Where to start: Understanding building energy use

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1 Buildings energy efficiency sessions done in partnership with: Energy Efficiency Training Week Where to start: Understanding building energy use Buildings Session 1

2 Energy Efficiency Training Week Buildings: Program 1. Where to start: Understanding building energy use 2. Where to start: Energy efficiency potential in buildings 3. Toolkit: Building technologies for low energy buildings 4. Toolkit: Building energy efficiency policies 5. What are the steps: Set targets and develop policies 6. What are the steps: Building energy codes 7. What are the steps: Incentives for energy efficient buildings 8. Did it work: Tracking progress with energy efficiency indicators 9. Did it work: Evaluating the multiple benefits of energy efficiency in buildings 10. Where do I get help: International collaborations

3 Understanding Building Energy Use Source: OECD/IEA 2015

4 Understanding Building Energy Use Buildings don t use energy people do: comfort/commodity/delight People don t demand energy, they demand energy services: heating/cooling/ventilation/sanitation hot water/cooking/refrigeration/lighting entertainment/internet/communications Buildings are a piece of energy infrastructure: conservation (insulation/thermal mass/embodied energy) production (e.g. BiPV, CHP) adaptation & resilience Source:

5 Building energy use

6 Understanding Building Energy Use Climate impacts energy use and comfort standards NASA climatic data + GIS spatial analysis

7 Buildings utilising passive solar concept ( PassivHaus ) celková energie [kwh/m 2 a] % 0 Stávající zástavba Pasivní dům Source: Jan Barta, Center for Passive Buildings,

8 Building Energy Use: Comfort Different Building uses create different comfort challenges: Commercial/Public Buildings: mainly cooling & lighting Residential Buildings: heating/cooling depending on climate C making B match A Ensure the required indoor conditions with little or no use of energy, other than from ambient or renewable sources. (Szokolay, 2004) Source:

9 Building Energy Use: Commodity Examine the context: site conditions, climate, daylight, sonic environment Establish the limits of desirable or acceptable conditions: temperatures, lighting, air movement, acceptable noise levels, space requirement Attempt to create space in the most material efficient & life cycle considerate way Attempt to control the variables of light, heat & sound by passive means as far as practical Provide energy based services only for the residual control tasks (Szokolay, 2004) BAU 2X Energy Demand by 2050 in centrally planned Asia Source: BEPS

10 Building Energy Use: Delight Electricity Use (TWh) Urban-AC Urban-Envelope Urban-Eqipment Rural-AC Rural-Envelope Rural-Eqipment BAU >6X increase in residential electricity consumption in India (GBPN&CEPT 2014) BAU >2 4X increase in buildings electricity consumption globally by 2050 (IPCC 2014) Source:

11 Building Energy Use Example: India How much energy does India s residential sector consume What should we focus on Buildings or Appliances or Behaviour or Everything? Source: Residential Buildings in India: Energy Use Projections and Savings Potentials GBPN & CEPT University Source:

12 Building Energy Use Example: India Population: 1237 Million (313.9) 833M (69%) in Rural India 377M (31%) in Urban India Households: 220 Million (120.7) Average household size: 5.3 (2.6) Jurisdictions: 8,000 Towns and 600,000 Villages Average household energy consumption: 900 kwh/year 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Total Rural Urban 1 HH 2 HH 3HH 5-6HH 7+HH Source:

13 Building Energy Use Example: India 15% 85% Residential Energy Consumption 34% Fans 28% Lighting 7% Air Conditioning 4% Evaporative Cooler 73% Residential Commercial Floor area by building sector 13% Refrigerator 4% Television 10% others 27% Source:

14 Building Energy Use Example: India Methodology: Field Study Four Cities in Four Climate Zone Ahmedabad: Hot and Dry (CDD 3441 HDD 131) New Delhi: Composite (CDD 2928 HDD 429) Mumbai: Warm and Humid (CDD 3567 HDD 0) Pune: Moderate (CDD 2485 HDD 175) About 1000 households 250 per Climate Zone Source of Map : BEE Source:

15 Building Energy Use Example: India Methodology: Field Study Housing Typology Ground + 3 Ground + 12 Row houses Tenements Independent Bungalows Demographics Family of 2 to 7 Spread of field study Various neighborhoods Source:

16 Building Energy Use Example: India Analysis & Observations Air Conditioners and Bedroom Distribution No of Dwellings 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 BHK 2 BHK 3 BHK 4 BHK No AC 1 AC 2 AC 3 AC 4 AC 5 AC 6 AC Source:

17 Building Energy Use Example: India Analysis & Observations EPI (kwh/m2) for all Climate and Building Types Ahmedabad 27 Bangalore 32 New Delhi 57 Mumbai 54 Ahmedabad Bangalore New Delhi Mumbai Ahmedabad Bangalore New Delhi Mumbai Ahmedabad Bangalore 0 20 New Delhi Mumbai EPI (kwh/m2) Surveyed BAU ECBC ECBC+ Equipment EPI Increse Increase in AC in AC EPI EPI for for Air Air Conditioned AC EPI for Mixed Mode Source:

18 Building Energy Use Example: India Four Scenarios Source:

19 Building Energy Use Example: India Four Scenarios Source:

20 Review Questions What are the most important energy services required for buildings to provide in your jurisdiction? What factors are driving demand for energy services in your jurisdiction? Which building type offers the greatest energy savings potential? Which policy measures might reduce demand for space cooling and growth in electricity consumption? Which policy measures might influence the behaviour of building occupants to promote energy conservation?

