Help next generation s survival by new eco-friendly approaches in air-conditioning space - by Mr.Rajendra Halbe

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Help next generation s survival by new eco-friendly approaches in air-conditioning space - by Mr.Rajendra Halbe"

Transcription

1 Help next generation s survival by new eco-friendly approaches in air-conditioning space - by Mr.Rajendra Halbe partnering excellence since 1939

2 Why next generation s survival at stake? GHG like CO2, CH4 Temp rise Glacier melting Sea level rise Extremes droughts/floods Viral infections Emissions & Concentrations Climate change Impacts on human & natural system How much is Air conditioning responsible for this? We will see this later.

3 Global warming Base year is 1950 Temp [rise or fall] [source Landcare Research]

4 Global warming continued.. WHO predicted in 1990 that with global temp increase by C, tropical countries will have increase cases of malaria & dengue. There will be 3 to 5% of population who will suffer from this. This will run into several hundred millions of people. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]

5 Global warming continued.. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface, air and oceans. According to the 2007, 4 th assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 C during the 20th century. A large percentage of electrical production in countries such as the US, China, Australia, and India comes from burning coal. Thermal electricity generation & usage is one of the leading contributors to global warming. This is more than 24%. The 2 nd largest contributor is usage of petroleum products used in transportation sector. Car with air conditioner running full blast, guzzles 19 to 22% more fuel per mile. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]

6 Global warming continued.. Fossil fuel consumption Petroleum products Coal/Gas Transportation Electricity generation Vehicle Building Engine AC AC Lighting Others GHG [ Green House Gases] OLD [ Ozone Layer Depletion] Global Warming

7 Air conditioning the culprit in US US - residential buildings - total energy consumption(2006) Cooking 5% Electronics 9% Water Heating 12% Others 16% Lighting 12% HVAC + Refrigeration 46% US - commercial buildings - total energy consumption(2006) Cooking 2% Electronics 6% Water Heating 12% Others 19% Lighting 25% HVAC + Refrigeration 36% Source: DOE, 2008 Buildings Energy Data Book, Section 2.1.5, Source: DOE, 2008 Buildings Energy Data Book, Section 3.1.4, 2008.

8 Air conditioning the culprit in US continued.. Americans use as much as electricity for air conditioning as is currently consumed for all purposes by all 930 million residents of the continent of Africa. Arizona - Phoenix case study a) In 450 to 1450A.D.,people in the Arizona desert used evaporative cooling for keeping their homes cool from inside. b) After the introduction of air conditioner, in 1940 the Arizona Republic crowned Phoenix The air conditioned capital of the world. c) Arizona Republic declared Phoenicians do not need to move to new localities when they desire a climate change. They change the climate. d) Decade by decade warming rate of Phoenix has higher than any other city in the world. e) In Phoenix, an efficient natural gas fired power plant of capacity 600MW running at full capacity emits appox 250 tons of CO2 each hour. This plant was put up for air-conditioning systems to run in desert. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]

9 Air conditioning the culprit in US continued.. Due to air conditioned age, people try to avoid going outside. Percentage of people visiting parks, gardens, swimming is reduced drastically. Human interaction with the natural environment is reduced. People are increasing their comfort expectation faster than the rate at which climate is changing. Cooling loop Air conditioner contributes to green house emission & higher summer temp, eventually creating the greater demand for cooling, which results in burning of more fossil fuels & threaten further rounds of warming.

10 Air conditioning the culprit in US continued.. IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH Air conditioning helps isolate humans from some pathogens but it can encourage infection by others. In 1976, 34 people were killed in Philadelphia hotel due to pathogen invaded the hotel via the air conditioning system s cooling tower, which offered a nice, moist growth environment. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]

11 Learning from East Let us look at how Singapore is adopting to this situation. Singapore call centre case (as a case in point against Phoenix) a) In Singapore call centre, ventilation improved employees output while air conditioning did not. b) Lowering temperature from 76 to 72 0 F actually reduced employees productivity by 14%. c) But doubling the supply of outdoor air in previously stuffy office increased employees productivity by whooping 35%. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox] Developing countries like India, China should take a lesson from these costly errors made by developed world and improvement case like one in Singapore which is mentioned above.

12 Air conditioning scene in India If current scenario is not improved, then by 2020, the energy consumption by air-conditioning in India is projected to grow almost tenfold compared to its 2005 level. It will put India in same league as western nations. India generates about 55% of its electricity from coal & another 25% from other fossil fuel. Air-conditioner going to increase the power demand of India. Electricity generation in India is expected to go from its 2003 level of 567billion KW/hr to 1.2 trillion KW/hr in Mumbai city consumes 40% of total electricity for air conditioning. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]

13 Challenges to cooling- in India Climate change Burning of fossil fuels & release of green house gases - How to reduce? High energy costs Reducing electricity bills to run the air conditioning systems which is presently at 30 to 40% of the total running cost in commercial sector. Power scarcity Manage comfort with shortage of power supply and black outs. Fresh air Need to provide for fresh air in densely populated areas like educational halls, malls, multiplexes, offices, where easy contamination of air-borne diseases (e.g. swine flu) takes place through air and close contact.

