V 2 ) (127) where A is the openloop voltage gain of the opamp, V id is the differential input voltage, and V 1 and V 2 are the voltages w.r.t. ground potential at the noninverting and the inverting input terminals respectively. Thus the opamp amplifies the difference between the two input voltages. The input voltages V 1 and V 2 can be cither ac or dc voltages. In the openloop configuration, no connection exists between the output and input terminals. When connected in an openloop configuration, the opamp works as a high gain amplifier. Any input signal slightly above zero volts drives the output V O to saturation. For this reason, the opamp is seldom used in openloop configuration for linear applications. The property of opamp output saturating under openloop configuration is used in nonlinear circuit applications of opamp as a voltage comparator The ideal opamp The ideal behavior of an opamp implies that a. The output resistance is zero b. The input resistance seen between the two input terminals (called the differential input resistance) is infinity. c. The input resistances seen between each input terminal and the ground (called the common mode input resistance) are infinite. d. opamp has a zero voltage offset ie., for V 1 = V 2 = 0, output voltage V O = 0 e. Common mode gain A C is zero. f. Differential mode gain, A d is infinity. g. Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) is infinity h. Bandwidth is infinite, ie., A d is real and constant. i. Slew rate is infinite. j. Since V O = A d (V 1 V 2 ) and A d = V 1 V 2 = V O /A d = 0 ie., V 1 = V 2

7 1.23 The above condition implies that the inverting and noninverting terminals are at the same potential because of the very high (infinite) gain property. This condition along with the condition i 1 = i 2 = 0 are the keys to the simplified analysis of the opamp circuits opamp input modes and CMRR In opamp, a number of input signal combinations are possible: If an input signal is applied to either input with the other input connected to ground, the operation is referred to as single ended. If two opposite polarity input signals are applied, the operation in referred to as doubleended. If the same input is applied to both inputs, the operation is called common mode. Differential gain, Ad V2 V1 U1 + V 1 and V 2 are the two input signals and V O is the output. In an ideal opamp, V O is proportional to the difference between the two signal voltages. V O (V 1 V 2 ) (128) From equation 128 we can write, V O = A d (V 1 V 2 ) (129) Where A d is the constant of proportionality. A d is the gain with which differential amplifier the difference between two input signals. Hence, A d is called differential gain of the differential amplifier. The difference between the two inputs, V 1 V 2 is generally called difference voltage and denoted as V d. V O = A d V d (1210) Hence, the differential gain can be expressed as V O A d = (1211) Vd

8 1.24 Common mode gain, A C If we apply two input voltages which are equal in all respects to the differential amplifier, ie., if V 1 =V 2, then ideally the output voltage, V O = A d (V 1 V 2 ) must be zero. But the output voltage of the practical differential amplifier not only depends on the difference voltages, but also depends on the average common level of the two inputs. Such an average level of the two input signals is called common mode signal denoted as V C. ( V 1 + V2 ) V C = (1212) 2 Practically, the differential amplifier produces the output voltage proportional to such common mode signal, also. The gain with which it amplifier the common mode signal to produce the output is called as common mode gain of the differential amplifier denoted as Ac. V O = A C V C (1213) So the total output of any differential amplifier can be expressed as V O = A d V d +A C V C (1214) Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) In an ideal different amplifier, A d is infinite while A C must be zero. However, in a practical differential amplifier; A d is very large and A C is very small. ie., the differential amplifier provides very large amplification for difference signals and very small amplification for common mode signals. Many disturbance signals/noise signals appear as a common input signal to both the input terminals of the differential amplifier. Such a common signal should be rejected by the differential amplifier. The ability of a differential amplifier to reject a commonmode signal is expressed by a ration called Common Mode Rejection Ratio, denoted as CMRR. CMRR is defined as the ratio of the differential voltage gain Ad to common mode voltage gain Ac. d CMRR = (1215) Ideally A C is zero. Hence, the ideal value of CMRR is. A A C

9 op amp internal circuit Commercial integrated circuit OPamps usually consists of your cascaded blocks as shown in figure 126 shown below. V 2 V 1 Differential Amplifier Differential Amplifier Buffer and Level Translator Output driver Fig 126 Internal block schematic opamp The first two stages are cascaded difference amplifier used to provide high gain. The third stage is a buffer and the last stage is the output driver. The buffer is usually an emitter fallowing whose input impedance is very high so that it prevents loading of the high gain stage. The output stage is designed to provide low output impedance. The buffer stage along with the output stage also acts as a level shifter so that output voltage is zero for zero inputs opamp characteristics An ideal opamp draws no current from the source and its response is also independent of temperature. However, a real opamp does not work this way. Current is taken from the source into opamp inputs. Also the two inputs respond differently to current and voltage due to mismatch in transistors. A real opamp also shifts its operation with temperature. These nonideal characteristics are: 1. Input bias current 2. Input offset current 3. Input offset voltage 4. Thermal drift 5. Slew rate 6. input and output voltage ranges Input bias current The opamp s input is a differential amplifier, which may be made of. BJT or FET. In either case the input transistors must be biased into this linear region by supplying currents into the bases. In an ideal opamp, no current is drawn from the input terminals. However, practically, input terminals conduct a small value of dc current to bias the input transistors when base currents flow through external resistances, they produce a small differential input voltage or unbalance; this

