Understanding Density

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Understandings of Consequence Project Teacher Overview Understanding Density What is density and why is it hard to understand? This overview outlines concepts in the Density curriculum and explains difficulties that students have when learning the concepts. It illustrates how understanding the underlying causality is important to a deep understanding of density. Section one explains the scientific concept. Section two reviews how students ideas typically progress and what problems they encounter. Section three illustrates how causal restructuring is important in gaining a deep understanding. Section 4 outlines misconceptions about density and is divided into two types those that require learning a new causal structure and those that do not. What is the scientific concept? Scientists define density as the mass of a substance per unit volume. The word per signals that thinking about density requires thinking about a relationship. It is the relation between the mass (or weight) of one unit of a material and the volume of that one unit. Density cannot be directly perceived or measured. It must be inferred from the relationship of the mass and volume. However, it can be determined by calculation which is how many schools teach it. To calculate density, you first measure the weight and volume of an object precisely, then you divide the mass by the volume (i.e. d=m/v, density equals mass divided by volume). So for example, the density of water is 1 gram per cubic centimeter because a volume of 1 cubic centimeter of water has a mass of 1 gram. A substance which has a mass of greater than one gram per cubic centimeter has a density greater than 1.0 gram per cubic centimeter; a substance which has a mass of less than one gram per cubic centimeter has a density of less than 1.0 gram per cubic centimeter. Differences in density are also discussed as a function of atomic mass, atomic or molecular bonds, and mixed density. The greater the atomic mass of a given substance (number of protons and neutrons making up each atom), the more mass per unit volume. Similarly, the tightness of the atomic and/or molecular bonds impacts how closely packed they are and therefore how much mass fits in a given volume. The greater the mass is in a given space, the greater the density is. When more than one material is present, one must consider the density of each material in assessing the

3 its identity even during decomposition when perceptual properties change. For example, if you cut a tiny piece of Styrofoam in half and in half again, and keep on cutting it, it will always have mass and take up space even though you will not be able to see it, even with a microscope. Typically the concept of density is taught to middle school science students as a ratio quantity, (the mass to volume ratio), or as a per quantity (the mass per unit volume) which is a characteristic property of different materials (i.e. a property that can be used to distinguish one material from another). 7 Research shows that students tend to hold many misconceptions about density concepts and have a difficult time integrating their intuitive concepts and formal learning. The following sections discuss why density concepts are so hard for students and what causality has to do with it. What does causality have to do with it? Students typically use a simple linear causality in their learning. They reason that one thing makes another thing happen. They also tend to focus on obvious variables ones that they can perceive, such as weight. They can feel the weight of an object so they confound weight and density. They say things like the weight causes the object to sink. Helping students reason well about density involves using relational causality. In relational causality, the relationship between two variables, usually one of balance or imbalance, causes or results in an outcome. One way to think about the cause of differences in density is to focus on the relationship between mass and volume. A strong relational causal model supports both qualitative and quantitative understanding of density. Students can picture the amount of mass in a given amount of space and can deduce the formulas for density from the inherent per relationship. Without opportunities to learn about relational causality, students often focus on one side of the relationship or the other but do not consider the two in relationship to each other. For example, they think about how much mass two objects have in an absolute sense but do not think about the amount of mass per unit of volume. Not reasoning relationally can lead to confounded weight and density concepts. Why? because density must be inferred from a relationship. You can t directly perceive or measure it. Neither feature (mass or volume) is sufficient to explain the outcome. Without a firm grasp of the relational causality, students tend to substitute obvious variables in a simple linear relationship. It IS cognitively harder to reason relationally than linearly. The challenges inherent in understanding density as a relationship include the cognitive load of holding two or more features in mind, reasoning abstractly as one attends to the relations rather than the absolutes, and understanding that there are dual features through which variation

