1 Help next generation s survival by new eco-friendly approaches in air-conditioning space - by Mr.Rajendra Halbe partnering excellence since 1939
2 Why next generation s survival at stake? GHG like CO2, CH4 Temp rise Glacier melting Sea level rise Extremes droughts/floods Viral infections Emissions & Concentrations Climate change Impacts on human & natural system How much is Air conditioning responsible for this? We will see this later.
3 Global warming Base year is 1950 Temp [rise or fall] [source Landcare Research]
4 Global warming continued.. WHO predicted in 1990 that with global temp increase by C, tropical countries will have increase cases of malaria & dengue. There will be 3 to 5% of population who will suffer from this. This will run into several hundred millions of people. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]
5 Global warming continued.. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface, air and oceans. According to the 2007, 4 th assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 C during the 20th century. A large percentage of electrical production in countries such as the US, China, Australia, and India comes from burning coal. Thermal electricity generation & usage is one of the leading contributors to global warming. This is more than 24%. The 2 nd largest contributor is usage of petroleum products used in transportation sector. Car with air conditioner running full blast, guzzles 19 to 22% more fuel per mile. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]
6 Global warming continued.. Fossil fuel consumption Petroleum products Coal/Gas Transportation Electricity generation Vehicle Building Engine AC AC Lighting Others GHG [ Green House Gases] OLD [ Ozone Layer Depletion] Global Warming
7 Air conditioning the culprit in US US - residential buildings - total energy consumption(2006) Cooking 5% Electronics 9% Water Heating 12% Others 16% Lighting 12% HVAC + Refrigeration 46% US - commercial buildings - total energy consumption(2006) Cooking 2% Electronics 6% Water Heating 12% Others 19% Lighting 25% HVAC + Refrigeration 36% Source: DOE, 2008 Buildings Energy Data Book, Section 2.1.5, Source: DOE, 2008 Buildings Energy Data Book, Section 3.1.4, 2008.
8 Air conditioning the culprit in US continued.. Americans use as much as electricity for air conditioning as is currently consumed for all purposes by all 930 million residents of the continent of Africa. Arizona - Phoenix case study a) In 450 to 1450A.D.,people in the Arizona desert used evaporative cooling for keeping their homes cool from inside. b) After the introduction of air conditioner, in 1940 the Arizona Republic crowned Phoenix The air conditioned capital of the world. c) Arizona Republic declared Phoenicians do not need to move to new localities when they desire a climate change. They change the climate. d) Decade by decade warming rate of Phoenix has higher than any other city in the world. e) In Phoenix, an efficient natural gas fired power plant of capacity 600MW running at full capacity emits appox 250 tons of CO2 each hour. This plant was put up for air-conditioning systems to run in desert. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]
9 Air conditioning the culprit in US continued.. Due to air conditioned age, people try to avoid going outside. Percentage of people visiting parks, gardens, swimming is reduced drastically. Human interaction with the natural environment is reduced. People are increasing their comfort expectation faster than the rate at which climate is changing. Cooling loop Air conditioner contributes to green house emission & higher summer temp, eventually creating the greater demand for cooling, which results in burning of more fossil fuels & threaten further rounds of warming.
10 Air conditioning the culprit in US continued.. IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH Air conditioning helps isolate humans from some pathogens but it can encourage infection by others. In 1976, 34 people were killed in Philadelphia hotel due to pathogen invaded the hotel via the air conditioning system s cooling tower, which offered a nice, moist growth environment. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]
11 Learning from East Let us look at how Singapore is adopting to this situation. Singapore call centre case (as a case in point against Phoenix) a) In Singapore call centre, ventilation improved employees output while air conditioning did not. b) Lowering temperature from 76 to 72 0 F actually reduced employees productivity by 14%. c) But doubling the supply of outdoor air in previously stuffy office increased employees productivity by whooping 35%. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox] Developing countries like India, China should take a lesson from these costly errors made by developed world and improvement case like one in Singapore which is mentioned above.