10 1.26 represents a false input signal. When amplified, this small input unbalance produces an offset in the output voltage. The input bias current shown on data sheets is the average value of base currents entering into the terminals of an opamp. + + ( I B I B ) I B = (1216) 2 For 741, the bias current is 500nA or less. The smaller the input bias current, the smaller the offset at the output voltage. Input offset current The input offset current is the difference between the two input currents driven from a common source I OS = I + B + I B (1217) It tells you how much larger one current is than the other. Bias current compensation will work if both bias currents I + B and I B are equal. So, the smaller the input offset current the better the OP amp. The 741 opamps have input offset current of 20nA. Input offset voltage Ideally, the output voltage should be zero when the voltage between the inverting and noninverting inputs is zero. In reality, the output voltage may not be zero with zero input voltage. This is due to unavoidable imbalances, mismatches, tolerances, and so on inside the opamp. In order to make the output voltage zero, we have to apply a small voltage at the input terminals to make output voltage zero. This voltage is called input offset voltage.i.e., input offset voltage is the voltage required to be applied at the input for making output voltage to zero volts. The 741 opamp has input offset voltage of 5mV under no signal conditions. Therefore, we may have to apply a differential input of 5mV, to produce an output voltage of exactly zero. Thermal drift Bias current, offset current and offset voltage change with temperature. A circuit carefully mulled at 25 o C may not remain so when the temperature rises to 35 o C. This is called drift often, offset current drift is expressed in n A/ o C and offset voltage drift in mv/ o C. These indicate the change is offset for each degree celsius change in temperature. There are very few techniques that can be used to minimize the effect of drift.

11 1.27 Slew rate Among all specifications affecting the ac operation of the opamp, slew rate is the most important because it places a severe limit on a large signals operation. Slew rate is defined as the maximum rate at which the output voltage can change. The 741 opamp has a typical slew rate of 0.5 volts per microsecond (V/µs). This is the ultimate speed of a typical 741; its output voltage can change no faster than 0.5V/µs. If we drive a 741 with large step input, it takes 20µs (0.5 V/µsX10V) for the output voltage to change from 0 to 10V. Band width Slew rate distortion of a sine wave starts at a point where the initial slope of the sine wave equals the slew rate of the opamp. The maximum frequency at which the opamp can be operated without distortion is f max SR = (1218) (2π ) V P where SR=slew rate of opamp, V P = peak voltage of output sine wave. As an example, if the output sine wave has a peak voltage of 10V and the opamp slew rate is 0.5 V/µs, the maximum frequency for large signal operation is f max 0.5V / µ s = = 7.96 KHz 2 π 10V Frequency ƒ max is called bandwidth of opamp. The 741 opamp has a bandwidth of approximately 8 KHz. This means the undistorted band width for large signal operation is 8 KHz. Input and output voltage ranges Maximum positive and negative input voltage applied to the opamp for undistorted output gives the input voltage range. Maximum positive and negative undistorted output voltage of the opamp gives the output voltage range OP amp applications 1) Signal conditioners (a) Linear eg. Adder, subtractor, differentiator, integrator, VI converter, etc. (b) NonLinear eg., log amplifier, antilog amplifier, multiplier, divider, etc. 2) Signal Processors (a) Linear eg., voltage follower, instrumentation amplifier, etc. (b) NonLinear eg., log amplifier, antilog amplifier, multiplier, divider, etc.

12 EXPERIMENT Use opamp dc power supply voltages ±15V wherever not specified 1. Input bias current and input offset current DC voltage at the noninverting terminal V + V 220k 220k + +Vcc Vcc Fig 127 Input bias and input offset current DC voltage at the inverting V I + + V B = I B = terminal 220K 220K I B Input bias current ( I = + B + 2 I B ) Input offset current + I OS = I B I B Table Connect the circuit of figure Using a DMM, measure the dc voltage at the () terminal & record the values in Table By ohm s law, calculate the input currents; I + B and I B. Average these values to find out the input Bias current. Also, find the difference between these two currents to know the input offset current. Record these values in Table Input offset voltage 100k +Vcc Vcc Fig 128 Input offset voltage