4 can be introduced (so one needs to attempt to isolate and control for variables.) In addition to teaching relational causality, an important component of teaching about the cause of differences in density is to focus on the micro- and macro- features that constitute density. This includes differences in atomic mass, atomic and molecular bonds, and instances of mixed density. Understanding these differences can lead to a deep understanding of material kind and to integrating material kind conceptions with relational causality conceptions (including dots-per-box models.) This is important because most students reason from material kind models instead of ratio models. Thinking about atomic particles can be challenging and again involves causes that cannot be directly observed. However, it offers a critical bridge between intuitive notions that there are different kinds of materials and mathematical models of differences in density. Relational causality comes up again in sinking and floating. When students are trying to reason about sinking and floating, they need to think about two relationships in relation to each other The relationship of the mass per unit volume of the object or substance in relation to the mass per unit volume of the liquid. As one considers increasingly complex phenomena, the cognitive load and level of abstraction required to balance the components of each causal relation within the system becomes increasingly challenging. This is why it is important to build the understanding of the simple relation that is density as a platform upon which to base understandings of more complex phenomena. Dynamic elements make the model even more complex. For instance, explaining convection currents requires reasoning about the changing relationship between two relationships. As warm air rises to float on colder air, it then cools and then it sinks on the air that is now warmer by comparison. Student must conceptualize the change in the relationship of mass per unit volume for the air as it changes temperature. There are many everyday applications where students must engage in this type of reasoning, such as weather patterns and hot water heaters to those based upon processes of photosynthesis, such as when duckweed on a pond stores enough sugar to become too dense to float on the water surface and sinks to the bottom of the pond for the winter as it uses its stored sugars and subsequently becomes less dense, enough so that it floats back to the surface in the spring. What are typical misconceptions or difficulties in students understanding of density that relate to causal structure? Students substitute weight for density. They assume that heavier objects are denser without considering weight per size. Students find it hard to attend to two variables at once and focus on the relationship between them as understanding density requires. They attend to only one variable at a time (weight, size, shape, etc.) Often they attach more

5 importance to one variable than the others. When learning about density, students often think that density cannot change. Textbooks that present the concept of a standard, but are not clear that it is under certain conditions of temperature and pressure can lead to this misunderstanding. This makes it difficult for students to understand a host of real world phenomena. They need to understand that if the variables in the relationship change, then the density can change. Students think that. Weight is additive and so is density, so if you have twice as much material, you have twice as much weight and twice as much density. (Again, this stems from an undifferentiated weight/density concept). Volume is additive and so is density, so if you have twice as much material, you have twice as much volume and twice as much density. Heavy things sink and light things float. Objects either sink or float and it is possible to make a list of sinkers and floaters. What are other (non-causality-related) typical misconceptions or difficulties in students understanding of density? Students think that Fluids (especially gases) are not materials and don t have density. Gases have no mass and therefore no density. The spaces in between the particles of an object are air. (They can be in some instances of mixed density where air molecules fit in the gaps in the object material, but the spaces between particles are typically not air.) Differences in felt weight are always due to one object being hollow (or mixed density). Objects that don t have felt weight do not have weight at all. (Students often use felt-weight as their concept of weight so they think that tiny visible pieces of Styrofoam have no weight at all because you can t feel any pressure on your hand.) Materials cease to exist when they are no longer visible. Students think that the material kind of the object or substance only maintains its identity if large-scale

6 perceptual properties are preserved. Wood always floats. Plastic always floats. Hollow objects always float (when it actually depends upon the ratio of the density of surrounding material to the inside air and how that ratio compares to the density of the liquid.) Particles (or atoms) are very different sizes. Frozen means that something feels cold to the touch (rather than the scientific meaning that it is in a solid state.) 1 Smith, Maclin, Grosslight, & Davis Mounoud & Hauert, Smith et. al Smith, Carey & Wiser, Smith et al., Smith et al, Smith, Maclin, Grosslight, & Davis 1997

Test Bank - Chapter 3 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 3 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 3. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

Causal Patterns in Density Lessons to Infuse into Density Units to Enable Deeper Understanding

Causal Patterns in Density Lessons to Infuse into Density Units to Enable Deeper Understanding The Understandings of Consequence Project Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education This module was

Chapter 3 Student Reading If you hold a solid piece of lead or iron in your hand, it feels heavy for its size. If you hold the same size piece of balsa wood or plastic, it feels light for its size. The

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY In general, when an object performs work on another object, it does not transfer all of its energy to that object. Some of the energy is lost as heat due to

Test Bank - Chapter 2 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 2 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 2. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

MiSP DENSITY TEACHERS GUIDE

MiSP DENSITY TEACHERS GUIDE Introduction: In this unit students will learn about the constant relationship between the mass of a substance and its volume. This is a constant relationship known as density.