12 Air conditioning scene in India If current scenario is not improved, then by 2020, the energy consumption by air-conditioning in India is projected to grow almost tenfold compared to its 2005 level. It will put India in same league as western nations. India generates about 55% of its electricity from coal & another 25% from other fossil fuel. Air-conditioner going to increase the power demand of India. Electricity generation in India is expected to go from its 2003 level of 567billion KW/hr to 1.2 trillion KW/hr in Mumbai city consumes 40% of total electricity for air conditioning. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]
13 Challenges to cooling- in India Climate change Burning of fossil fuels & release of green house gases - How to reduce? High energy costs Reducing electricity bills to run the air conditioning systems which is presently at 30 to 40% of the total running cost in commercial sector. Power scarcity Manage comfort with shortage of power supply and black outs. Fresh air Need to provide for fresh air in densely populated areas like educational halls, malls, multiplexes, offices, where easy contamination of air-borne diseases (e.g. swine flu) takes place through air and close contact.
14 Challenges of cooling continued.. The effect of CO 2 on human health Studies conducted on ambient CO 2 range of ppm revealed following-: 1.Indoor, at 600 ppm concentration, occupants became aware of deterioration in the atmosphere. 2.At & above 600 ppm level, some occupants began to display one or more of the classic symptoms of CO 2 poisoning like: Difficulty in breathing Rapid pulse rate Headache Hearing loss Sweating Fatigue [Source O.A. Seppänen, W.J. Fisk, M.J. Mendell on Indoor Air, 1999] [source Landcare Research]
15 ILLUSION of efficiency MIRAGE OF EFFICIENCY Energy efficiency leads to conservation is misleading if they cause people to buy more or larger air conditioned products than they would have bought otherwise. EFFICIENCY CONSUMPTION ENIGMA More efficient air-conditioning systems leads towards more consumption. In India, electricity costs are higher than investment in cooling system. Competitive low cost models will lead to more widespread adoption of AC & owner will decide to operate for more hours per day. THIS BY NO WAY MEANS THAT EFFICIENCY DOES NOT HAVE ROLE TO PLAY IN CONVENTIONAL AC MACHINES BUT THERE HAS TO BE MORE OPTIONS TO REDUCE CARBON FOOT PRINT WHICH WE WILL DISCUSS HERE.
16 Approach for sustainable future 1. Technology change - Energy & eco-friendly technologies 2. Best practices 3. Policy change 4. Lifestyle change
17 Technology change Energy & eco-friendly technologies Solar air conditioning Free Cooling Night Ventilation Earth Cooling (ground cooling) Evaporative Cooling Direct Evaporative Cooling [DEC] Indirect Evaporative Cooling [IEC] Indirect-Direct Evaporative Cooling [IDEC]-: 2-stage.. Lawrence Berkeley Lab, USA
18 Energy and eco-friendly technologies Solar air conditioning Solar radiation is available in abundance in daytime, which can be used for comfort conditioning. Solar A/C using desiccants Air can be passed over solid desiccants (like silica gel or zeolite) to draw moisture from the air to allow an efficient evaporative cooling system. The desiccant is then regenerated by using solar energy to dry it out. Solar thermal cooling Active solar cooling uses thermal collectors to provide thermal energy to drive Vapor Absorption Chillers- VAC. PV solar cooling It can provide the power for any type of electrically powered cooling be it conventional compressor-based, VAC or any other.
19 Energy and eco-friendly technologies continued.. Free cooling Uses the principle of reverse chimney effect. This solution is typically integrated into a building at conceptual stage. Provision for towers Have ambient air collected at the top of towers Saturate this stream of air Move this air stream to cool the designated areas
20 Energy and eco-friendly technologies continued.. Night ventilation Night air is always cooler. Use this cool air to cool the thermal mass of the building. This will translate to about 7 to 10% energy saving advantage. Earth cooling Earth temperature is cooler than ambient environment. A tunnel (pipe) is laid few meters beneath ground. Ambient air flowing through this gets cooled naturally.
21 Energy and eco-friendly technologies continued.. Evaporative cooling / conditioning India is one of the largest markets in the world for these technologies. We have products at different levels of sophistication and different levels of technical performance being offered in the market. 1. DEC Cooling media (water) is coming in direct contact with air which is to be cooled. 2. IEC - Cooling media (water) is not coming in direct contact with air which is to be cooled. And hence there is no addition of moisture into the cooled air. 3. IDEC This is two stage process. The 1 st stage is IEC, so air is cooled without addition of moisture. Now air is passed through 2 nd stage which is DEC. There will be less moisture addition as compared with DEC alone.
