# Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

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1 Chapter 6 Eponential and Logarithmic Functions Section summaries Section 6.1 Composite Functions Some functions are constructed in several steps, where each of the individual steps is a function. For eample, ou would evaluate h() = (2 + 3) 4 b first computing g() = and then raising it to the 4th power. This is epressed mathematicall b writing h() = f(g()), where g() = and f() = 4. Here one formula is substituted into another, giving a composite function. See page 402 for the definition of a composite function; see page 406 for an important application to calculus. To find the domain of a composite function f(g()), start with the domain of g(). (The domain of f(g()) is alwas contained in the domain of g.) Then, depending on the formula ou get for f(g()), ou might need to eclude some more values. Review problems: p407 #13,21,3,1,63,6 Section 6.2 Inverse Functions The inverse of a function is like a reverse look-up function. Usuall we use a formula = f() to find when is given. What about the reverse? Given, how can ou find? This is the job of the inverse function. To give a definition of an inverse function, we use the notion of a composite function. The function g() is the inverse of f() if f(g()) = and g(f()) =, for all. These equations sa that g does eactl reverse of f. A good eample to think of is f() = 3 and g() = 3. When g is the inverse of f, we usuall write g = f 1, and read this as g equals f inverse. See the bo at the top of page 414 for the basic relationship used to define of f 1 : f 1 (f()) = and f(f 1 ()) =. 79

2 80 CHAPTER 6. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS Not all functions have an inverse function. If two -values produce the same -value in the formula = f(), then given there is no unique wa to recover. In order to have an inverse, the graph of = f() must pass the horizontal line test (see page 411). If = f() passes the test, then we simpl interchange and in the formula = f(), and solve for to get the formula for the inverse. See page 416 for this procedure that actuall finds the formula for the inverse of a function. A function and its inverse are closel connected. The domain of f 1 is the range of f; the range of f 1 is the domain of f (see page 413). The graph of f 1 is the mirror image of the graph of f, in the line =. This happens since if the point (, ) is on the graph of f, then the smmetric point (, ) must be on the graph of f 1 (see page 41). Review problems: p420 #3,39,43,49,7,81 Section 6.3 Eponential Functions An eponential function is one of the form f() = a where a is a positive real number and a 1. (We will usuall assume that a > 1.) The domain of an eponential function is the set of all real numbers. Its graph has the -ais as a horizontal asmptote. The points (0, 1), (1, a), and ( 1, 1/a) are eas ones to plot. Note that if increases b 1, then f() is multiplied b a, since f( + 1) = a +1 = a a = af() (see the theorem on page 42). You need to be familiar with the basic shape of an eponential function. See Figure 18 on page 426 for the graph of = 2 and Figure 27 on page 430 for the graph of = e. The base e is important because it makes calculations easier when doing calculus. (It is the one eponential function whose graph crosses the -ais at a 4 degree angle, making the slope of the graph equal to 1 when = 0.) For our class, the onl thing ou need to remember about e is its approimate value of 2.7 and the fact that the graph of = e lies between the graphs of = 2 and = 3. Building on the basic shape of = a, we can graph other functions in the famil b using transformations (as we did in Section 3.). Review problems: p433 #21,2,43,3,6,71,89 Section 6.4 Log Functions A logarithmic function (or log function for short) is one of the form f() = log a () where a > 0 and a 1. If a = 10, we usuall write log() instead of log 10 (). If a = e, we write ln() instead of log e (), and call this the natural log function.

3 The log function log a () is defined to be the inverse of the eponential function a. First, this tells us the basic shape of the graph (see Figure 30 on page 440). It also guarantees that the graph has the -ais as a vertical asmptote, and that the domain of log a () is (0, + ), the same as the range of a. Now, when finding the domain of a function, ou not onl need to watch out for division b zero, or the square root of a negative number, but also for the log of a negative number. All of these are undefined for real numbers. To epress the inverse relationship, we can sa that = log a () if and onl if = a (see the top of page 438). We also have the following equations, which summarize the inverse relationship (see the theorem at the top of page 41): a log a () = and log a (a ) =. These identities are important in solving equations that involve logs. For eample, to solve the equation log 2 (2 + 1) = 3 we need to simplif the left hand side. Since 2 log 2 (2+1) = 2 + 1, the first step is to make both sides of the equation into an eponent with base 2, to get 2 log 2 (2+1) = 2 3, which simplifies to = 8. To solve the equation ln(e 2 ) = 8, just note that the left hand side is equal to 2, so the equation simplifies immediatel to 2 = 8. To solve the equation e 2+ = 8, we need to get rid of the base e on the left hand side. This is done b substituting both sides into the natural log function, to get ln(e 2+ ) = ln(8), or simpl 2 + = ln Review problems: p446 #21,33,37,43,63,71,81,89,99 Section 6. Properties of Logarithms Since logs represent eponents, the should behave like eponents. For eample, if we write two numbers M and N in scientific notation as powers of 10, then to multipl M and N we onl need to add the eponents. To find the square root of M, we onl need to divide the eponent of M b 2. The crucial properties of logs are summarized in the following equations (see page 41 and 42). log a (MN) = log a (M) + log a (N) log a (M/N) = log a (M) log a (N) log a (M r ) = r log a (M) There is also a formula to change the base: log a (M) = log b(m) log b (a). (See the section summar on page 46.) Review problems: p47 #13,17,29,41,49,7,83,8 Section 6.6 Log and eponential equations In this section, the properties of logarithms are used to solve various kinds of equations. Review problems: p463 #17,31,3,77,81

