1 Improving comfort and energy efficiency in a nursery school design process S. Ferrari, G. Masera, D. Dell Oro Dept. Building Environment Science &Technologies Politecnico di Milano Italy
2 Research funded by the Italian Ministry of Universities started in 2004 with the involvement of Politecnico di Milano, Università di Padova and Università di Genova: introducing principles of sustainable design and energy efficiency into current small-scale building projects in Northern Italian climates.
3 CASE STUDY: during 2005 the Municipality of Milano (School Buildings Division) nominated Politecnico di Milano to establish a design team for the realization of a new childhood centre The TEAM close collaboration across disciplines for developing integrated solutions since the early step of the design process: essential to the achievement of a low energy consumption building. integrated design approach, involving architects, mechanical engineers, structural engineers, electrical engineers and lighting designers; architectural language embedded with the engineering decisions for minimizing energy use;
4 THE SITE POTENTIAL underground water resources prompted early discussions with the design team about the possibility of exploiting this source for heating and cooling of the building GroundWaterHP high performances, both in winter and, if required, in summer (reversible type, cooling mode) no urban pollution conservation of global CO 2 emissions active contribution in controlling the water table level and revitalization of the nearby canal
5 THE SITE POTENTIAL solar energy approach included since the first design phases of the building: in respect to the sun path rotation of the foot-mark originally foreseen for the building area optimization of building shape
6 BUILDING DESCRIPTION The New Childhood Centre (floor area of 1800 m 2 ) consists of a nursery school, a kindergarten, a fully independent baby-parking (babies can be accommodated for few hours) and the associated spaces.
7 Passive design concepts In order to optimize the solar heat gains during winter time, the parallel wings of the H shape extend from east to west, creating two inner courtyards. south facing classrooms greenhouses-laboratories and offices north oriented services (i.e. kitchen, laundry rooms, dormitory areas).
8 Building envelope high performance opaque and transparent enclosures: U values lower (by 25%) than the national standards proposed for 2009 (D.Lgs. n , first national implementation of EPBD). Surfaces Opaque Vertical Opaque Horizontal Envelope U-value (W/m 2 K) From 1/1/2006 From 1/1/2009 Childhood Centre < 0.46 < 0.37 < 0.28 < 0.43 < 0.34 < 0.26 Windows < 2.4 < 1.9 < 1.43
9 Building envelope external overhangs and venetian-blinds for the solar control on transparent components positioning of the windows and a solar chimney help in providing natural ventilation (important for a public school building, where usually there is no provision for summer air conditioning)
10 Heating system primary air ventilation system (ensuring IAQ) with heat recovery, coupled with floor warming (low temperature, high level of thermal comfort: optimisation of MRT, warm floor surface particularly suitable for children). groundwater heat pump system supplies hot water in winter for space heating and DHW, through storage tanks. Solar collectors Radiant floors During the rest of the year, evacuated solar thermal collectors, placed on south facing roof, provide hot water for DHW (also contribute to hot water in storage tanks during winter). Storage Groundwater Heat Pump DHW Building passive concepts should provide suitable comfort conditions during summer and mid seasons but, if required, the HVAC system could be activated by the use of HP in reversible mode.
11 Control systems Over-use of the energy supplies are often significant in terms of energy wastes. carelessness of the users behaviour (in particular in a public building, no personal additional cost) absence of any equipment dedicated to perform specific controls Primary Air Ventilation System with Heat Recovery Contact detectors CO 2 Sensors Appliances Daylighting Sensors Presence Sensors presence detectors coupled by daylighting sensors, for controlling both electricity and thermal energy supply primary air ventilation operation mode will be also controlled by contact detectors for windows and CO 2 -sensors.
12 THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE A set of simulations to verify the building energy performances during the design development phase of the project VisualDOE v. 4.1, building energy simulation software based on DOE-2 dynamic code (v. E-119) The final energy model, was resulted as a building volume divided in 10 macro-thermal-zones, based on orientations, position in the building, uses, occupation periods and related HVAC systems
13 THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE Annual electric demand Space heating loads (whole building) MWh Base case Improved 20 kwh/m 2 of annual heating energy demand MWh lights Equipments space heat vent fans 0 jan feb mar apr may jun jul aug sep oct nov dec electric energy savings (30% less) due to the control systems are significant groundwater heat pump (comparison to a conventional gas boiler for heating): reduction of 53% of primary energy and 50% of GHG emission. Heating type Conventional Gas boiler GW-HP Primary energy (kwh/y) GHG (kg/y)
14 CONCLUSIONS The adopted solutions for the New Childhood Centre design contribute appreciably in energy savings and environmental effect. Energy efficiency should be a key issue in current practices of building design process. To achieve this goal, since the initial phase of the project an integrated design approach is necessary Grazie per l attenzione!
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