13 1.29 V out V in = V ou t/1000 Table Connect the circuit of Figure Measure the DC output voltage at pin 6 using multimeter and record the result in Table Calculate the input offset voltage using the formula Vi = ut / 1000 and record the value in table Slew rate and bandwidth +Vcc + 1Vpp 20KHz Vcc Fig 129(a) Slew rate and bandwidth Fig 129(b )Model graph

14 1.30 V T SR = V/ T BW Table Connect the circuit of Figure 129(a). 3.2 Using an AFO, provide a 1V peak to peak square wave with a frequency of 25 KHz. 3.3 With an oscilloscope, observe the output of OPAMP. Adjust the oscilloscope timing the get a couple of cycles. 3.4 Measure the voltage change V and time change T of the output waveform. Record the results in Table Calculate the slew rate using the formula SR = V / T 3.5 Using the circuit of figure 3, set the AFO at 1KHz. Adjust the signal level to get 20V peak to peak (20 V PP ) out of the opamp. 3.6 Increase the frequency and watch the waveform somewhere above 10 KHz, slew rate distortion will become evident. That maximum frequency ƒ max at which the opamp can be operated is called bandwidth of an opamp record the value in Table Input and output voltage ranges 4.1 Assemble the voltage follower circuit as shown in Figure 1210 with R 1 = R 2 = 100 kω. Use opamp dc power supply voltages of ±9 V. R2 +Vcc R1 Vs + Fig 1210 Circuit to find the input voltage range 4.2 Apply ±5 V, 100 Hz sinusoidal input, Vs. Observe on a CRO the voltages at the noninverting input and output pins simultaneously. Increase the signal amplitude until distortion is observed Vcc

15 1.31 at the peak value of the output. Measure the positive and negative input voltage peak values. This gives the opamp input voltage range. 4.3 Change the circuit of Figure 1210 to an inverting amplifier. Connect R 1 between the source and inverting input. Ground the noninverting input. Choose R 1 = 10 kω, R 2 = 100 kω. Repeat observations of step 3.2 starting with ±0.5 V, 100 Hz sinusoidal input. Measure the positive and negative output voltage peak values. This gives the opamp output voltage range. 126 POSTLAB QUESTIONS Check your understanding by answering these questions 1. The input stage of a 741 opamp is a 2. The output stage of a 741 opamp is a 3. The input bias current of an opamp is the of the two input base currents under nosignal condition. 4. The input current is the difference of the two input base currents. 5. The input voltage is the differential input voltage needed to null or zero the quiescent output voltage. 6. The CMRR of an opamp is the ratio of voltage gain to voltage gain. 7. A 741 has a slew rate of V/µs. 8. The bandwidth is the undistorted frequency out of an opamp. It depends on the rate of the opamp and the of the output signal. 9. Identify the type of input mode for each opamp in fig (b) Vin1 Vin Vin2 Vin Fig (b)

Chapter No. 3 Differential Amplifiers

Chapter No. 3 Differential Amplifiers Chapter No. 3 Differential Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers: The operational amplifier is a direct-coupled high gain amplifier usable from 0 to over 1MH Z to which feedback is added to control its overall

More information

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers 662 25 Principles of Electronics Operational Amplifiers 25.1 Operational Amplifier 25.3 Basic Circuit of Differential Amplifier 25.5 Common-mode and Differentialmode signals 25.7 Voltage Gains of DA 25.9

More information

The output signal may be of the same form as the input signal, i.e. V in produces V out

The output signal may be of the same form as the input signal, i.e. V in produces V out What is an amplifier? Operational Amplifiers A device that takes an input (current, voltage, etc.) and produces a correlated output Input Signal Output Signal Usually the output is a multiple of the input

More information

Material and Equipment NI ELVIS 741 Op Amp, 5k pot, Assorted Resistors (10k, 100k, 220k (2), 100 (2), 560 )

Material and Equipment NI ELVIS 741 Op Amp, 5k pot, Assorted Resistors (10k, 100k, 220k (2), 100 (2), 560 ) Lab 8 Operational Amplifier Characteristics Purpose The purpose of this lab is to study the non-ideal characteristics of the operational amplifier. The characteristics that will be investigated include

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers Introduction The operational amplifier (op-amp) is a voltage controlled voltage source with very high gain. It is a five terminal four port active element. The symbol of the op-amp

More information

Operational Amplifiers: Part 2. Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation

Operational Amplifiers: Part 2. Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation Operational Amplifiers: Part 2 Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation by Tim J. Sobering Analog Design Engineer & Op Amp Addict Summary of Ideal Op Amp Assumptions

More information

Basic Op Amp Circuits

Basic Op Amp Circuits Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of

More information

Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003

Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003 Op-Amp Basics Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003 Op-Amp Basics Part 1 Op-Amp Basics Why op-amps Op-amp block diagram Input modes of Op-Amps Loop Configurations Negative Feedback Gain Bandwidth

More information

R f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response

R f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response

More information

DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel

DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel DC Circuits: Operational Amplifiers Hasan Demirel Op Amps: Introduction Op Amp is short form of operational amplifier. An op amp is an electronic unit that behaves like a voltage controlled voltage source.