21 Buildings energy efficiency sessions done in partnership with: Energy Efficiency Training Week Where to start: Understanding building energy use Buildings Session 1

22 Building energy use Buildings account for: more than one third global final energy demand 60% of the world s electricity use, one third of energy related CO 2 emissions, two thirds of halocarbon, and 25 33% of black carbon emissions (GEA 2012) Other sectors 4% Transport 31% 4% 11% 22% Coal Oil Natural gas Industry 31% Buildings 35% 28% 5% 30% Electricity Commercial heat Renewables Global Final Energy Demand, 2012

23 Building energy use Buildings depend heavily on upstream energy intensity and emissions (electricity and commercial heat). Buildings sector final energy consumption, 118 EJ Biomass 29% Other 1% Oil (LPG) 10% Electricity 29% Power generation (heat and electricity) energy mix Other, 11% Nuclear, 13% Natural gas, 23% Hydro, 6% Natural gas 21% Coal 4% Heat 6% Coal, 47% Global Final Energy Demand and Power Generation Mix, 2012

24 Building energy use Global building sector final energy consumption (2010)

25 Building energy use Space heating and water heating account for half of global buildings final energy demand. Demand varies across OECD/non OECD countries, especially with biomass use for cooking and water heating. 8% OECD 50 EJ 3% 5% Non OECD 68 EJ 34% 14% 27% 5% 3% 13% 25% 20% 43% Space heating Water heating Lighting Cooking Space Cooling Appliance and other Global Final Energy Demand, 2012

26 Building energy use Space cooling demand is rising rapidly, especially in developing regions. Appliance and small plug load demand growing quickly as wealth/connectivity 180 increase Index (2000 = 100) Space heating Space cooling Water heating Lighting Cooking Appliances Other (Services) Global Final Energy Demand, 2012

27 Building energy use Developing regions have highest potential for growth and energy savings EJ DS DS DS DS DS DS DS DS DS DS 2050 OECD Americas European Union China Middle East and Africa India EJ DS DS DS DS DS DS DS DS DS DS 2050 OECD Asia Oceania Russia Latin America Other developing Asia Other countries Biomass Natural gas Electricity Coal and oil Heat Other Global Final Energy Demand, under the 6DS and 2DS

28 Building energy use & opportunity Global energy efficiency opportunities by sector > USD 300 BILLION Two thirds of the economic potential to improve energy efficiency remains untapped in the period to 2035 unless policy activity increases Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2012 OECD/IEA 2015

29 Drivers of building energy use Global buildings energy use relative to key drivers 50% 45% GDP Percent change relative to % 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% Floor Area Households Energy Population 0% Source: IEA Energy Statistics, 2014; IMF, 2014; UN DESA, 2014

30 Getting it right: from the start Typical lifetimes of energy consuming buildings stock and equipment Source: IEA Buildings Code Policy Pathway 2013

31 Getting it right: priority setting Example residential floor area growth Floor area (million m2) New Stock (nzeb) New Stock (Non compliant) New Stock (Compliant) Retrofit Stock Historic Stock (Before 2015) Source: IEA Buildings Model

32 Example of savings by reconstruction. Czech Republic We can build and retrofit buildings to achieve 60 90% savings as compared to standard practice in all climate zones (providing similar or increased service levels) Before reconstruction over 150 kwh/(m²a) Reconstruction according to the passive house principle 15 kwh/(m²a) -90% Source: Jan Barta, Center for Passive Buildings, EEBW2006

33 Net Zero Energy Buildings In aiming for zero fossil fuel energy use as quickly as possible, an economical energy strategy would implement some combination of: reduced demand for energy; use of available waste heat from industrial, commercial, or decentralized electricity production; on-site production of sustainable energy; Combined with off-site supply of carbon-free and low impact energy, taking into account all the costs and benefits and the reliability of various options. Science House at the Science Museum of Minnesota

34 Discussion

35 Energy Efficiency Training Week (Buildings) 1. Where to start: Understanding building energy use Trainers: Brian Dean, Peter Graham, John Dulac Purpose: To teach emerging professionals in the emerging economies about basic fundamentals of the building energy efficiency markets including how and why buildings use energy. Content: This course will discuss the basic fundamentals of how energy is used in buildings at both the building level and at the sector level within each country.

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