The Dynamic Earth: Plate Tectonics

The Dynamic Earth: Plate Tectonics Lesson 1: Density Exploration Phase: Activity 1 Let s play the will it float game? [Anyone Dave Letterman s fans here?] Materials: A glass or graduated cylinder about

SCIENCE Chemistry Standard: Physical Science

Standard: Physical Science Nature of Matter A. Describe that matter is made of minute particles called atoms and atoms are comprised of even smaller components. Explain the structure and properties of

Kinetic Molecular Theory. A theory is a collection of ideas that attempts to explain certain phenomena.

Kinetic Molecular Theory A theory is a collection of ideas that attempts to explain certain phenomena. A law is a statement of specific relationships or conditions in nature. After centuries of questioning

Classifying Matter. reflect. look out!

reflect Do you know what air, water, and an apple all have in common? They are all examples of matter. Matter is a word we use a lot in science. It means stuff. All of the stuff in the world that has mass

Project TECHNOcean Lesson/Activity Plan

Heat Transfer Hayley Vatcher Anna Reh-Gingerich Murray Middle, 7th Objective: Students should be able to: Define and describe conduction Define and describe convection List some good conductors, and poor

Chapter 3, Lesson 6: Temperature Affects Density

Chapter 3, Lesson 6: Temperature Affects Density Key Concepts Heating a substance causes molecules to speed up and spread slightly further apart, occupying a larger volume that results in a decrease in

Chapter 3, Lesson 4: Density: Sink and Float for Solids

Chapter 3, Lesson 4: Density: Sink and Float for Solids Key Concepts The density of an object determines whether it will float or sink in another substance. An object will float if it is less dense than

Archimedes Principle. Biological Systems

Archimedes Principle Introduction Many of the substances we encounter in our every day lives do not have rigid structure or form. Such substances are called fluids and can be divided into two categories:

PARADISE VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE PHYSICS 101 - INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS LABORATORY. Calorimetry

PARADISE VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE PHYSICS 101 - INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS LABORATORY Calorimetry Equipment Needed: Large styrofoam cup, thermometer, hot water, cold water, ice, beaker, graduated cylinder,

2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature:

Temperature I. Temperature is the quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared with a standard A. Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of molecular translational

Sue Cascio (Coyote Valley School), Valerie Duncan (Upper lake Middle School), Paul McGuire (Mountain Vista Middle School)

TEACHING LEARNING COLLABORATIVE (TLC) PHYSICAL SCIENCE Convection Grade 6 Created by: Sandra Cornell (Terrace Heights School), Stacy Holland (Terrace Heights School), Sue Cascio (Coyote Valley School),

DENSITY. reflect. look out! 6.6B

6.6B reflect Imagine that it is a very hot day. You decide to cool a glass of water by placing several ice cubes in the drink. What happens when you drop the ice into the water? Likely, when you place

HNRS 227 Fall 2008 Chapter 4. Do You Remember These? iclicker Question. iclicker Question. iclicker Question. iclicker Question

HNRS 227 Fall 2008 Chapter 4 Heat and Temperature presented by Prof. Geller Do You Remember These? Units of length, mass and time, and metric Prefixes Density and its units The Scientific Method Speed,

What Makes Things Float? Density and Buoyancy Misconceptions. Esther Dabagyan. California State University Northridge

What Makes Things Float? 1 Running head: WHAT MAKES THINGS FLOAT? What Makes Things Float? Density and Buoyancy Misconceptions Esther Dabagyan California State University Northridge What Makes Things Float?

SCIENCE IDEAS CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK: CHEMISTRY (K-8)

Page 1 SCIENCE IDEAS CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK: CHEMISTRY (K-8) Note: The following represents the results of a hierarchical conceptual analysis of Florida K-8 Big Ideas in Chemistry. In doing so, a perspective

Hot Leaks. See how the temperature of liquids changes the way they flow.

P h y s i c s Q u e s t A c t i v i t i e s Activity 2 1 Hot Leaks See how the temperature of liquids changes the way they flow. Safety: This experiment requires using the hot water tap and straight pins.

Kinetic Theory. Bellringer. Kinetic Theory, continued. Visual Concept: Kinetic Molecular Theory. States of Matter, continued.