More information

LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors. LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

More information

Class A Amplifier Design

Class A Amplifier Design Module 2 Amplifiers Introduction to Amplifier Design What you ll learn in Module 2. Basic design process. Section 2.0 Introduction to Amplifier Design. Section 2.1 DC Conditions. Design a BJT class A common

More information

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 5 - Gain-Bandwidth Product and Slew Rate Overview: In this laboratory the student will explore

More information

Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers

Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers The operational amplifier, or op-amp, is a basic building block of modern electronics. Op-amps date back to the early days of vacuum tubes, but they only became common

More information

Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2013 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

More information

LAB 1 BJT BIASING SCHEMES AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER. Experiment 1.1 BJT biasing schemes. Experiment 1.2 Characterization of op-amp

LAB 1 BJT BIASING SCHEMES AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER. Experiment 1.1 BJT biasing schemes. Experiment 1.2 Characterization of op-amp Lab 1: BJT biasing schemes and characterization of op-amp LAB 1 BJT BIASING SCHEMES AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER Experiment 11 BJT biasing schemes Experiment 12 Characterization of op-amp

More information

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 1 School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:223 Principles of Electrical Engineering I Laboratory Experiment #4 Title: Operational Amplifiers 1 Introduction Objectives

More information

Transistor Amplifiers

Transistor Amplifiers Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers perational Amplifiers. perational Amplifiers perational amplifiers (commonly known as opamps) are integrated circuits designed to amplify small voltages (or currents) to usable levels. The physical packaging

More information

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. o/p

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. o/p OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 1. If the input to the circuit of figure is a sine wave the output will be i/p o/p a. A half wave rectified sine wave b. A fullwave rectified sine wave c. A triangular wave d. A

More information

Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator. EE-100 Lab: Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator - Theory

Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator. EE-100 Lab: Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator - Theory EE-100 Lab: - Theory 1. Objective The purpose of this laboratory is to introduce nonlinear circuit measurement and analysis. Your measurements will focus mainly on limiters and clamping amplifiers. During

More information

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual Index Page No General Instructions 2 Experiment 1 Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier 4 Experiment 2 Multistage amplifier: Cascade of two CE stages 7 Experiment

More information

ANALOG ELECTRONICS EE-202-F IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

ANALOG ELECTRONICS EE-202-F IMPORTANT QUESTIONS ANALOG ELECTRONICS EE-202-F IMPORTANT QUESTIONS 1].Explain the working of PN junction diode. 2].How the PN junction diode acts as a rectifier. 3].Explain the switching characteristics of diode 4].Derive

More information

Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

More information

Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224) 6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

More information

Operational Amplifier - IC 741

Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Tabish December 2005 Aim: To study the working of an 741 operational amplifier by conducting the following experiments: (a) Input bias current measurement (b) Input offset

More information

Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

More information

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

More information

Precision ANALOG MULTIPLIER

Precision ANALOG MULTIPLIER Precision ANALOG MULTIPLIER FEATURES ±0.5% max 4-QUADRANT ACCURACY WIDE BANDWIDTH: 1MHz min, 3MHz typ ADJUSTABLE SCALE FACTOR STABLE AND RELIABLE MONOLITHIC CONSTRUCTION LOW COST APPLICATIONS PRECISION

More information

CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 9. Operational Amplifiers

CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 9. Operational Amplifiers CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 9 Operational Amplifiers 9.1 INTRODUCTION An operational amplifier ("op amp") is a direct-coupled, differential-input, highgain voltage amplifier, usually packaged in the

More information

EE 1202 Experiment #7 Signal Amplification

EE 1202 Experiment #7 Signal Amplification EE 1202 Experiment #7 Signal Amplification 1. Introduction and Goal: s increase the power (amplitude) of an electrical signal. They are used in audio and video systems and appliances. s are designed to

More information

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006 Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

More information

Analog Signal Conditioning

Analog Signal Conditioning Analog Signal Conditioning Analog and Digital Electronics Electronics Digital Electronics Analog Electronics 2 Analog Electronics Analog Electronics Operational Amplifiers Transistors TRIAC 741 LF351 TL084

More information

Homework Assignment 06

Homework Assignment 06 Question 1 (2 points each unless noted otherwise) Homework Assignment 06 1. Typically, the C-E saturation voltage for a BJT, namely V CE(sat), is in the range of (circle one) Answer: (a) (a) 0.2 1.0 V

More information

LM124/224/324/324A/ SA534/LM2902 Low power quad op amps INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