22 DEC- IDEC Central A/C DEC IDEC Central A/C on various parameters Parameters DEC IDEC Central A/C system Indoor temp > 28 O C O C <24 O C Relative humidity High (can be humid) Medium Low Fresh air 100% 100% Maximum 10% Carbon footprint Low Low High EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) Not applicable >25 <12 Water consumption 4-5 lit/hr/1000 cfm 7 lit/hr/1000 cfm 12.5 lit/hr/1000 cfm Filtration level 20 µ 20 µ 20 µ CO 2 level Low Low High Airflow High Medium Low Ref. WedCo ambient design conditions for Pune for 0.4% summer conditions. DB = 38.4 O C. WB = 20.5 O C
23 Best practices Halt the practice of over sizing central air-conditioning systems. Use of variable speed electric motor. People cooling rather than building cooling.
24 Policy change needs more to be done Stringent regulatory norms e.g. 1.ECBC (Energy Conservation Building Code): Upper limit for a building in composite climate zone is set at 190 kwh/sqm/year, which is maximum in all categories. [source - BEE] When enforced, these standards will be mandatory. 2.Govt should set electricity rate to raise steeply at higher consumption levels. Campaign Up by 2 > A group of young professionals on mission to take temp Up by 2 in AC cafes, theaters, malls, shops. > They will take up the campaign in Mumbai, Delhi, Pune, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad. [source Indian Express 13Oct2010] Campaign Cool Biz > Japan Govt launched this campaign in 2005 to encourage their business houses to keep their AC at 82 0 F. > This campaign can point to real success, millions of tons of CO 2 kept out of the atmosphere and a widespread social stigma that is now attached to excessive cooling. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]
25 Lifestyle change Coming out of the COLD Often, one tends to look only at temperature as a measure for comfort. However, it is the function of many variables like; temperature, humidity, fresh air, air movement/flow, clothing, food, etc. Evaporation depends on - relative humidity [RH] - air movement. Evaporation - increases as RH drops & air movement increases and - decreases as RH rises & air movement decreases. This means that relative humidity should be sufficiently low and the air movement should be high. It will be best to have both the low RH and high air movement but if that is not possible, obviously, low air movement has to be compensated by a lower RH or high RH should be compensated by higher air movement. [Source R V Simha on Comfort & IAQ ]
26 INDOOR TEMP. in 0 C Lifestyle change continued OUT DOOR TEMP. 0 C 80% of population of world lives in the range of 20 to 35 0 C. Outside temp has an influence on inside temp. Air movement equivalent to 0.98 meter/sec can reduce the comfort range as much as 5 0 C. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]
27 Air conditioning in India- learning Case Study :- CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre. First building outside the US to be certified under the leadership in energy & environmental design [LEED] rating system as Platinum. External walls are built by fly-ash blocks, which transmit only a third as much heat as does concrete. All windows are designed to minimize solar heating of interior. The roof is composed of heat-tight extruded polystyrene & two third of it is covered with a thin layer of soil sown to grass. All fans & pumps have VFD. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]
28 Air conditioning in India- learning Case Study :- CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre. Continued.. The building s most highly visible energy saving features are two wind towers, based on technology developed in Persia centuries year ago.the slots & spaces in the towers concrete are wetted each morning with the building s own treated waste water & air is drawn through before entering the conventional air conditioning. It draws less than one watt per sq.foot, compared with typical office building intensities of four to ten watt per sq.foot. Data centers or several labs like the ones on the Miocrosoft India campus just few meters away have intensities ranging upto 200 watts per sq.foot. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]
29 Components of cooling load [%] What can be achieved!! 100 Cooling load reduction potential in typical office building occupants conduction plug loads solar gain fan heat lighting ventilation 10 0 convetional Building design option high performance [source -BEE / USAID]
30 In Conclusion.. In Ancient Rome, aqueduct water was circulated through walls of houses to cool them. Similar techniques in Medieval Persia (11 th to 18 th Century) involved the use of cisterns & wind towers to cool buildings during the hot season. In our times, with thinning ozone layers and thickening energy crisis, multiple options of Evaporative Cooling is emerging as a viable option apart from other solutions.
31 DO WE WANT TO SAVE OUR NEXT GENERATION???? Thank You
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