Bellringer You are already familiar with the most common states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. For example you can see solid ice and liquid water. You cannot see water vapor, but you can feel it in

Convection Current and Tectonic Plates

Convection Current and Tectonic Plates 9 th -12 th Grade Standards: This activity meets California science standards for grades 7 through 12. Purpose: Students should understand the actions of fluids and

Activity #: 3. Suggested Discussion Topics Matter

Grade: Fourth Activity #: 3 Activity Title: Mass & Volume & Density, Oh My! Recommended Group Size: Class/Small Groups Special Notes: This is a wet experiment and should ideally be done in the Science

Name: Date: The masses of the various objects can be determined using the balance. Measure the masses and record the numbers in Table 8.6.

Name: Date: 8 Density 8.1 Introduction In this lab we will consider how to determine the average density of irregular shapes and what that density can tell us about the internal composition and structure

Session 5 Density and Pressure

Session 5 Density and Pressure What makes a block of wood rise to the surface of a bucket of water? Why do your ears pop if you swim deep underwater? In this session, we will examine density, an essential

Will an Ice Cube Melt Faster in Freshwater or Saltwater? Teacher Guide:

Will an Ice Cube Melt Faster in Freshwater or Saltwater? Learning Objectives Teacher Guide: Years ago I gave my students four solutions with varying amounts of salt dissolved in water and asked them to

Temperature and Energy. Temperature and Energy, continued. Visual Concept: Measuring Temperature. Temperature Scales. Temperature Scales, continued

Temperature and Energy What does temperature have to do with energy? The temperature of a substance is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the substance s s particles. temperature: a measure

Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Solids, Liquids, and Gases nd Intended for Grade: 2 Grade Subject: Science Description: Activities to help students understand solids, liquids, gases, and the changes between these states. Objective: The

Density Lab Materials: One 25, one 50, and one 100ml graduated cylinder Tray with samples of: aluminum, steel, lead, zinc, copper, brass and at least

Density Lab Materials: One 25, one 50, and one 100ml graduated cylinder Tray with samples of: aluminum, steel, lead, zinc, copper, brass and at least pennies Beaker of salt water Procedural information:

Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture

Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture 5.1 Temperature and Molecular Motion What is evaporative cooling? 5.2 Temperature and Phase Changes How much energy is required for a phase

[8] SA1.2 The student demonstrates an understanding of the processes of science by collaborating

Convection and Wind Levels Overview: During this project, students observe convection current by performing a lab experiment. As a result of this activity, students develop an understanding of the process

Density Lab. If you get stuck or are uncertain, please ask questions and/or refer to the hints at the end of the lab. Name: Section: Due Date:

Name: Section: Due Date: Lab 01B-1 If you get stuck or are uncertain, please ask questions and/or refer to the hints at the end of the lab. Density Lab Density is an important concept in oceanography,

Category III Physical science examples

Category III Physical science examples Providing variety of phenomena Chemistry That Applies A sufficient number and variety of phenomena are used to support each of the key ideas. For the idea that mass

Return to Lab Menu Mass, Volume and Density Objectives: -to measure different volumes of liquid -to understand that masses are additive but volumes are not necessarily additive -to understand the concept

Chapter 16 Heat Transfer

Chapter 16 Heat Transfer Conduction Convection Radiation John Suchocki demonstrates the low conductivity of red-hot coals with his bare feet. 1 Three different ways of heat transmission Heat transfers

Energy Heats Maine. Heat Transfer Scenes

Energy Heats Maine 1G G2 Energy Heats Maine Energy Heats Maine 3G G4 Energy Heats Maine Energy Heats Maine 5G G6 Energy Heats Maine Energy Heats Maine 7G G8 Energy Heats Maine Energy Heats Maine 9G G10

Test Bank - Chapter 5 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 5 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 5. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

CONVECTION. cold water (red)

CONVECTION Name(s) PART 1 Convection and Density The physical world around us is constantly changing. The activities in this section of the unit will introduce a new model (convection) which is very powerful

Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer.

Test Bank - Chapter 1 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 1. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

Chapter 2 Student Reading Atoms and molecules are in motion We warm things up and cool things down all the time, but we usually don t think much about what s really happening. If you put a room-temperature

Chapter 5 Student Reading THE POLARITY OF THE WATER MOLECULE Wonderful water Water is an amazing substance. We drink it, cook and wash with it, swim and play in it, and use it for lots of other purposes.

Written By Kelly Lundstrom & Kennda Lynch January 31, 2012 Milk Dye ACTIVITY PLAN

Milk Dye ACTIVITY PLAN Objective: Students will use the scientific method to test the difference between using whole milk and skim milk in this milk and food dye experiment. Students will explore ideas

Matter and the Universe. Ancient Views. Modern Views. Periodic Table of Elements. Ernest Rutherford

Matter and the Universe Ancient Views Early atomists believed that matter had a smallest indivisible bit, an atom. Aristotle, the most famous of the early Greek philosophers, didn't agree with the idea

Density. Part 1: What is Density?