LM124/224/324/324A/ SA534/LM2902 Low power quad op amps INTEGRATED CIRCUITS INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Supersedes data of 21 Aug 3 File under Integrated Circuits, IC11 Handbook 22 Jan 22 DESCRIPTION The LM12/ series consists of four independent, high-gain, internally frequency-compensated

More information

EAC215 Homework 4. Page 1 of 6

EAC215 Homework 4. Page 1 of 6 EAC215 Homework 4 Name: 1. An integrated circuit (IC) op-amp has (a) two inputs and two outputs (b) one input and one output (c) two inputs and one output 2. Which of the following characteristics does

More information

Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment 3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers Aims: To know: Basic Op Amp properties eal & Ideal Basic ideas of feedback. inv input noninv input output gnd To be able to do basic circuit analysis of op amps: using KCL, KL with

More information

Multi-Stage Amplifiers

Multi-Stage Amplifiers Experiment-4 Multi-Stage Amplifiers Introduction The objectives of this experiment are to examine the characteristics of several multi-stage amplifier configurations. Several of these will be breadboarded

More information

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB MANUAL EEC-551

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB MANUAL EEC-551 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB MANUAL EEC-551 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING 27, Knowledge Park-III, Greater Noida, (U.P.) Phone : 0120-2323854-58 website :- www.dronacharya.info CONTENTS

More information

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (LIC s) LABORATORY MANUAL III / IV B.E (ECE), I - SEMESTER

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (LIC s) LABORATORY MANUAL III / IV B.E (ECE), I - SEMESTER LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (LIC s) LABORATORY MANUAL III / IV B.E (ECE), I - SEMESTER DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING SIR C.R.REDDY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ELURU 534 007 LINEAR IC

More information

ECE 306 Lab 4 Class A, B and Class AB Amplifiers

ECE 306 Lab 4 Class A, B and Class AB Amplifiers ECE 06 Lab 4 Class A, B and Class AB Amplifiers Prelab Assignment Write a short description of the differences between class A and class B amplifiers. Be sure to include at least one advantage and disadvantage

More information

TL074 TL074A - TL074B

TL074 TL074A - TL074B A B LOW NOISE JFET QUAD OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS WIDE COMMONMODE (UP TO V + CC ) AND DIFFERENTIAL VOLTAGE RANGE LOW INPUT BIAS AND OFFSET CURRENT LOW NOISE e n = 15nV/ Hz (typ) OUTPUT SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTION

More information

Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Module 6 Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers The Ideal Amplifier What you ll learn in Module 6. Section 6.0. Introduction to Operational Amplifiers. Understand Concept of the Ideal Amplifier and the Need

More information

Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors

Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors Kenneth Young November 16, 2012 I. Abstract The generation of precise waveforms may be needed within any circuit design.

More information

Current vs. Voltage Feedback Amplifiers

Current vs. Voltage Feedback Amplifiers Current vs. ltage Feedback Amplifiers One question continuously troubles the analog design engineer: Which amplifier topology is better for my application, current feedback or voltage feedback? In most

More information

Lab 3. Transistor and Logic Gates

Lab 3. Transistor and Logic Gates Lab 3. Transistor and Logic Gates Laboratory Instruction Today you will learn how to use a transistor to amplify a small AC signal as well as using it as a switch to construct digital logic circuits. Introduction

More information

Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers

Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers Lab 5 Operational Amplifiers By: Gary A. Ybarra Christopher E. Cramer Duke University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Durham, NC. Purpose The purpose of this lab is to examine the properties

More information

Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics

Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics What is an Op Amp An Op Amp is an integrated circuit that can be used to amplify both DC and AC signals. One of the most common Op Amps available

More information

Department of Electronics &Communication Engineering Third Semester Electronic Circuits-I PART A 1.Why do we choose q point at the center of the

Department of Electronics &Communication Engineering Third Semester Electronic Circuits-I PART A 1.Why do we choose q point at the center of the Department of Electronics &Communication Engineering Third Semester Electronic Circuits-I PART A 1.Why do we choose q point at the center of the loadline? The operating point of a transistor is kept fixed

More information

4. Experiment D1: Operational Amplifier

4. Experiment D1: Operational Amplifier 4. Experiment D1: Operational Amplifier 4.1. Aim The aim of this experiment is to investigate some properties of real op-amps which are not present in `ideal' op-amps, but which affect practical op-amp

More information

EE105 Fall 2014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits. Operational Amplifier Error Sources: dc Current and Output Range Limitations

EE105 Fall 2014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits. Operational Amplifier Error Sources: dc Current and Output Range Limitations EE105 Fall 014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Prof. Ming C. Wu wu@eecs.berkeley.edu 511 Sutardja Dai Hall (SDH) 1 Operational Amplifier Error Sources: dc Current and Output Range Limitations dc error

