Buoyancy. Program Description. Louisiana GLEs: Grades: 3 rd - 5 th grades Program Duration: 60 Minutes Program Type: Demonstration

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1 Buoyancy Grades: 3 rd - 5 th grades Program Duration: 60 Minutes Program Type: Demonstration Program Description In this program students will investigate Archimedes Principle by using pan balances and everyday objects. Through experimentation students will look at balanced and unbalanced forces identifying gravitational and buoyant forces and the effect on sinking and floating. Louisiana GLEs: Science Grade 3 1. Ask questions about objects and events in the environment (e.g., plants, rocks, storms) (SI-E-A1) 2. Pose questions that can be answered by using students own observations, scientific knowledge, and testable scientific investigations (SI-E-A1) 3. Use observations to design and conduct simple investigations or experiments to answer testable questions (SI- E-A2) 4. Predict and anticipate possible outcomes (SI-E-A2) 5. Use a variety of methods and materials and multiple trials to investigate ideas (observe, measure, accurately record data) (SI-E-A2) 6. Use the five senses to describe observations (SI-E-A3) 7. Measure and record length, temperature, mass, volume, and area in both metric system and U.S. system units (SI-E-A4) 8. Select and use developmentally appropriate equipment and tools (e.g., magnifying lenses, microscopes, graduated cylinders) and units of measurement to observe and collect data (SI-E-A4) 9. Express data in a variety of ways by constructing illustrations, graphs, charts, tables, concept maps, and oral and written explanations as appropriate (SI-E-A5) (SI-E-B4) 10. Combine information, data, and knowledge from one or more of the science content areas to reach a conclusion or make a prediction (SI-E-A5) 11. Use a variety of appropriate formats to describe procedures and to express ideas about demonstrations or experiments (e.g., drawings, journals, reports, presentations, exhibitions, portfolios) (SI-E-A) 18. Compare and classify objects on properties determined through experimentation (e.g., ability to conduct electricity, tendency to float or sink in water) (PS-E-A1) 19. Select the appropriate metric system and U.S. system tools for measuring length, width, temperature, volume, and mass (PS-E-A2) Science Grade 4 1. Ask questions about objects and events in the environment (e.g., plants, rocks, storms) (SI-E-A1) 2. Pose questions that can be answered by using students own observations, scientific knowledge, and testable scientific investigations (SI-E-A1) 3. Use observations to design and conduct simple investigations or experiments to answer testable questions (SI-E-A2) Sci-Port: Louisiana's Science Center Buoyancy Page 1 of 7

2 4. Predict and anticipate possible outcomes (SI-E-A2) 5. Identify variables to ensure that only one experimental variable is tested at a time (SI-E-A2) 6. Use a variety of methods and materials and multiple trials to investigate ideas (observe, measure, accurately record data) (SI-E-A2) 7. Use the five senses to describe observations (SI-E-A3) 8. Measure and record length, temperature, mass, volume, and area in both metric system and U.S. system units (SI-E-A4) 9. Select and use developmentally appropriate equipment and tools (e.g., magnifying lenses, microscopes, graduated cylinders) and units of measurement to observe and collect data (SI-E-A4) 10. Express data in a variety of ways by constructing illustrations, graphs, charts, tables, concept maps, and oral and written explanations as appropriate (SI-E-A5) (SI-E-B4) 11. Combine information, data, and knowledge from one or more of the science content areas to reach a conclusion or make a prediction (SI-E-A5) 12. Use a variety of appropriate formats to describe procedures and to express ideas about demonstrations or experiments (e.g., drawings, journals, reports, presentations, exhibitions, portfolios) (SI-E-A6) 23. Determine linear, volume, and weight/mass measurements by using both metric system and U.S. system units to compare the results (PS-E-A2) Science Grade 5 1. Generate testable questions about objects, organisms, and events that can be answered through scientific investigation (SI-M-A1) 2. Identify problems, factors, and questions that must be considered in a scientific investigation (SI-M-A1) 4. Design, predict outcomes, and conduct experiments to answer guiding questions (SI-M-A2) 6. Select and use appropriate equipment, technology, tools, and metric system units of measurement to make observations (SI-M-A3) 7. Record observations using methods that complement investigations (e.g., journals, tables, charts) (SI-M-A3) 12. Use data and information gathered to develop an explanation of experimental results (SI-M-A4) Key Terms: Archimedes Principle: An object will float if it displaces a volume of water whose mass is the same as its own. An object will sink if it weighs more than the volume of water it displaces. Buoyant force: The force exerted vertically upward by a fluid on a body wholly or partly. Displacement: The amount of movement in a fluid when an object is placed in that fluid. Equilibrium: State where forces are balanced or equal. Float: To remain suspended within or on the surface of a fluid without sinking. Mass: A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Pan Balance: A balance that measures and compares known masses to unknown masses. Sink: To descend to the bottom; submerge. Connections to Permanent Exhibits: This exhibit is located in the Mechanics cluster of the Physical Sciences Gallery, 2 nd floor. Rising Bubbles: Pump air bubbles into the bottom of a column of viscous liquid and watch them rise slowly. Notice that the bubbles are spheroids (surface tension), that they rise (flotation) and that large bubbles catch up with small ones (Stokes law). Sci-Port: Louisiana's Science Center Buoyancy Page 2 of 7