14 Challenges of cooling continued.. The effect of CO 2 on human health Studies conducted on ambient CO 2 range of ppm revealed following-: 1.Indoor, at 600 ppm concentration, occupants became aware of deterioration in the atmosphere. 2.At & above 600 ppm level, some occupants began to display one or more of the classic symptoms of CO 2 poisoning like: Difficulty in breathing Rapid pulse rate Headache Hearing loss Sweating Fatigue [Source O.A. Seppänen, W.J. Fisk, M.J. Mendell on Indoor Air, 1999] [source Landcare Research]

15 ILLUSION of efficiency MIRAGE OF EFFICIENCY Energy efficiency leads to conservation is misleading if they cause people to buy more or larger air conditioned products than they would have bought otherwise. EFFICIENCY CONSUMPTION ENIGMA More efficient air-conditioning systems leads towards more consumption. In India, electricity costs are higher than investment in cooling system. Competitive low cost models will lead to more widespread adoption of AC & owner will decide to operate for more hours per day. THIS BY NO WAY MEANS THAT EFFICIENCY DOES NOT HAVE ROLE TO PLAY IN CONVENTIONAL AC MACHINES BUT THERE HAS TO BE MORE OPTIONS TO REDUCE CARBON FOOT PRINT WHICH WE WILL DISCUSS HERE.

16 Approach for sustainable future 1. Technology change - Energy & eco-friendly technologies 2. Best practices 3. Policy change 4. Lifestyle change

17 Technology change Energy & eco-friendly technologies Solar air conditioning Free Cooling Night Ventilation Earth Cooling (ground cooling) Evaporative Cooling Direct Evaporative Cooling [DEC] Indirect Evaporative Cooling [IEC] Indirect-Direct Evaporative Cooling [IDEC]-: 2-stage.. Lawrence Berkeley Lab, USA

18 Energy and eco-friendly technologies Solar air conditioning Solar radiation is available in abundance in daytime, which can be used for comfort conditioning. Solar A/C using desiccants Air can be passed over solid desiccants (like silica gel or zeolite) to draw moisture from the air to allow an efficient evaporative cooling system. The desiccant is then regenerated by using solar energy to dry it out. Solar thermal cooling Active solar cooling uses thermal collectors to provide thermal energy to drive Vapor Absorption Chillers- VAC. PV solar cooling It can provide the power for any type of electrically powered cooling be it conventional compressor-based, VAC or any other.

19 Energy and eco-friendly technologies continued.. Free cooling Uses the principle of reverse chimney effect. This solution is typically integrated into a building at conceptual stage. Provision for towers Have ambient air collected at the top of towers Saturate this stream of air Move this air stream to cool the designated areas

20 Energy and eco-friendly technologies continued.. Night ventilation Night air is always cooler. Use this cool air to cool the thermal mass of the building. This will translate to about 7 to 10% energy saving advantage. Earth cooling Earth temperature is cooler than ambient environment. A tunnel (pipe) is laid few meters beneath ground. Ambient air flowing through this gets cooled naturally.

21 Energy and eco-friendly technologies continued.. Evaporative cooling / conditioning India is one of the largest markets in the world for these technologies. We have products at different levels of sophistication and different levels of technical performance being offered in the market. 1. DEC Cooling media (water) is coming in direct contact with air which is to be cooled. 2. IEC - Cooling media (water) is not coming in direct contact with air which is to be cooled. And hence there is no addition of moisture into the cooled air. 3. IDEC This is two stage process. The 1 st stage is IEC, so air is cooled without addition of moisture. Now air is passed through 2 nd stage which is DEC. There will be less moisture addition as compared with DEC alone.

22 DEC- IDEC Central A/C DEC IDEC Central A/C on various parameters Parameters DEC IDEC Central A/C system Indoor temp > 28 O C O C <24 O C Relative humidity High (can be humid) Medium Low Fresh air 100% 100% Maximum 10% Carbon footprint Low Low High EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) Not applicable >25 <12 Water consumption 4-5 lit/hr/1000 cfm 7 lit/hr/1000 cfm 12.5 lit/hr/1000 cfm Filtration level 20 µ 20 µ 20 µ CO 2 level Low Low High Airflow High Medium Low Ref. WedCo ambient design conditions for Pune for 0.4% summer conditions. DB = 38.4 O C. WB = 20.5 O C

23 Best practices Halt the practice of over sizing central air-conditioning systems. Use of variable speed electric motor. People cooling rather than building cooling.

24 Policy change needs more to be done Stringent regulatory norms e.g. 1.ECBC (Energy Conservation Building Code): Upper limit for a building in composite climate zone is set at 190 kwh/sqm/year, which is maximum in all categories. [source - BEE] When enforced, these standards will be mandatory. 2.Govt should set electricity rate to raise steeply at higher consumption levels. Campaign Up by 2 > A group of young professionals on mission to take temp Up by 2 in AC cafes, theaters, malls, shops. > They will take up the campaign in Mumbai, Delhi, Pune, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad. [source Indian Express 13Oct2010] Campaign Cool Biz > Japan Govt launched this campaign in 2005 to encourage their business houses to keep their AC at 82 0 F. > This campaign can point to real success, millions of tons of CO 2 kept out of the atmosphere and a widespread social stigma that is now attached to excessive cooling. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]

25 Lifestyle change Coming out of the COLD Often, one tends to look only at temperature as a measure for comfort. However, it is the function of many variables like; temperature, humidity, fresh air, air movement/flow, clothing, food, etc. Evaporation depends on - relative humidity [RH] - air movement. Evaporation - increases as RH drops & air movement increases and - decreases as RH rises & air movement decreases. This means that relative humidity should be sufficiently low and the air movement should be high. It will be best to have both the low RH and high air movement but if that is not possible, obviously, low air movement has to be compensated by a lower RH or high RH should be compensated by higher air movement. [Source R V Simha on Comfort & IAQ ]

26 INDOOR TEMP. in 0 C Lifestyle change continued OUT DOOR TEMP. 0 C 80% of population of world lives in the range of 20 to 35 0 C. Outside temp has an influence on inside temp. Air movement equivalent to 0.98 meter/sec can reduce the comfort range as much as 5 0 C. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]