Density Part 1: What is Density? Starter Activity Which is heavier, steel or wood? Density We can use a number to describe how heavy something is for its size. Density is the mass per unit of volume. To

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Introduction We have learned that heat is the energy that makes molecules move. Molecules with more heat energy move faster, and molecules with less

Chapter 2, Lesson 1: Heat, Temperature, and Conduction

Chapter 2, Lesson 1: Heat, Temperature, and Conduction Key Concepts Adding energy (heating) atoms and molecules increases their motion, resulting in an increase in temperature. Removing energy (cooling)

The Sun and Water Cycle

reflect Have you ever jumped in a puddle or played in the rain? If so, you know you can get very wet. What you may not know is that a dinosaur could have walked through that same water millions of years

Welcome to the World of Chemistry

Welcome to the World of Chemistry The Language of Chemistry CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Aluminum Bromine Sodium The Language of

Making Things Float & Making a Hydrometer

Making Things Float & Making a Hydrometer Grade 7 Activity Plan 1 Making Things Float Objectives: 1. To demonstrate how density and displacement affect whether things float or sink 2. To illustrate how

3.2 Units of Measurement > Chapter 3 Scientific Measurement. 3.2 Units of Measurement. 3.1 Using and Expressing Measurements

Chapter 3 Scientific Measurement 3.1 Using and Expressing Measurements 3.2 Units of Measurement 3.3 Solving Conversion Problems 1 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Temperature and Heat

Temperature and Heat Foundation Physics Lecture 2.4 26 Jan 10 Temperature, Internal Energy and Heat What is temperature? What is heat? What is internal energy? Temperature Does a glass of water sitting

Heat and Temperature. Temperature Scales. Thermometers and Temperature Scales

Heat and Temperature Thermometers and Temperature Scales The mercury-based one you see here relies on the fact that mercury expands at a predictable rate with temperature. The scale of the thermometer

Buoyancy Boats Florida Sunshine State Science Standards: Objectives Engage: Explore:

Buoyancy Boats Florida Sunshine State Science Standards: SC.C.2.3.1 The student knows that many forces act at a distance. SC.C.2.3.2 The student knows common contact forces. SC.C.2.3.3 The student knows

Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator

SHPE Jr. Chapter May 2015 STEM Activity Instructor Resource Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator Students learn about the three ways heat can be transferred from one object to another. They also learn what

Name: Class: Date: Grade 11A Science Related Reading/Physics Conduction, Convention & Radiation Physics Gr11A Pre Reading Activity Using prior knowledge, write the definition for each vocabulary term.

Density, Mass, and Volume Grade 3-6

Density, Mass, and Volume Grade 3-6 BACKGROUND Matter is everything that takes up space. Matter can be found in three forms, solid, liquid, and gas. The mass of an object is the amount of matter that is

LAYERS OF EARTH. reflect

reflect Have you ever cut an apple in half and looked at the layers inside? When you cut something in half, the resulting view is called a cross section. When you look at the cross section of an apple,

Suck It In! Not Lesson Overview After water is heated in a flask, a balloon is attached and the flask is cooled quickly. The balloon collapses into the flask demonstrating atmospheric pressure. Suggested

What is Water? Monty C. Dozier Assistant Professor and Extension Water Resources Specialist

SCS-2005-12 Water and Me Series What is Water? Monty C. Dozier Assistant Professor and Extension Water Resources Specialist Water is found everywhere in the air, on and under the ground, in living things,

When students enter the classroom, they

When students enter the classroom, they often hold prior knowledge or conceptions about the natural world. These conceptions will influence how they come to understand what they are taught in school. Some

Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008

Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE LAB: Part II 1. Thermal expansion/water thermometer A flask One-hole stopper A long glass tube A container filled with

Learning outcomes. Students will be able to:

Learning structure of the lesson The big picture This lesson is designed to exemplify an argumentation approach to practical work, using a predict-observe-explain framework. Students often think that some

Science Matters. Fifth Grade Physical Science. Matter

Fifth Grade Physical Science Matter Written By: Christine Lindblad Claire Poissonniez Vanessa Scarlett With input from: Lani Gregory-Browne Brendan Carroll Jamie Persoon Developed in Conjunction with K-12