4 82 CHAPTER 6. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS Sample Questions 6.1 #11a. Let f() = 2 and g() = Find (f g)(4). (a) 337 (d) (b) 193 (e) None of these #11. Let f() = 2 and g() = Find the composite function (g f)(). (a) (d) (b) (e) #1a. Let f() = and let g() = 2. Find (f g)(4). (a) 2 (d) 16 (b) 2 2 (e) None of these A. Let f() = and let g() = + 3. Find the composite function (f g)(). (a) (d) (b) (e) None of these #31b. Let f() = and g() = 2. Find the composite function (g f)(). (a) (d) (b) (e) None of these Eample 4a. Find the domain of f g if f() = (a) { ±1} (d) { 2} (b) { 1} (e) None of these { 1} and g() = 4 1.

5 #3a1. Let f() = 3 1 and g() = 2. Find the composite function (f g)(). (a) (b) (d) (e) 3 2 None of these #3a2. Let f() = 3 1 and g() = 2. Find the domain of f g. (a) { 1, 0} (d) { 2, 1} (b) { 1, 0, 2} (e) { 2, 0} { 2} 6.1 #36. Find the domain of f g if f() = and g() = 2. (a) { 3} (d) { 0 and 2/3} (b) { 2/3} (e) None of these { 0 and 2/3} 6.1 #61. If f() = and g() = 3 + a, find a so that the -intercept of f g is 23. (a) a = 8 (d) a = ±3 (b) a = 8 (e) None of these a = ± #63a. Find f g for f() = a + b and g() = c + d. (a) (f g)() = ac 2 + (b + c) + bd (d) (f g)() = ac + b + d (b) (f g)() = ac + bc + d (e) None of these (f g)() = ac + ad + b 6.1 B. If f() = and g() = 2 + a, find a so that the graph of f g crosses the -ais at. (a) a = ±2 (d) a = ± (b) a = ±2 3 (e) None of these a = ±3

6 84 CHAPTER 6. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 6.2 A. If f() has an inverse, and (2, 1 2 ) is on the graph of f(), then what point is on the graph of f 1 ()? (a) ( 1 2, 2) (d) ( 1 2, 2) (b) ( 2, 1 2 ) (e) (2, 1 2 ) ( 2, 1 2 ) 6.2 #49. The inverse of the function f() = is (a) f 1 () = (b) f 1 () = (d) f 1 () = (e) None of these f 1 () = B. The function f() = 2, for 2, is a one-to-one function. Find the inverse function f 1. (a) f 1 () = 2 + 2, for 0 (d) f 1 () = 2, for 2 (b) f 1 () = 2 + 2, for 2 (e) f 1 1 () =, for > 2 2 f 1 () = 2 + 2, for all 6.2 #7a. The function f() = 1 2 is a one-to-one function. Find the inverse function. (a) f 1 () = (d) f 1 () = 2 (b) f 1 () = (e) None of these f 1 () = #7b. Find the range of the function f() = 1. (See the previous problem.) 2 (a) { 2} (d) All real numbers (b) { 1/2} (e) None of these { 0}

7 6.2 #9a. The function f() = is a one-to-one function. Find the inverse function. 8 (a) f 1 () = (d) f 1 () = (b) f 1 () = (e) None of these f 1 () = #9b. Find the range of the function f() = 2. (See the previous problem.) + 3 (a) { 0} (d) All real numbers (b) { 2/3} (e) None of these { 1/2} 6.2 #60. The function f() = 4, for 2, is a one-to-one function. Find the inverse 2 function f 1. (a) f 1 () = 2 4 (d) f 1 () = 4 2 (b) f 1 () = (e) None of these 4 f 1 () = #63a. The function f() = is a one-to-one function. Find the inverse f 1. (a) f 1 () = (d) f 1 () = 2 3 (b) f 1 () = 3 f 1 () = 3 2 (e) None of these 6.2 #63b. Find the range of the function f() = 2. (See the previous problem.) 3 1 (a) all real numbers ecept 1 3 (d) all real numbers ecept 2 3 (b) all real numbers ecept 1 3 (e) all real numbers ecept 0 all real numbers ecept 2 3