27 Air conditioning in India- learning Case Study :- CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre. First building outside the US to be certified under the leadership in energy & environmental design [LEED] rating system as Platinum. External walls are built by fly-ash blocks, which transmit only a third as much heat as does concrete. All windows are designed to minimize solar heating of interior. The roof is composed of heat-tight extruded polystyrene & two third of it is covered with a thin layer of soil sown to grass. All fans & pumps have VFD. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]

28 Air conditioning in India- learning Case Study :- CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre. Continued.. The building s most highly visible energy saving features are two wind towers, based on technology developed in Persia centuries year ago.the slots & spaces in the towers concrete are wetted each morning with the building s own treated waste water & air is drawn through before entering the conventional air conditioning. It draws less than one watt per sq.foot, compared with typical office building intensities of four to ten watt per sq.foot. Data centers or several labs like the ones on the Miocrosoft India campus just few meters away have intensities ranging upto 200 watts per sq.foot. [source Book: Losing our cool by Stan Cox]

29 Components of cooling load [%] What can be achieved!! 100 Cooling load reduction potential in typical office building occupants conduction plug loads solar gain fan heat lighting ventilation 10 0 convetional Building design option high performance [source -BEE / USAID]

30 In Conclusion.. In Ancient Rome, aqueduct water was circulated through walls of houses to cool them. Similar techniques in Medieval Persia (11 th to 18 th Century) involved the use of cisterns & wind towers to cool buildings during the hot season. In our times, with thinning ozone layers and thickening energy crisis, multiple options of Evaporative Cooling is emerging as a viable option apart from other solutions.

31 DO WE WANT TO SAVE OUR NEXT GENERATION???? Thank You

Green Building Handbook for South Africa Chapter: Heating, Ventilation and Cooling Luke Osburn CSIR Built Environment

Green Building Handbook for South Africa Chapter: Heating, Ventilation and Cooling Luke Osburn CSIR Built Environment Green Building Handbook for South Africa Chapter: Heating, Ventilation and Cooling Luke Osburn CSIR Built Environment The heating, ventilation and cooling loads of typical commercial office space can range

More information

FIRST RADIANT COOLED COMMERCIAL BUILDING IN INDIA CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ENERGY, COMFORT AND COST

FIRST RADIANT COOLED COMMERCIAL BUILDING IN INDIA CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ENERGY, COMFORT AND COST FIRST RADIANT COOLED COMMERCIAL BUILDING IN INDIA CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ENERGY, COMFORT AND COST Guruprakash Sastry, Senior Manager Green Initiatives Infosys Limited, Bangalore, INDIA ABSTRACT Radiation

More information

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE Overview of Design Conditions: Air conditioning system consumes most of the energy that a building needs in its operation. In order to reduce

More information

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE Overview of Design Conditions: Air conditioning system consumes most of the energy that a building needs in its operation. In order to reduce energy consumption

More information

Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms

Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms Glossary of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Terms Air Change: Unlike re-circulated air, this is the total air required to completely replace the air in a room or building. Air Conditioner: Equipment

More information

A NEW DESICCANT EVAPORATIVE COOLING CYCLE FOR SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING AND HOT WATER HEATING

A NEW DESICCANT EVAPORATIVE COOLING CYCLE FOR SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING AND HOT WATER HEATING A NEW DESICCANT EVAPORATIVE COOLING CYCLE FOR SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING AND HOT WATER HEATING John Archibald American Solar Roofing Company 8703 Chippendale Court Annandale, Va. 22003 e-mail: jarchibald@americansolar.com

More information

Creating Efficient HVAC Systems

Creating Efficient HVAC Systems Creating Efficient HVAC Systems Heating and Cooling Fundamentals for Commercial Buildings Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for nearly half of the energy used in a typical

More information

AIR CONDITIONING EFFICIENCY F8 Energy eco-efficiency opportunities in Queensland Foundries

AIR CONDITIONING EFFICIENCY F8 Energy eco-efficiency opportunities in Queensland Foundries AIR CONDITIONING EFFICIENCY F8 Energy eco-efficiency opportunities in Queensland Foundries Hot tips and cool ideas to save energy and money! Air conditioning units or systems are often used by foundries

More information

Solar vs. Conventional Air-Conditioning Systems: Review of LIMKOKWING University Campus, Cyberjaya, Malaysia

Solar vs. Conventional Air-Conditioning Systems: Review of LIMKOKWING University Campus, Cyberjaya, Malaysia Solar vs. Conventional Air-Conditioning Systems: Review of LIMKOKWING University Campus, Cyberjaya, Malaysia Edlas Khor Jiunn Hao and Ali GhaffarianHoseini * Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment,

More information

Glossary of HVAC Terms

Glossary of HVAC Terms Glossary of HVAC Terms Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major sub- discipline of mechanical engineering. The goal of HVAC design is to balance indoor environmental comfort with other

More information

Integrated Solar Radiant Systems

Integrated Solar Radiant Systems Integrated Solar Radiant Systems William Shady PE President Topics Radiant heating Indoor air quality Radiant Cooling Project Photos Questions and answers The goal for our clients Healthy Comfort Why Radiant

More information

Energy Efficiency. Energy Efficient Home Cooling:

Energy Efficiency. Energy Efficient Home Cooling: Energy Efficiency Energy Efficient Home Cooling: Choosing an air conditioning system is an important decision. A poor choice may be costly to purchase and operate and yet fail to provide the desired cooling

More information

Design Guide. Retrofitting Options For HVAC Systems In Live Performance Venues

Design Guide. Retrofitting Options For HVAC Systems In Live Performance Venues Design Guide Retrofitting Options For HVAC Systems In Live Performance Venues Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are major energy consumers in live performance venues. For this reason,