More information

Revision on Basic Transistor Amplifiers

Revision on Basic Transistor Amplifiers Electronic Circuits Revision on Basic Transistor Amplifiers Contents Biasing Amplification principles Small-signal model development for BJT Aim of this chapter To show how transistors can be used to amplify

More information

Precision Gain = 10 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

Precision Gain = 10 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER Precision Gain = DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER FEATURES ACCURATE GAIN: ±.% max HIGH COMMON-MODE REJECTION: 8dB min NONLINEARITY:.% max EASY TO USE PLASTIC 8-PIN DIP, SO-8 SOIC PACKAGES APPLICATIONS G = DIFFERENTIAL

More information

AM Modulator. Experiment theory: Experiment # (3) Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department

AM Modulator. Experiment theory: Experiment # (3) Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department Experiment # (3) AM Modulator Communications Engineering I (Lab.) Prepared by: Eng. Omar A. Qarmout Eng. Mohammed K. Abu Foul Experiment

More information

EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING

EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Department of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Valery Vodovozov and Zoja Raud http://learnelectronics.narod.ru Tallinn 2012 2 Contents Introduction...

More information

Operational Amplifiers (Op-Amps)

Operational Amplifiers (Op-Amps) Chapter 18 Operational Amplifiers (Op-Amps) Introduction to Operational Amplifiers The standard Operational amplifier has two input terminals, the inverting (-) and noninverting (+) FIGURE 18-3 Practical

More information

Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA1115, HFA1130, HFA1135)

Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA1115, HFA1130, HFA1135) Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA111, HFA110, HFA11) Application Note November 1996 AN96 Introduction Amplifiers with internal voltage clamps, also known as limiting amplifiers, have

More information

multivibrators using IC 555 (2turns)

multivibrators using IC 555 (2turns) Advanced Electronics Lab Experiments (P243) 1. Study of basic configuration of OPAMP (IC-741), Simple mathematical operations and its use as comparator and Schmitt trigger(2 turns) 2. Differentiator, Integrator

More information

Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications

Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications Part I: Operational Amplifiers & Their Applications Contents Opamps fundamentals Opamp Circuits Inverting & Non-inverting Amplifiers Summing & Difference Amplifiers Integrators & Differentiators Opamp

More information

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720. Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment.

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720. Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment. Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720 Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment. This assignment will take you through the simulation and basic characterization of a simple operational

More information

PIN CONFIGURATION FEATURES ORDERING INFORMATION ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS. D, F, N Packages

PIN CONFIGURATION FEATURES ORDERING INFORMATION ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS. D, F, N Packages DESCRIPTION The µa71 is a high performance operational amplifier with high open-loop gain, internal compensation, high common mode range and exceptional temperature stability. The µa71 is short-circuit-protected

More information

Dual High Speed, Implanted BiFET Op Amp AD644

Dual High Speed, Implanted BiFET Op Amp AD644 a FEATURES Matched Offset Voltage Matched Offset Voltage Over Temperature Matched Bias Currents Crosstalk 124 db at 1 khz Low Bias Current: 35 pa max Warmed Up Low Offset Voltage: 500 V max Low Input Voltage

More information

This is advanced information on a new product now in development or undergoing evaluation. Details are subject to change without notice.

This is advanced information on a new product now in development or undergoing evaluation. Details are subject to change without notice. TDA2050 32W Hi-Fi AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER HIGH OUTPUT POWER (50W MUSIC POWER IEC 268.3 RULES) HIGH OPERATING SUPPLY VOLTAGE (50V) SINGLE OR SPLIT SUPPLY OPERATIONS VERY LOW DISTORTION SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION

More information

Term Project - Audio Amplifier

Term Project - Audio Amplifier Term Project - Audio Amplifier Objectives To understand the principles of a Darlington push-pull power amplifier and its application. To construct an audio power amplifier on a vero board and heatsink,

More information

ECG-Amplifier. MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier. Operation amplifier (op-amp)

ECG-Amplifier. MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier. Operation amplifier (op-amp) ECG-Amplifier MB Jass 2009 Daniel Paulus / Thomas Meier Operation amplifier (op-amp) Properties DC-coupled High gain electronic ec c voltage amplifier Inverting / non-inverting input and single output

More information

Op-Amps Experiment Theory

Op-Amps Experiment Theory EE 4/00 Operational mplifiers Op-mps Experiment Theory. Objective The purpose of these experiments is to introduce the most important of all analog building blocks, the operational amplifier ( op-amp for

More information

ENGR 210 Lab 11 Frequency Response of Passive RC Filters

ENGR 210 Lab 11 Frequency Response of Passive RC Filters ENGR 210 Lab 11 Response of Passive RC Filters The objective of this lab is to introduce you to the frequency-dependent nature of the impedance of a capacitor and the impact of that frequency dependence