Density of Sea Water. (Water Chemistry) Grade(s): 6-8

Title: Density of Sea Water (Water Chemistry) Grade(s): 6-8 Introduction: Temperature and salinity affect the density of the water. Ocean salinity differs by small numbers, so oceanographers need to be

ENSITY DEMONSTRATIONS WITHOUT BUOYANCY CHALLENGE STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS

DDRY ENSITY LAND ON DEMONSTRATIONS WITHOUT BUOYANCY CHALLENGE STUDENT MISCONCEPTIONS By Julie C. Libarkin, Cynthia D. Crockett, and Philip M. Sadler A s a property of matter, density is a topic central

Mass and Volume Relationships

Mass and Volume Relationships Objective: The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to become familiar with some of the basic relationships and units used by scientists. In this experiment you will perform

Explore It! SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS IN OUT-OF-SCHOOL PROGRAMS. Sinking & Floating

SCIENCE INVESTIGATIONS IN OUT-OF-SCHOOL PROGRAMS Sinking & Floating Sinking & Floating How to Use This Guide...ix Overview...xi Exploration : What Floats and What Sinks?... Exploration 2: Making Floating

Water to Vapor; Water to Ice The Process Is Amazing

Science Project Idea 8 th -Grade Energy Water to Vapor; Water to Ice The Process Is Amazing Setting the Scene: Holding On To Heat If you leave a cup of cold water on a counter, it will warm up very quickly.

Density Circulation Model ME-6816

Instruction Manual 012-12254A *012-12254* PASCO Earth Science Density Circulation Model Pouring Spout 1 Liter Reservoir Top Valve Milliliter Scale 1 Liter Reservoir Valve Handles Centimeter Scale Bottom

Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy

Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy Goals of Period 4 Section 4.1: To define temperature and thermal energy Section 4.2: To discuss three methods of thermal energy transfer. Section 4.3: To describe

Assessment Schedule 2012: Physics: Demonstrate understanding of aspects of heat (90939)

NCEA Level 1 Physics (90939) 2012 page 1 of 6 Assessment Schedule 2012: Physics: Demonstrate understanding of aspects of heat (90939) Assessment Criteria ONE (a)(i) States the term condensation. States

Melting ice Student sheet

Melting ice Student sheet Predict Which ice cube will melt first? Observe Describe what you saw happen. Why? (Give a scientific explanation) Questions to think about: Why does ice melt? Why might one ice

Structure of the Earth/Density Test

Name Score /69 Structure of the Earth/Density Test Using the formula for density: to solve each problem, SHOWING ALL YOUR WORK, including UNITS. Refer to this chart to answer questions #1 & #2 Layer Approximate

Density Author(s): Ms. Adrienne Maribel López Date Created: August 2007 Subject: Physics Grade Level: 6th-8th grade Standards: NYS Learning Standards for Mathematics, Science, and Technology-- Intermediate

Materials: Large clear container with lid Uncooked popcorn or rice Metal ball bearing (about the size of a ping-pong ball) Ping-pong ball

Investigation: 01 Magic Ping-Pong Ball Amaze your family and friends with this illusion. Large clear container with lid Uncooked popcorn or rice Metal ball bearing (about the size of a ping-pong ball)

Name Date Class. Guided Reading and Study

Describing Matter This section describes the kinds of properties used to describe matter. It also defines elements and contrasts compounds and mixtures. Use Target Reading Skills Write a definition of

Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide F. Basic Calorimetry Set TD-8557A

Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide 012-03060F Basic Calorimetry Set TD-8557A Al Cu W Table of Contents Introduction......................................................................... 1 Notes

Topic Page Contents Page

Heat energy (11-16) Contents Topic Page Contents Page Heat energy and temperature 3 Latent heat energy 15 Interesting temperatures 4 Conduction of heat energy 16 A cooling curve 5 Convection 17 Expansion

Session 2 The Particle Nature of Matter: Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Session 2 The Particle Nature of Matter: Solids, Liquids, and Gases What explanation might account for the differences between the states of matter, as well as explain its different properties? Session

Density: Sea Water Mixing and Sinking

Density: Sea Water Mixing and Sinking Unit: Salinity Patterr~s & the Water Cycle I Grade Level: Middle or High I Time Required: two 45 minute class periods I Content Standard: NSES Physical Science, properties