More information

Crowne Plaza Copenhagen Towers The world s greenest hotel

Crowne Plaza Copenhagen Towers The world s greenest hotel Crowne Plaza Copenhagen Towers The world s greenest hotel The new Crowne Plaza Copenhagen Towers in Copenhagen, has been designed with sustainability in top of mind. The hotel is one of the first hotels

More information

LG Electronics AE Company, Commercial Air Conditioning

LG Electronics AE Company, Commercial Air Conditioning www.lgeaircon.com New concept Ecofriendly Highefficiency Heating solution Total heating & Hot water Solution for MULTI V LG Electronics AE Company, Commercial Air Conditioning 2 Yeouidodong, Yeongdeungpogu,

More information

Climate and Energy Responsive Housing in Continental Climates. The Suitability of Passive Houses for Iran's Dry and Cold Climate. Farshad Nasrollahi

Climate and Energy Responsive Housing in Continental Climates. The Suitability of Passive Houses for Iran's Dry and Cold Climate. Farshad Nasrollahi Climate and Energy Responsive Housing in Continental Climates The Suitability of Passive Houses for Iran's Dry and Cold Climate Farshad Nasrollahi Table of Contents Abstract German Abstract Introduction

More information

Heat Recovery from Data Centres Conference Designing Energy Efficient Data Centres

Heat Recovery from Data Centres Conference Designing Energy Efficient Data Centres What factors determine the energy efficiency of a data centre? Where is the energy used? Local Climate Data Hall Temperatures Chiller / DX Energy Condenser / Dry Cooler / Cooling Tower Energy Pump Energy

More information

HVAC Processes. Lecture 7

HVAC Processes. Lecture 7 HVAC Processes Lecture 7 Targets of Lecture General understanding about HVAC systems: Typical HVAC processes Air handling units, fan coil units, exhaust fans Typical plumbing systems Transfer pumps, sump

More information

Sea Water Heat Pump Project

Sea Water Heat Pump Project Sea Water Heat Pump Project Alaska SeaLife Center, Seward, AK Presenter: Andy Baker, PE, YourCleanEnergy LLC Also Present is ASLC Operations Manager: Darryl Schaefermeyer ACEP Rural Energy Conference Forum

More information

HEATING, VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING

HEATING, VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING HEATING, VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING as part of the Energy Efficiency Information Grants Program Heating and cooling can account for approximately 23 % of energy use in pubs and hotels 1. Reducing heating

More information

HVAC Systems: Overview

HVAC Systems: Overview HVAC Systems: Overview Michael J. Brandemuehl, Ph.D, P.E. University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA Overview System Description Secondary HVAC Systems Air distribution Room diffusers and air terminals Duct

More information

Each icon on this map represents the physical location of a station.

Each icon on this map represents the physical location of a station. ABBOTSFORD SCHOOL DISTRICT: GREEN TOUR TOMORROW S SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS TODAY Welcome to the Abbotsford School District: Green Tour. Our goal is to create an interactive learning experience for visitors

More information

LIQUID DESICCANT AIR CONDITIONING Saves energy, Controls humidity, Cleans air. Trevor Wende Vice President, Marketing Advantix Systems, Inc.

LIQUID DESICCANT AIR CONDITIONING Saves energy, Controls humidity, Cleans air. Trevor Wende Vice President, Marketing Advantix Systems, Inc. LIQUID DESICCANT AIR CONDITIONING Saves energy, Controls humidity, Cleans air Trevor Wende Vice President, Marketing Advantix Systems, Inc. 0 Humidity: The Hidden Cost Driver Conventional A/C process Start

More information

HEATING OF DOMESTIC OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOLS

HEATING OF DOMESTIC OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOLS HEATING OF DOMESTIC OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOLS INTRODUCTION 1. There are no general EU regulations and standards for outdoor swimming pool heating. Local regulations in the member countries are covering most

More information

HVAC Basic Science - System Capacity

HVAC Basic Science - System Capacity HVAC Basic Science - System Capacity Btu/hour, btu/h, b/h, btuh. btu?? 1 MBH = 1000 btu/hour 1 KBH = 1000 btu/hour 1 ton of cooling= 12,000 btu/hour 1 watt = 3.414 btu/hour 1 kilowatt = 1000 watts = 3,414

More information

Air Conditioning, Comfort and Energy in India s Commercial Building Sector

Air Conditioning, Comfort and Energy in India s Commercial Building Sector Air Conditioning, Comfort and Energy in India s Commercial Building Sector THINK.CHANGE.DO Leena Thomas Richard dedear Rajan Rawal Ashok Lall PC Thomas University of Technology, Sydney Sydney University

More information

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence shows us that our climate is

More information

Ground Source Heat Pumps The Fundamentals. Southington, Connecticut 860 628 4622 John F. Sima III P.E.

Ground Source Heat Pumps The Fundamentals. Southington, Connecticut 860 628 4622 John F. Sima III P.E. Ground Source Heat Pumps The Fundamentals Southington, Connecticut 860 628 4622 John F. Sima III P.E. Winter/Spring 2010 Ground Source Heat Pumps The Fundamentals TOPICS: Heat Pump Terminology Basic Physics

More information

Lesson 36 Selection Of Air Conditioning Systems

Lesson 36 Selection Of Air Conditioning Systems Lesson 36 Selection Of Air Conditioning Systems Version 1 ME, IIT Kharagpur 1 The specific objectives of this chapter are to: 1. Introduction to thermal distribution systems and their functions (Section

More information

HOW AN ENERGY EFFICIENT HOME CAN HELP THE ENVIRONMENT

HOW AN ENERGY EFFICIENT HOME CAN HELP THE ENVIRONMENT HOW AN ENERGY EFFICIENT HOME CAN HELP THE ENVIRONMENT During the last century, concern about the environment increased, as issues such as global warming and the Greenhouse Effect convinced us that the

