Where to start: Understanding building energy use

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1 Buildings energy efficiency sessions done in partnership with: sustainable energy partnerships Energy Efficiency Training Week Where to start: Understanding building energy use Buildings: Session

2 Energy Efficiency Training Week Buildings: Program 1. Where to start: Understanding building energy use 2. Where to start: Energy efficiency potential in buildings 3. Toolkit: Building technologies for low energy buildings 4. Toolkit: Linking buildings energy efficiency policy to investments and finance 5. Toolkit: Building energy codes and standards 6. Toolkit: Building energy efficiency policies 7. What are the steps: Set targets and develop policies 8. Did it work: Evaluating the multiple benefits of energy efficiency in buildings 9. Did it work: Tracking progress with energy efficiency indicators 10. Energy Efficiency Quiz: Understanding energy efficiency in buildings

3 Energy Efficiency Training Week (Buildings) 1. Where to start: Understanding building energy use Trainers: Brian Dean and Peter Graham Purpose: To teach emerging professionals in the emerging economies about basic fundamentals of how and why buildings use energy. Scenario: An influential NGO is urging for all new construction to be nearly zero energy buildings. What factors are key to achieving zero energy buildings?

4 Understanding Building Energy Use Energy follows Form

5 celková energie [kwh/m 2 a] % Understanding Building Energy Use Form: Buildings can utilise passive solar Domácí spotřebiče Vzduchotechnika Ohřev TUV Vytápění % 0 Stávající zástavba Pasivní dům Source: Jan Barta, Center for Passive Buildings,

6 Understanding Building Energy Use Energy follows Function Buildings don t use energy people do: comfort/commodity/delight People don t demand energy, they demand energy services:

7 Understanding Building Energy Use: Function: Comfort Different building uses create different comfort challenges: Commercial/Public Buildings: mainly cooling & lighting Residential Buildings: heating/cooling depending on climate C making B match A Ensure the required indoor conditions with little or no use of energy, other than from ambient or renewable sources. (Szokolay, 2004) Source:

8 Delight Context: Examine the site conditions, climate, daylight, sonic environment Understanding Building Energy Use: Form & Function: Commodity Desirable or acceptable conditions: Establish the limits of temperatures, lighting, air movement, acceptable noise levels, space requirement Lifecycle embodied energy: Create space in the most material efficient & life-cycle considerate way Passive service: Attempt passive control of light, heat & sound Energy-based service: Provide energybased services only for the residual control tasks (Szokolay, 2004) Centrally Planned Asia, Total thermal energy use, Urban & Rural / All buildings, All V BAU 2X Energy Demand by 2050 in centrally planned Asia Source: BEPS Page 1 You are free to use this information under the conditions of the Creative Commons CC BY License and you must state the source of dat Buildings Performance Network, 2014". Data collection and analysis performed by: Centre for Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Policy. Contact:

9 Understanding Building Energy Use Function: Climate impacts energy use and comfort Source: NASA climatic data + GIS spatial analysis

10 Electricity Use (TWh) Understanding Building Energy Use: Result: Delight Urban-AC Urban-Envelope Urban-Eqipment Rural-AC Rural-Envelope Rural-Eqipment BAU >6X increase in residential electricity consumption in India (GBPN&CEPT 2014) BAU >2-4X increase in buildings electricity consumption globally by 2050 (IPCC 2014) Source:

11 Building Energy Use Example: India Field Study Four Cities in Four Climate Zone Ahmedabad: Hot and Dry (CDD 3441 HDD 131) New Delhi: Composite (CDD 2928 HDD 429) Mumbai: Warm and Humid (CDD 3567 HDD 0) Pune: Moderate (CDD 2485 HDD 175) About 1000 households 250 per Climate Zone Source of Map : BEE Source:

12 No of Dwellings Analysis & Observations Building Energy Use Example: India Air Conditioners and Bedroom Distribution 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 BHK 2 BHK 3 BHK 4 BHK No AC 1 AC 2 AC 3 AC 4 AC 5 AC 6 AC Source:

13 Ahmedabad Bangalore New Delhi Mumbai Ahmedabad Bangalore New Delhi Mumbai Ahmedabad Bangalore New Delhi Mumbai Ahmedabad Bangalore New Delhi Mumbai EPI (kwh/m2) Analysis & Observations Building Energy Use Example: India 60 EPI (kwh/m2) for all Climate and Building Types Surveyed BAU ECBC ECBC+ Source: Equipment EPI Increse Increase in in AC AC EPI EPI for for Air Air Conditioned AC EPI for Mixed Mode

14 Building Energy Use Example: India 15% 85% Residential Energy Consumption 34% Fans 28% Lighting 7% Air Conditioning 4% Evaporative Cooler 73% Residential Commercial Floor area by building sector 13% Refrigerator 4% Television 10% others 27% Source:

15 Building energy use Globally, buildings account for one-third of global final energy demand 60% of the world s electricity use, one-third of energy-related CO 2 emissions, two-thirds of halocarbon, and 25 33% of black carbon emissions (GEA 2012) Other sectors 4% Transport 31% 4% 11% 22% Coal Oil Natural gas Industry 31% Buildings 35% 28% 5% 30% Electricity Commercial heat Renewables Source: IEA global final energy demand, 2012

16 Building energy use Global building energy use by building type Space heating, space cooling and water heating: 58% of residential 52% of commercial Source: Global building sector final energy consumption, 2010

17 Building energy use Global building energy use by regions Space heating and water heating account for half of global buildings final energy demand. Demand varies across OECD/non-OECD countries, especially with biomass use for cooking and water heating. 8% OECD 50 EJ 3% 5% Non-OECD 68 EJ 34% 14% 27% 5% 3% 13% 25% 20% 43% Space heating Water heating Lighting Cooking Space Cooling Appliance and other Global Final Energy Demand, 2012

18 Building energy use Primary energy use depends on utilities Buildings depend heavily on upstream energy and emissions (electricity and commercial heat). Buildings sector final energy consumption, 118 EJ Biomass 29% Other 1% Oil (LPG) 10% Electricity 29% Power generation (heat and electricity) energy mix Other, 11% Nuclear, 13% Natural gas, 23% Hydro, 6% Natural gas 21% Coal 4% Heat 6% Coal, 47% Source: IEA Global Final Energy Demand and Power Generation Mix, 2012

19 Index (2000 = 100) Building energy use Change in energy use since 2000 Space cooling is rising rapidly, especially in developing regions. Appliance and small-plug load growing with increased wealth Space heating Space cooling Water heating Lighting Cooking Appliances Other (Services) Global Final Energy Demand, 2012

20 Percent change relative to % Drivers of building energy use Global buildings energy use relative to key drivers 45% GDP 40% 35% Floor Area 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% Households Energy Population 0% Source: IEA Energy Statistics, 2014; IMF, 2014; UN DESA, 2014

21 Getting it right: from the start Typical lifetimes of energy consuming buildings stock and equipment Source: IEA Buildings Code Policy Pathway 2013

22 Example of savings by reconstruction. Czech Republic We can build and retrofit buildings to achieve 60 90% savings as compared to standard practice in all climate zones (providing similar or increased service levels) Reconstruction according to Before reconstruction the passive house principle over 150 kwh/(m²a) 15 kwh/(m²a) -90% Source: Jan Barta, Center for Passive Buildings, EEBW2006

23 Scenario An influential NGO is urging for all new construction to be nearly zero energy buildings. What factors are key to achieving zero energy buildings?

24 Net-Zero Energy Buildings In aiming for zero fossil fuel energy use as quickly as possible, an economical energy strategy would implement some combination of: reduced demand for energy; use of available waste heat from industrial, commercial, or decentralized electricity production; on-site production of sustainable energy; Combined with off-site supply of carbonfree and low impact energy, taking into account all the costs and benefits and the reliability of various options. Science House at the Science Museum of Minnesota

25 Discussion 2015

26 Review Questions What are the most important energy services required for buildings to provide in your jurisdiction? What factors are driving demand for energy services in your jurisdiction? Which building type offers the greatest energy savings potential? Which policy measures might reduce demand for space cooling and growth in electricity consumption? Which policy measures might influence the behaviour of building occupants to promote energy conservation?

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