More information

www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242

www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 Distributed by: www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 The content and copyrights of the attached material are the property of its owner. LF411 Low Offset, Low Drift JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description

More information

The Electronic Scale

The Electronic Scale The Electronic Scale Learning Objectives By the end of this laboratory experiment, the experimenter should be able to: Explain what an operational amplifier is and how it can be used in amplifying signal

More information

BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS

BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS LECTURE-12 TRANSISTOR BIASING Emitter Current Bias Thermal Stability (RC Coupled Amplifier) Hello everybody! In our series of lectures

More information

EE105 Fall 2014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits. Ideal vs Non-ideal Op Amps

EE105 Fall 2014 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits. Ideal vs Non-ideal Op Amps EE05 Fall 204 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Prof. Ming C. Wu wu@eecs.berkeley.edu 5 Sutardja Dai Hall (SDH) vs Non-ideal Op Amps Op Amp A 0 Non-ideal Op Amp A < < > 0 Other non-ideal characteristics:

More information

Objectives The purpose of this lab is build and analyze Differential amplifiers based on NPN transistors (or NMOS transistors).

Objectives The purpose of this lab is build and analyze Differential amplifiers based on NPN transistors (or NMOS transistors). 1 Lab 03: Differential Amplifiers (BJT) (20 points) NOTE: 1) Please use the basic current mirror from Lab01 for the second part of the lab (Fig. 3). 2) You can use the same chip as the basic current mirror;

More information

Dual general-purpose operational amplifier

Dual general-purpose operational amplifier NE/SA/SE DESCRIPTION The is a dual operational amplifier that is internally compensated. Excellent channel separation allows the use of a dual device in a single amp application, providing the highest

More information

Precision Diode Rectifiers

Precision Diode Rectifiers by Kenneth A. Kuhn March 21, 2013 Precision half-wave rectifiers An operational amplifier can be used to linearize a non-linear function such as the transfer function of a semiconductor diode. The classic

More information

ELEC 2020 EXPERIMENT 6 Zener Diodes and LED's

ELEC 2020 EXPERIMENT 6 Zener Diodes and LED's ELEC 2020 EXPERIMENT 6 Zener Diodes and LED's Objectives: The experiments in this laboratory exercise will provide an introduction to diodes. You will use the Bit Bucket breadboarding system to build and

More information

Electronics The application of bipolar transistors

Electronics The application of bipolar transistors Electronics The application of bipolar transistors Prof. Márta Rencz, Gergely Nagy BME DED October 1, 2012 Ideal voltage amplifier On the previous lesson the theoretical methods of amplification using

More information

Electronics Prof. D.C. Dube Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

Electronics Prof. D.C. Dube Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Electronics Prof. D.C. Dube Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Module No. #06 Power Amplifiers Lecture No. #01 Power Amplifiers (Refer Slide Time: 00:44) We now move to the next

More information

Lecture 18: Common Emitter Amplifier. Maximum Efficiency of Class A Amplifiers. Transformer Coupled Loads.

Lecture 18: Common Emitter Amplifier. Maximum Efficiency of Class A Amplifiers. Transformer Coupled Loads. Whites, EE 3 Lecture 18 Page 1 of 10 Lecture 18: Common Emitter Amplifier. Maximum Efficiency of Class A Amplifiers. Transformer Coupled Loads. We discussed using transistors as switches in the last lecture.

More information

Figure 1: Op amp model.

Figure 1: Op amp model. An Op Amp Tutorial (Based on material in the book Introduction to Electroacoustics and Audio Amplifier Design, Second Edition - Revised Printing, by W. Marshall Leach, Jr., published by Kendall/Hunt, c

More information

AN-937 APPLICATION NOTE

AN-937 APPLICATION NOTE APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 906 Norwood, MA 02062-906, U.S.A. Tel: 78.329.4700 Fax: 78.46.33 www.analog.com Designing Amplifier Circuits: How to Avoid Common Problems by Charles Kitchin

More information

Electric Circuit Fall 2015 Pingqiang Zhou. ShanghaiTech University. School of Information Science and Technology. Professor Pingqiang Zhou

Electric Circuit Fall 2015 Pingqiang Zhou. ShanghaiTech University. School of Information Science and Technology. Professor Pingqiang Zhou ShanghaiTech University School of Information Science and Technology Professor Pingqiang Zhou LABORATORY 3 Diode Guide Diodes Overview Diodes are mostly used in practice for emitting light (as Light Emitting

More information

TS321 Low Power Single Operational Amplifier

TS321 Low Power Single Operational Amplifier SOT-25 Pin Definition: 1. Input + 2. Ground 3. Input - 4. Output 5. Vcc General Description The TS321 brings performance and economy to low power systems. With high unity gain frequency and a guaranteed

More information

Electronic Instrumentation ENGR-4300 Experiment 6. Experiment 6 Electronic Switching

Electronic Instrumentation ENGR-4300 Experiment 6. Experiment 6 Electronic Switching Experiment 6 Electronic Switching Purpose: In this experiment we will discuss ways in which analog devices can be used to create binary signals. Binary signals can take on only two states: high and low.