More information

Presentation Outline. Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks. Links. Plant Level Building Blocks. Air Distribution Building Blocks

Presentation Outline. Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks. Links. Plant Level Building Blocks. Air Distribution Building Blocks Presentation Outline Common Terms / Concepts HVAC Building Blocks Plant Level Building Blocks Description / Application Data Green opportunities Selection Criteria Air Distribution Building Blocks same

More information

Condensing Boiler Efficiency

Condensing Boiler Efficiency Condensing Boiler Efficiency Date: July 17, 2012 PRES E NT ED BY DO N L E O NA RDI LE O N A RD I I NC. HV AC T RAI N I N G & C ON SU LT IN G Concepts 1 The current state of evolution in boiler design 2

More information

How to Earn the LEED Green Power Credit

How to Earn the LEED Green Power Credit 3D EG REES WH ITE PAPER How to Earn the LEED Green Power Credit Using on-site and off-site renewable energy to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions associated with a LEED project s energy use

More information

Residential & Commercial Sectors Overview CLIMATE

Residential & Commercial Sectors Overview CLIMATE CLIMATE TECHBOOK Residential and Commercial Emissions in the United States Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data can be reported either by economic sector, which includes electric power generation as a separate

More information

Case Study: Innovative Energy Efficiency Approaches in NOAA s Environmental Security Computing Center in Fairmont, West Virginia

Case Study: Innovative Energy Efficiency Approaches in NOAA s Environmental Security Computing Center in Fairmont, West Virginia Case Study: Innovative Energy Efficiency Approaches in NOAA s Environmental Security Computing Center in Fairmont, West Virginia Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy s Federal Energy Management Program

More information

Understanding weather and climate

Understanding weather and climate Understanding weather and climate Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence

More information

20 ways to 20% ----Energy saving manual

20 ways to 20% ----Energy saving manual 20 ways to 20% ----Energy saving manual In the Eleventh Five-year-Plan, the Chinese government has set a target to reduce its per GDP energy consumption by 20%. Please take a look at the 20 tips in this

More information

Building Energy Systems. - HVAC: Heating, Distribution -

Building Energy Systems. - HVAC: Heating, Distribution - * Some of the images used in these slides are taken from the internet for instructional purposes only Building Energy Systems - HVAC: Heating, Distribution - Bryan Eisenhower Associate Director Center

More information

HVAC For Schools How to purchase an HVAC system that meets your school s unique requirements and stays within your budget

HVAC For Schools How to purchase an HVAC system that meets your school s unique requirements and stays within your budget A PRIMER Educational HVAC For Schools How to purchase an HVAC system that meets your school s unique requirements and stays within your budget Contents: Introduction: The best HVAC system is durable, reliable

More information

ENERGY PRODUCING SYSTEMS

ENERGY PRODUCING SYSTEMS ENERGY PRODUCING SYSTEMS SOLAR POWER INTRODUCTION Energy from the sun falls on our planet on a daily basis. The warmth of the sun creates conditions on earth conducive to life. The weather patterns that

More information

Vicot Solar Air Conditioning. V i c o t A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g C o., l t d Tel: 86-531-8235 5576 Fax: 86-531-82357911 Http://www.vicot.com.

Vicot Solar Air Conditioning. V i c o t A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g C o., l t d Tel: 86-531-8235 5576 Fax: 86-531-82357911 Http://www.vicot.com. Vicot Solar Air Conditioning V i c o t A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g C o., l t d Tel: 86-531-8235 5576 Fax: 86-531-82357911 Http://www.vicot.com.cn Cooling, heating, and domestic hot water. Return on investment

More information

When considering your heating options, keep in mind that 60% of your energy. costs are attributed to space heating. You

When considering your heating options, keep in mind that 60% of your energy. costs are attributed to space heating. You Heating Options Furnaces & Boilers September 2005 CONSUMERS GUIDE - TO HOME HEATING OPTIONS CONTENTS Heat Distribution Energy Source Boilers Proper Sizing Energy Efficiency - Standards - Rating System

More information

HOT & COLD. Basic Thermodynamics and Large Building Heating and Cooling

HOT & COLD. Basic Thermodynamics and Large Building Heating and Cooling HOT & COLD Basic Thermodynamics and Large Building Heating and Cooling What is Thermodynamics? It s the study of energy conversion using heat and other forms of energy based on temperature, volume, and

More information

How to choose a heat pump and use it wisely

How to choose a heat pump and use it wisely How to choose a heat pump and use it wisely Contents How does a heat pump work? 2 Insulating your home 3 Heat loss in the home Not all heat pumps are created equal 4 Choosing a heat pump 4 Choosing by

More information

Activity 1: 2 butter cartons, scissors, cling film, thermometer, water, a sunny spot and a shady spot.