3 Web Resources: Archimedes Principle-Bradley Carroll, Weber State University This website provides a whole series of articles about Archimedes Life, his Times, the Man, The Golden Crown, his Inspiration, and his Principle. Archimedes Principle-Physics Videos Science Kids Watch this 7 minute 46 second Archimedes Principle video, learn about buoyancy and see how it is used by today s architects and engineers when they design ships, submarines and various other floating structures. Buoyancy-U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission This website contains a nice graphic and explanation of the law of buoyancy. Buoyancy Basics-PBS-Rick Groleau This website provides a scenario that students must use what they have learned about buoyancy to answer a question and two brainteasers. There is also a link to Buoyancy Basics so the students can review the buoyancy concepts. Pre-Visit Activities: Sinking & Floating Activity Do you ever wonder why some things sink and some float? Why does a penny sink but a bottle cap float? Why does ice float in water? You probably already know that some things will float in water and some will not. Do you know why that is? Sometimes the best way to find out if something will sink or float is just to try it-- and that is exactly what you'll do in this experiment! Gather up some objects from around your classroom to test their sinking or floating abilities. Make sure all of the items you pick can get wet! Materials: A large clear container of water Lots of small objects of different weights and materials (plastic, metal, wood, foil, Styrofoam) A few larger objects Worksheet (see below) Pen Procedure: 1. Look at the objects you collected. Draw a picture of each one in the boxes on the left side of the worksheet. 2. Make a prediction about each object - do you think it will sink or float in the tub of water? (To make a prediction means to say what you think will happen.) Mark your prediction on the worksheet for each item (circle float or sink). 3. Drop the objects into the water one at a time. Watch what happens to each one. Did you predict correctly? Circle "float" or "sink" next to each object on the sheet to show the results of your experiment. Sci-Port: Louisiana's Science Center Buoyancy Page 3 of 7

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5 Post-Visit Activities: Liquid Density Do you know why oil floats on water? Would an object that sinks in oil be able to float in water? Try this experiment to find out and learn more about density. Materials: 1-cup glass measuring cup vegetable oil water food coloring corn syrup small objects raisin grape cork button penny screw piece of wax Procedure: 1. Fill the cup with water to the 1/3 mark. Add 2 or 3 drops of food coloring. 2. Add 1/3 cup of corn syrup so that the level of liquid in the cup rises to the 2/3 cup mark. 3. Add 1/3 cup of oil to fill the cup to the 1 cup mark. 4. Watch what happens. The layers should separate so that the corn syrup is on the bottom, the oil is on top and the water is in the middle. 5. Guess where each of your objects will land when dropped into the cup and then test them out one at a time. What's Happening? This activity introduces the concept of density. Density is mass per unit volume. If more matter is packed into the same space the substance is going to be denser. The corn syrup was the densest liquid, so it sank to the bottom of the cup. The water was less dense than the corn syrup, but more dense than the oil, so it settled on top of the corn syrup. The oil was the least dense, so it floated on top of the water! The objects that you dropped into the cup had different densities. Each object sank into the cup until it got to a liquid that was denser than it. The cork was not very dense at all, so it floated on the surface of the oil. The wax fell into the oil, but not all the way to the water, so it was denser than the cork, but not as dense as water. The grape and the raisin fell to the bottom of the water layer, but not into the corn syrup. That means that they were less dense than the corn syrup, but more dense than the water! The penny and screw were very dense; they sank all the way to the bottom of the corn syrup! Float My Boat This is a great activity that extends the students understanding of buoyancy! Sci-Port: Louisiana's Science Center Buoyancy Page 5 of 7

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