# Points Addressed in this Lecture. Standard form of Boolean Expressions. Lecture 5: Logic Simplication & Karnaugh Map

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1 Points Addressed in this Lecture Lecture 5: Logic Simplication & Karnaugh Map Professor Peter Cheung Department of EEE, Imperial College London (Floyd ) (Tocci ) Standard form of Boolean Expressions Sum-of-Products (SOP), Product-of-Sums (POS) Canonical form Boolean simplification with Boolean Algebra Boolean simplification using Karnaugh Maps Don t cares E.2 Digital Electronics I 5. E.2 Digital Electronics I Forms of Boolean Expressions Sum-of-products form (SOP) first the product (AND) terms are formed then these are summed (OR) eg: DEF GHI Product-of-sum form (POS) first the sum (OR) terms are formed then the products are taken (AND) eg: (ABC) (DEF) (GHI) It is possible to convert between these two forms using Boolean algebra (DeMorgan s) Canonical Form Canonical form is not efficient but sometimes useful in analysis and design In an expression in canonical form, every variable appears in every term f(a,b,c,d) = D D D note that the dot (meaning AND) is often omitted E.2 Digital Electronics I E.2 Digital Electronics I

2 An SOP expression can be forced into canonical form by ANDing the incomplete terms with terms of the form (X X ) where X is the name of the missing variable eg: f ( A, BC, ) = AB BC = AB( C C) ( A A) BC = = The product term in a canonical SOP expression is called a 'minterm' A Notation using Canonical Form Previous example: Construct the truth table for this function use a when the variable is complemented, otherwise f ( A, B, C) = Row Number A B C f f can be written as the sum of row numbers having TRUE minterms f = ( 367,, ) E.2 Digital Electronics I E.2 Digital Electronics I Simplifying Logic Circuits First obtain one expression for the circuit, then try to simplify. Example: Method : Minimization by Boolean Algebra Make use of relationships and theorems to simplify Boolean Expressions perform algebraic manipulation resulting in a complexity reduction this method relies on your algebraic skill 3 things to try Two methods for simplifying Algebraic method (use Boolean algebra theorems) Karnaugh mapping method (systematic, step-by-step approach) E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.7 E.2 Digital Electronics I

3 a) Grouping Given write it as then apply Minimized form A AB BC A( B) BC B = A BC b) Multiplication by redundant variables Multiplying by terms of the form A A does not alter the logic Such multiplications by a variable missing from a term may enable minimization eg: AB AC BC = AB( C C ) AC BC = AC BC = BC( A) AC ( B) = BC AC E.2 Digital Electronics I E.2 Digital Electronics I c) Application of DeMorgan's Theorem Expressions containing several inversions stacked one upon the other may often by simplified by applying DeMorgan's Theorem. DeMorgan's Theorem "unwraps" the multiple inversion eg: ACD BC = ( A B C ) ( A C D) BC = ( A B C D) BC = ( A B C D) = D Example of Logic Design Design a logic circuit having 3 inputs, A, B, C will have its output HIGH only when a majority of the inputs are HIGH. Step Set up the truth table Step 2 Write the AND term for each case where the output is a. A B C x E.2 Digital Electronics I E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.2

4 Step 3 Write the SOP form the output Step 5 Implement the circuit Step 4 Simplify the output expression x = x = = BC ( A A) AC ( B = BC AC AB B) AB( C C) E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.3 E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.4 Minimization by Karnaugh Maps What is a Karnaugh map? 3 Variable Example: A\BC A grid of squares Each square represents one minterm eg: top-left represents A. B. C, bottom-right represents A. BC. The minterms are ordered according to Gray code only one variable changes between adjacent squares Squares on edges are considered adjacent to squares on opposite edges Karnaugh maps become clumsier to use with more than 4 variables 4 Variable example AB\CD??? The square marked? represents The square marked?? represents Note that they differ in only the C variable. A. B. C. D A. B. C. D E.2 Digital Electronics I E.2 Digital Electronics I

5 Filling out a Karnaugh Map Write the Boolean expression in SOP form For each product term, write a in all the squares which are included in the term, elsewhere canonical form: one square one term missing: two adjacent squares two terms missing: 4 adjacent squares Eg: X = A BC A B C AB C A\BC Minimization Technique Minimization is done by spotting patterns of 's and 's Simple theorems are then used to simplify the Boolean description of the patterns Pairs of adjacent 's remember that adjacent squares differ by only one variable hence the combination of 2 adjacent squares has the form P ( A A ) this can be simplified (from before) to just P E.2 Digital Electronics I E.2 Digital Electronics I Take out previous example (Slide 2) A\BC X = Cover all the s with maximum grouping: A\BC the adjacent squares and A BC differ only in A hence they can be combined into just BC normally indicated by grouping the adjacent squares to be combined Adjacent Pairs The same idea extends to pairs of pairs The simplified Boolean equation is one that sums all the terms corresponding to each of the group: X = AC BC AB E.2 Digital Electronics I E.2 Digital Electronics I

6 More Examples of grouping More examples AB\CD AB\CD A B C D BD A BC E.2 Digital Electronics I E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.22 E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.23 E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.24

7 Complete Simplification Process. Construct the K map and place s and s in the squares according to the truth table. 2. Group the isolated s which are not adjacent to any other s. (single loops) 3. Group any pair which contains a adjacent to only one other. (double loops) 4. Group any octet even if it contains one or more s that have already been grouped. 5. Group any quad that contains one or more s that have not already been grouped, making sure to use the minimum number of groups. 6. Group any pairs necessary to include any s that have not yet been grouped, making sure to use the minimum number of groups. 7. Form the OR sum of all the terms generated by each group. E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.25 E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.26 Don t Care Conditions More Don t Care examples In certain cases some of the minterms may never occur or it may not matter what happens if they do In such cases we fill in the Karnaugh map with and X meaning don't care When minimizing an X is like a "joker" X can be or - whatever helps best with the minimization Eg: A\BC X Don t care conditions should be changed to either or to produce K-map looping that yields the simplest expression. simplifies to B if X is assumed X = B E.2 Digital Electronics I E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.28

8 The Karnaugh Map with 5 variables OPEN = M F M F3 M F 2 E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.29 E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.3 K Map Method Summary Compared to the algebraic method, the K-map process is a more orderly process requiring fewer steps and always producing a minimum expression. The minimum expression in generally is NOT unique. For the circuits with large numbers of inputs (larger than four), other more complex techniques are used. Summary SOP and POS useful forms of Boolean equations Design of a comb. Logic circuit () construct its truth table, (2) convert it to a SOP, (3) simplify using Boolean algebra or K mapping, (4) implement K map: a graphical method for representing a circuit s truth table and generating a simplified expression Don t cares entries in K map can take on values of or. Therefore can be exploited to help simplification E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.3 E.2 Digital Electronics I 5.32

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