Activity 1: 2 butter cartons, scissors, cling film, thermometer, water, a sunny spot and a shady spot. Equipment: Activity 1: 2 butter cartons, scissors, cling film, thermometer, water, a sunny spot and a shady spot. Activity 2: 3 thermometers, black paper, white paper Suggested Class Level: 3rd 6th Preparation:

More information

Natural gas heating versus split system heating and the current and future viability of the Natural gas network

Natural gas heating versus split system heating and the current and future viability of the Natural gas network Natural gas heating versus split system heating and the current and future viability of the Natural gas network Discussion Paper: Energy Consumer Reference Council meeting 7. August 2015 While ActewAGL

More information

KS3 Renewable Energy. EcoStyle.co.uk. Introductory Presentation

KS3 Renewable Energy. EcoStyle.co.uk. Introductory Presentation Introductory Presentation Energy Energy is a vital to our way of life. Here are a some examples of where energy is used: Homes: central heating, powering electrical appliances, and heating water Public

More information

Solar Thermal TECHNOLOGY. Eric Buchanan Renewable Energy Scientist West Central Research and Outreach Center Wcroc.cfans.umn.edu

Solar Thermal TECHNOLOGY. Eric Buchanan Renewable Energy Scientist West Central Research and Outreach Center Wcroc.cfans.umn.edu Solar Thermal TECHNOLOGY Eric Buchanan Renewable Energy Scientist West Central Research and Outreach Center Wcroc.cfans.umn.edu Solar Energy History Solar Thermal 700 BC Chinese use burning mirrors 1760

More information

Design and Re-Use Of Shovadans In Today's Architecture "With Due Attention To Have Thermal Energy Of The Earth"

Design and Re-Use Of Shovadans In Today's Architecture With Due Attention To Have Thermal Energy Of The Earth RESEARCH INVENTY: International Journal of Engineering and Science ISBN: 2319-6483, ISSN: 2278-4721, Vol. 1, Issue 8 (November 2012), PP 60-64 www.researchinventy.com Design and Re-Use Of Shovadans In

More information

Energy-Saving Promotion Services

Energy-Saving Promotion Services Advanced Maintenance, Energy-Saving, Environment Energy-Saving Promotion Services Seiji Matsuda, Nobuhide Akashi Keyword Energy-saving, Energy Saving Law, Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures,

More information

HOW TO CONDUCT ENERGY SAVINGS ANALYSIS IN A FACILITY VALUE ENGINEERING STUDY

HOW TO CONDUCT ENERGY SAVINGS ANALYSIS IN A FACILITY VALUE ENGINEERING STUDY HOW TO CONDUCT ENERGY SAVINGS ANALYSIS IN A FACILITY VALUE ENGINEERING STUDY Benson Kwong, CVS, PE, CEM, LEED AP, CCE envergie consulting, LLC Biography Benson Kwong is an independent consultant providing

More information

Module 7 Forms of energy generation

Module 7 Forms of energy generation INTRODUCTION In rich countries like Australia, our standard of living is dependent on easily available energy. Every time you catch a bus, turn on a light or watch television energy is being used up. Over

More information

Where to start: Understanding building energy use

Where to start: Understanding building energy use Buildings energy efficiency sessions done in partnership with: Energy Efficiency Training Week Where to start: Understanding building energy use Buildings Session 1 Energy Efficiency Training Week Buildings:

More information

Sustainable Living Student Worksheets

Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Stage 4 Design & Technology FW4DT1 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep

More information

HVAC Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Improvements 2013 National Symposium on Market Transformation. Richard Lord Carrier Fellow

HVAC Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Improvements 2013 National Symposium on Market Transformation. Richard Lord Carrier Fellow HVAC Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Improvements 2013 National Symposium on Market Transformation Richard Lord Carrier Fellow HVAC Industry Challenges and Issues Ozone Deletion Global Warming

More information

Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment

Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment FinAnswer Express Utah Incentive Catalog Effective as of May 19, 2012 Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Equipment Rocky Mountain Power provides incentives for many types of energy-efficient technologies.

More information

How much do you know about HVAC? Try testing yourself with the following questions and then take a look at the answers on the following page.

How much do you know about HVAC? Try testing yourself with the following questions and then take a look at the answers on the following page. Demystifying HVAC Test Your HVAC Knowledge By Ron Prager How much do you know about HVAC? Try testing yourself with the following questions and then take a look at the answers on the following page. 1)

More information

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE 1. What is climate change? Climate change is a long-term shift in the climate of a specific location, region or planet. The shift is measured by changes in features associated

More information

Carnegie Mellon University School of Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics

Carnegie Mellon University School of Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics Carnegie Mellon University School of Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics A Presentation of Work in Progress 4 October 2006 in the Intelligent

More information

PERCENT OUTDOOR AIR (%OA) CALCULATION AND ITS USE

PERCENT OUTDOOR AIR (%OA) CALCULATION AND ITS USE PERCENT OUTDOOR AIR (%OA) CALCULATION AND ITS USE APPLICATION NOTE TI-138 TSI s IAQ-CALC TM Indoor Air Quality Meter and TH-CALC TM Thermohygrometer calculate Percent Outdoor Air (%OA). In order to take

More information

Energy efficiency building standards in Japan

Energy efficiency building standards in Japan www.asiabusinesscouncil.org Energy efficiency building standards in Japan Japan s regulation of building energy efficiency falls under the Energy Conservation Law that was first adopted in 1979. Subsequently

More information

Gas Absorption Heat Pumps. Future proofing your heating and hot water

Gas Absorption Heat Pumps. Future proofing your heating and hot water Gas Absorption Heat Pumps Future proofing your heating and hot water Gas Absorption Heat Pumps 1 Contents Gas Absorption Heat Pumps (GAHPs) The heating solution What is a Gas Absorption Heat Pump? How

More information

THE ROOFPOINT ENERGY AND CARBON CALCULATOR A NEW MODELING TOOL FOR ROOFING PROFESSIONALS

THE ROOFPOINT ENERGY AND CARBON CALCULATOR A NEW MODELING TOOL FOR ROOFING PROFESSIONALS THE ROOFPOINT ENERGY AND CARBON CALCULATOR A NEW MODELING TOOL FOR ROOFING PROFESSIONALS James L. Hoff, VP of Research Center for Environmental Innovation in Roofing Tools and Models Tools require models

More information

Modified Conventional Air Cooling System to Enhance Air Cooling

Modified Conventional Air Cooling System to Enhance Air Cooling International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869, Volume-2, Issue-4, April 2014 Modified Conventional Air Cooling System to Enhance Air Cooling Diwakar kushwaha, Arindam

More information

ChangE. PolICIEs. not the ClIMatE!