4 TH GRADE AIR AND AIR PRESSURE

4 TH GRADE AIR AND AIR PRESSURE Summary: Students experiment with air by finding that it has mass and pressure. Warm air is less dense than cool air and this is tested using a balance. Students experiment

15.2 Convection. It is the material itself that moves

15.2 Convection It is the material itself that moves Learning Objectives What is convection? How can we change the rate of convection? Where do we make use of convection in the home? Particles In fixed

[4] SA1.2 The student demonstrates an understanding of the processes of science by observing,

Frost Depth Levels Overview: In this lesson, students explore the active layer above permafrost and begin a long-term investigation of frost depth. (NOTE: This lesson requires a frost tube in your community.

(Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION

Convection (Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION You know from common experience that when there's a difference in temperature between two places close to each other, the temperatures

Gas Properties and Balloons & Buoyancy SI M Homework Answer K ey

Gas Properties and Balloons & Buoyancy SI M Homework Answer K ey 1) In class, we have been discussing how gases behave and how we observe this behavior in our daily lives. In this homework assignment,

Explore static electricity with sticky tape

Explore static electricity with sticky tape Charge it A teacher laughs as the two tapes he holds in his hands repel! Introduction Use Scotch Magic Tape to determine the electric charge of objects. Material

Learning Progressions toward Environmental Literacy: Carbon Cycling

Learning Progressions toward Environmental Literacy: Carbon Cycling Charles W. Anderson, Lindsey Mohan, Hui Jin, Jing Chen, Phil Piety, Hsin-Yuan Chen Karen Draney, Jinnie Choi, Yongsang Lee We are developing

ACTIVITY 3: Heating Liquids and Solids--KEY. How do liquids and solids change when they are heated? Purpose. Initial Ideas

CYCLE 5 Developing Ideas ACTIVITY 3: Heating Liquids and Solids--KEY Purpose In Cycle 4 you investigated macroscopic changes in pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas as it is heated, and used the

Lift vs. Gravity Questions:

LIFT vs GRAVITY Sir Isaac Newton, an English scientist, observed the force of gravity when he was sitting under a tree and an apple fell on his head! It is a strong force that pulls everything down toward

Structure of Matter (15%) (9 Items) Sample Test Prep Questions

Structure of Matter (15%) (9 Items) Sample Test Prep Questions 8 th Grade (3a) Structure of Matter Students know the structure of the atom and know it is composed of protons, neutrons and electrons. Summary:

Density Labs. Now lets get in to some labs that really let you dig in to the concept of density. We will do a series of three groups of labs.

Apologia Chemistry Page 1 Density Labs Monday, September 15, 2014 8:31 PM Slides Notes Now lets get in to some labs that really let you dig in to the concept of density. We will do a series of three groups

Grade 8 Science Chapter 9 Notes

Grade 8 Science Chapter 9 Notes Force Force - Anything that causes a change in the motion of an object. - usually a push or a pull. - the unit for force is the Newton (N). Balanced Forces - forces that

Weather and climate. reflect. what do you think? look out!

reflect You re going on vacation in a week and you have to start thinking about what clothes you re going to pack for your trip. You ve read the weather reports for your vacation spot, but you know that

Chapter 1 Chemistry: The Study of Change

Chapter 1 Chemistry: The Study of Change This introductory chapter tells the student why he/she should have interest in studying chemistry. Upon completion of this chapter, the student should be able to:

Key. Name: OBJECTIVES

Name: Key OBJECTIVES Correctly define: observation, inference, classification, percent deviation, density, rate of change, cyclic change, dynamic equilibrium, interface, mass, volume GRAPHICAL RELATIONSHIPS

Buoyancy and Density: Middle School Unit Plan

Buoyancy and Density: Middle School Unit Plan Questioning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking Using a Conceptual Change Model (Integration of mathematics & physical science) Delena Norris-Tull and

Test Bank - Chapter 6 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 6 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 6. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

Temperature Scales. temperature scales Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin

Ch. 10-11 Concept Ch. 10 #1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 11 Ch11, # 3, 6, 11 Problems Ch10 # 3, 5, 11, 17, 21, 24, 25, 29, 33, 37, 39, 43, 47, 59 Problems: CH 11 # 1, 2, 3a, 4, 5, 6, 9, 13, 15, 22, 25, 27, 28, 35 Temperature