More information

Operational amplifiers

Operational amplifiers Operational amplifiers Types of operational amplifiers (bioelectric amplifiers have different gain values) Low-gain amplifiers (x1 to x10) Used for buffering and impedance transformation between signal

More information

Analog Electronics II Laboratory Exercise 2 Cascade amplifier with BJT

Analog Electronics II Laboratory Exercise 2 Cascade amplifier with BJT Analog Electronics II Laboratory Exercise 2 Cascade amplifier with BJT Aim of the exercise The aim of this laboratory exercise is to become familiar with the operation of the cascade connection of the

More information

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

More information

Frequency Response of Filters

Frequency Response of Filters School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

More information

Lab 4: BJT Amplifiers Part I

Lab 4: BJT Amplifiers Part I Lab 4: BJT Amplifiers Part I Objectives The objective of this lab is to learn how to operate BJT as an amplifying device. Specifically, we will learn the following in this lab: The physical meaning of

More information

Amplitude Modulation Transmitter Design

Amplitude Modulation Transmitter Design Amplitude Modulation Transmitter Design LAB 5 Introduction The motivation behind this project is to design, implement, and test an Amplitude Modulation (AM) Transmitter. The Transmitter consists of a Balanced

More information

LM833 LOW NOISE DUAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

LM833 LOW NOISE DUAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER LOW NOISE DUAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER LOW VOLTAGE NOISE: 4.5nV/ Hz HIGH GAIN BANDWIDTH PRODUCT: 15MHz HIGH SLEW RATE: 7V/µs LOW DISTORTION:.2% EXCELLENT FREQUENCY STABILITY ESD PROTECTION 2kV DESCRIPTION

More information

BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS

BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS BASIC ELECTRONICS PROF. T.S. NATARAJAN DEPT OF PHYSICS IIT MADRAS LECTURE-11 TRANSISTOR BIASING (Common Emitter Circuits, Fixed Bias, Collector to base Bias) Hello everybody! In our series of lectures

More information

IGFET Transistors. Biasing, Gain, Input and Output. James K Beard, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Rowan University

IGFET Transistors. Biasing, Gain, Input and Output. James K Beard, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Rowan University IGFET Transistors Biasing, Gain, Input and Output James K Beard, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Rowan University beard@rowan.edu Table of Contents IGFET Transistors...i Biasing, Gain, Input and Output... i

More information

University of Alberta Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. EE 250 Laboratory Experiment #5 Diodes

University of Alberta Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. EE 250 Laboratory Experiment #5 Diodes University of Alberta Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering EE 250 Laboratory Experiment #5 Diodes Objective: To introduce basic diode concepts. Introduction: The diode is the most fundamental

More information

ENEE 307 Electronic Circuit Design Laboratory Spring 2012. A. Iliadis Electrical Engineering Department University of Maryland College Park MD 20742

ENEE 307 Electronic Circuit Design Laboratory Spring 2012. A. Iliadis Electrical Engineering Department University of Maryland College Park MD 20742 1.1. Differential Amplifiers ENEE 307 Electronic Circuit Design Laboratory Spring 2012 A. Iliadis Electrical Engineering Department University of Maryland College Park MD 20742 Differential Amplifiers

More information

LM101A - LM201A LM301A

LM101A - LM201A LM301A LM2A LM3A SINGLE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS LM3A LM2A INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE.7mV 2mV. INPUT BIAS CURRENT 25nA 7nA INPUT OFFSET CURRENT.5nA 2nA SLEW RATE AS INVERTING AMPLIFIER V/µs V/µs N DIP (Plastic Package)

More information

Op Amp Circuit Collection

Op Amp Circuit Collection Op Amp Circuit Collection Note: National Semiconductor recommends replacing 2N2920 and 2N3728 matched pairs with LM394 in all application circuits. Section 1 Basic Circuits Inverting Amplifier Difference

More information

LABORATORY WORK BOOK For The Course EL-236 Amplifiers and Oscillators

LABORATORY WORK BOOK For The Course EL-236 Amplifiers and Oscillators LABORATORY WORK BOOK For The Course EL-236 Amplifiers and Oscillators Name : Roll No. : Batch Year Dept. : : : Department of Electronic Engineering N.E.D. University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi

More information

Op Amp Circuits. Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifiers, Integrator, Differentiator

Op Amp Circuits. Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifiers, Integrator, Differentiator M.B. Patil, IIT Bombay 1 Op Amp ircuits Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifiers, Integrator, Differentiator Introduction An Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block used in a variety

More information