ChangE. PolICIEs. not the ClIMatE! ChangE PolICIEs not the ClIMatE! IPCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change s (IPCC) reports are the most comprehensive global overview to date of the science behind climate change. These climate

More information

CONDENSERS AND CONDENSER COOLING SYSTEMS

CONDENSERS AND CONDENSER COOLING SYSTEMS CONDENSERS AND CONDENSER COOLING SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION Conventional cooling methods of thermal power plants are extremely water intensive processes. Once-through cooling needs large natural bodies of water

More information

Where to start: Understanding building energy use

Where to start: Understanding building energy use Buildings energy efficiency sessions done in partnership with: sustainable energy partnerships Energy Efficiency Training Week Where to start: Understanding building energy use Buildings: Session 1 2015

More information

Residential HVAC Load Sizing Training October 14, 2015. David Kaiser Green Code Plan Reviewer

Residential HVAC Load Sizing Training October 14, 2015. David Kaiser Green Code Plan Reviewer Residential HVAC Load Sizing Training October 14, 2015 David Kaiser Green Code Plan Reviewer DCRA - Green Building Division Regulations of green codes including: Green Building Act Green Construction Code

More information

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Some scientists estimate that by 2025 over 60 percent of the global human population will live in urban areas. Urban residents experience a variety

More information

Air Conditioning. The opportunity for energy efficiency. Low cost actions to reduce energy usage now

Air Conditioning. The opportunity for energy efficiency. Low cost actions to reduce energy usage now Fact Sheet #6 Air Conditioning In this fact sheet you will discover: The opportunity for energy efficiency How air conditioning works Low cost actions to reduce energy usage now Investments to reduce costs

More information

Rules of Thumb Energy Efficiency in Buildings

Rules of Thumb Energy Efficiency in Buildings Energy Efficiency in Buildings Energy Savings Cost Savings Increased Productivity Economic Development Other Standard lighting retrofits: $0.90-$1.20 per square foot. High-efficiency packaged and split

More information

Tim Facius Baltimore Aircoil

Tim Facius Baltimore Aircoil Presented By: Tim Facius Baltimore Aircoil Slide No.: 1 CTI Mission Statement To advocate and promote the use of environmentally responsible Evaporative Heat Transfer Systems (EHTS) for the benefit of

More information

It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2015 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Montessori Model United Nations. All rights reserved.

It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2015 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Montessori Model United Nations. All rights reserved. Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2015 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. The following pages intend to guide you in the research of the topics that will be debated at MMUN

More information

Chapter 3.4: HVAC & Refrigeration System

Chapter 3.4: HVAC & Refrigeration System Chapter 3.4: HVAC & Refrigeration System Part I: Objective type questions and answers 1. One ton of refrigeration (TR) is equal to. a) Kcal/h b) 3.51 kw c) 120oo BTU/h d) all 2. The driving force for refrigeration

More information

Evaporative Cooling for Residential and Light-Commercial

Evaporative Cooling for Residential and Light-Commercial EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, October 2011. Copyright 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Posted at www.ashrae.org.

More information

EarthCents (DSM) Program Summary

EarthCents (DSM) Program Summary EarthCents (DSM) Program Summary Renewable Energy EarthCents Programs Solar Water Heating This program is available to residential customers for the installation of a qualifying solar thermal water heater.

More information

Greenhouse Gas Implications of HVAC Upgrades in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings

Greenhouse Gas Implications of HVAC Upgrades in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings Greenhouse Gas Implications of HVAC Upgrades in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings J A NUARY 2015 INTRODUCTION This Research Report explores best practices and approaches for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG)

More information

Evaporative Cooling System for Aquacultural Production 1

Evaporative Cooling System for Aquacultural Production 1 Fact Sheet EES-100 March 1993 Evaporative Cooling System for Aquacultural Production 1 C. D. Baird, R. A. Bucklin, C. A. Watson and F. A. Chapman 2 INTRODUCTION Florida aquaculture sales totaled $54 million

More information

Green Guide for Businesses Strategy: Energy

Green Guide for Businesses Strategy: Energy Green Guide for Businesses Strategy: Energy Reduce Energy Use in New and Existing Businesses - In the United States buildings account for: o 72% of electricity consumption, o 39% of energy use, o 38% of

More information

HEAT PUMPS A KEY COMPONENT IN LOW CARBON FUTURE

HEAT PUMPS A KEY COMPONENT IN LOW CARBON FUTURE HEAT PUMPS A KEY COMPONENT IN LOW CARBON FUTURE Satish Joshi Managing Director CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION, APPLICATIONS 2. TECHNOLOGY, PROJECTS DONE, COST COMPARISION 3. HEAT PUMPS IN THE RENEWABLES DIRECTIVE,

More information

CHAPTER 3. BUILDING THERMAL LOAD ESTIMATION

CHAPTER 3. BUILDING THERMAL LOAD ESTIMATION CHAPTER 3. BUILDING THERMAL LOAD ESTIMATION 3.1 Purpose of Thermal Load Estimation 3.2 Heating Load versus Cooling Load 3.3 Critical Conditions for Design 3.4 Manual versus Computer Calculations 3.5 Heating

More information

A Roof Integrated Solar Heating System Without Storage

A Roof Integrated Solar Heating System Without Storage M. and W. Saman Sustainable Energy Centre University of South Australia Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia E-mail: martin.belusko@unisa.edu.au Abstract A prototype of a roof integrated

More information

Solar Cooling. Methods and Applications. Sargon Ishaya, PE, LEED AP

Solar Cooling. Methods and Applications. Sargon Ishaya, PE, LEED AP Solar Cooling Methods and Applications Sargon Ishaya, PE, LEED AP Objectives Describe two practical methods for solar cooling Give air conditioning engineers the confidence to offer customers a mechanical

More information

Residential HVAC System Sizing

Residential HVAC System Sizing Residential HVAC System Sizing William P. Goss University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA Corresponding email: goss@acad.umass.edu SUMMARY Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC)

More information

International Telecommunication Union SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES IN PUBLIC NETWORKS

International Telecommunication Union SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES IN PUBLIC NETWORKS International Telecommunication Union ITU-T TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDIZATION SECTOR OF ITU Technical Paper (13 December 2013) SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES

More information

Data Center Operating Temperature: The Sweet Spot

Data Center Operating Temperature: The Sweet Spot Data Center Operating Temperature: The Sweet Spot A Dell Technical White Paper Dell Data Center Infrastructure David L. Moss THIS WHITE PAPER IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY, AND MAY CONTAIN TYPOGRAPHICAL

More information

Heating & Cooling Efficiency

Heating & Cooling Efficiency Heating & Cooling Efficiency Advantages of Geothermal HVAC Efficiency Keith Swilley Gulf Power Company Why Gulf Power Promotes Energy Efficiency? Customer Satisfaction Education Help Customers Make Smart

More information

Geothermal: The Clean Energy Secret May 7, 2008

Geothermal: The Clean Energy Secret May 7, 2008 Geothermal: The Clean Energy Secret May 7, 2008 Published by Dr. Patrick Moore in conjunction with the New York Affordable Reliable Electricity Alliance (New York AREA) Geothermal: The Clean Energy Secret

More information

Increasing Energ y Efficiency In Data Centers

Increasing Energ y Efficiency In Data Centers The following article was published in ASHRAE Journal, December 2007. Copyright 2007 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc. It is presented for educational purposes

More information

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor

Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor Fundamentals of Climate Change (PCC 587): Water Vapor DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 2: 9/30/13 Water Water is a remarkable molecule Water vapor

More information

Serenbe Green Geothermal Solutions with Bosch Thermotechnology

Serenbe Green Geothermal Solutions with Bosch Thermotechnology Serenbe Green Geothermal Solutions with Bosch Thermotechnology Geothermal Heating and Cooling boschheatingandcooling.com C1 Residential Geothermal Heat Pumps The Bosch Complete Solution The Serenbe Community,

More information

forair optimal air environments ResidentialPresentation

forair optimal air environments ResidentialPresentation forair optimal air environments ResidentialPresentation Quick Fact Countless neighborhood residents never recognize their home air conditioning system works roughly 3,000+ hours each year. In order to

More information

SPECIAL ISSUE: NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION WORKSHOP

SPECIAL ISSUE: NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION WORKSHOP research journal 2013 / VOL 05.01 www.perkinswill.com SPECIAL ISSUE: NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION WORKSHOP ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING OF SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS Current Trends in Low-Energy HVAC Design

More information

Energy Efficiency in New and Existing Data Centers-Where the Opportunities May Lie

Energy Efficiency in New and Existing Data Centers-Where the Opportunities May Lie Energy Efficiency in New and Existing Data Centers-Where the Opportunities May Lie Mukesh Khattar, Energy Director, Oracle National Energy Efficiency Technology Summit, Sep. 26, 2012, Portland, OR Agenda

More information

HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS THAT FIT COMFORTABLY WITHIN YOUR BUDGET.

HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS THAT FIT COMFORTABLY WITHIN YOUR BUDGET. HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS THAT FIT COMFORTABLY WITHIN YOUR BUDGET. AFFORDABLE SOLUTIONS FROM AMERISTAR. We know that heating and cooling systems can be a major investment for homeowners. Our goal is

More information

PV THERMAL SYSTEMS - CAPTURING THE UNTAPPED ENERGY

PV THERMAL SYSTEMS - CAPTURING THE UNTAPPED ENERGY PV THERMAL SYSTEMS - CAPTURING THE UNTAPPED ENERGY John Hollick Conserval Engineering Inc. 200 Wildcat Road Toronto Ontario jhollick@solarwall.com ABSTRACT PV modules generate electricity, but the electrical

More information

Data Centres A complete solution to noise control and acoustic packages

Data Centres A complete solution to noise control and acoustic packages Data Centres A complete solution to noise control and acoustic packages Introduction World class noise control. Expertise you can trust. IAC Acoustics is world-renowned for providing cost effective solutions

More information

BCA-IDA Green Mark for Existing Data Centres Version EDC/1.0

BCA-IDA Green Mark for Existing Data Centres Version EDC/1.0 BCA-IDA Green Mark for Existing Data Centres Version EDC/1.0 To achieve GREEN MARK Award Pre-requisite Requirement All relevant pre-requisite requirements for the specific Green Mark Rating are to be complied

More information

RULES FOR THE SETTING UP OF SUSTAINABLE BRANCHES Summary

RULES FOR THE SETTING UP OF SUSTAINABLE BRANCHES Summary RULES FOR THE SETTING UP OF SUSTAINABLE BRANCHES Summary January 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 3 GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS... 3 Communication with customers in the field of environmental sustainability...

More information

APPLICATION GUIDE. Moisture Management in Waterborne Climate Systems

APPLICATION GUIDE. Moisture Management in Waterborne Climate Systems APPLICATION GUIDE Moisture Management in Waterborne Climate Systems Contents Introduction 3 WBCS Concept 3 Condensation 4 Moisture Sources in the Space 4 Impact of a High Moisture Load 5 Designing to Manage

More information