8 86 CHAPTER 6. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 6.2 C. The function f() = 3 2 is a one-to-one function. Find the inverse function f 1. (a) f 1 () = (d) f 1 () = (b) f 1 () = (e) None of these f 1 () = #94. The period T of a simple pendulum is T = 2π, where is its length and g is g a constant (the acceleration due to gravit). Solve for as a function of T. (a) (b) T = 2π g = gt 2π = gt 2 2π (d) = gt 2 4π 2 (e) None of these 6.3 A. Which answer describes the graph of the eponential function f() = e? (a) (b) (d) (e) The graph goes through (0, e) and decreases as increases. The graph goes through (0, e) and increases as increases. The graph goes through (0, 1) and decreases as increases. The graph goes through (0, 1) and increases as increases. The graph is a straight line through (1, e). 6.3 B. Which of the following is the graph of = 2? (a) (b) (d) (1, 0) (0, 1) (0, 0) (0, 1)

9 C. Which eponential function is represented b this graph? (0, 0) (1, 1) (a) f() = (d) f() = (b) f() = 1 2 (e) f() = 1 + e f() = #43. Find the horizontal asmptote of f() = 3 2. (a) = 2 (d) = 0 (b) = 0 (e) = 2 = #2a. The horizontal asmptote of the graph of = e 1 is (a) = 1 (d) = e (b) = 0 (e) There is no horizontal asmptote = #2b. The vertical asmptote of the graph of = e 1 is (a) = 1 (d) = e (b) = 0 (e) There is no vertical asmptote = #. Find the horizontal asmptote of the graph of f() = 2 e /2. (a) = 2 (d) = 0 (b) = 0 (e) None of these = 2

10 88 CHAPTER 6. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 6.3 D. Solve for : 9 2 = 27 (a) = log 9 27 (d) = 3 4 (b) = log 3 27 (e) None of these = #61. Solve for : ( ) 1 = 1 2 (a) = 2 (d) = 2 (b) = 1/2 (e) None of these = 1/2 6.3 #63. Solve for : = 4 (a) = 0 (d) = 3 2 (b) = 1 2 (e) There is no solution = E. Solve for : 3 +2 = 1 9 (a) = 4 (d) = 3/2 (b) = (e) None of these = #8. If 3 = 2, what does 3 2 equal? (a) 4 (d) 1 4 (b) 4 (e) None of these #86. If = 3, what does 3 equal? (a) 9 (d) 1/9 (b) 1 (e) None of these 1/9

11 A. Which answer describes the graph of the logarithmic function f() = ln? (a) The graph goes through (0, 1) and has = 0 as a vertical asmptote. (b) The graph goes through (1, 0) and has = 0 as a vertical asmptote. The graph goes through (0, 1) and has = 0 as a horizontal asmptote. (d) The graph goes through (1, 0) and has = 0 as a horizontal asmptote. (e) The graph is a straight line through (0, 1) and (e, 1). 6.4 B. List the properties of the graph of = ln. A: The graph has a vertical asmptote at = 1. B: The graph has a vertical asmptote at = 0. C: The graph goes through (e, 0). D: The graph goes through (1, 0). E: The graph has a horizontal asmptote. F: The graph increases as increases. (a) A, C, and E (d) B, D, and E (b) A, D, and E (e) B, D, and F A, C, and F 6.4 C. Which of the following is the graph of = ln? (a) (b) (d) (1, 0) (1, 0) (1, 0) (1, 0) 6.4 D. Which of the following pairs of functions are inverses of each other? (a) ln() and 10 (d) log 2.7 () and e ( 1 (b) log() and e (e) log 2 () and 2 ln() and e 6.4 E. If f() = log 3 (), what is f 1 ()? (a) f 1 () = e (d) f 1 () = ) 1 log 3 () (b) f 1 () = 3 (e) f 1 () = log 1 () 3 f 1 () = log 3 ()

12 90 CHAPTER 6. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 6.4 #29. log 1 16 = 2 (a) 8 (d) 1 4 (b) 4 (e) #33. log 2 4 = (a) 0 (d) 3 (b) 1 (e) #3. ln e = (a) 1 (d) (b). (e) None of these F. The domain of f() = log(1 ) is (a) ( 1, ) (d) (, 1 ) (b) [ 1, ) (e) None of these (, 1 ] ( ) #43. The domain of f() = ln is + 1 (a) { 1} (d) { > 1} (b) { 1} (e) None of these { < 1} 6.4 #82. Find the vertical asmptote of the graph of f() = 2 log 3 ( + 1). (a) = 1 (d) = 0 (b) = 0 (e) None of these = G. The equation log π = 1 2 can be written in eponential form as (a) = ( ) 1 π 2 (d) π = 1/2 (b) = π 1/2 (e) π = ( 1 2 π = 1 2 )

13 #89. Solve: log 2 (2 + 1) = 3 (a) = 1 (d) = 4 (b) = 0 (e) None of these = 3 6. #14. log log 6 9 = (a) 2 (d) log 6 (4/9) (b) 13/6 (e) None of these log A. (log 2 6)(log 6 8) = (a) 2 (d) log 2 (4/3) (b) 3 (e) None of these log B. (log 3 6)(log 6 9) = (a) log 6 3 (d) 3 (b) log 3 (3/2) (e) None of these 2 6. #29. If ln 2 = a and ln 3 = b, then ln 6 = 1 (a) ab (d) (a + b) 1 (b) (a + b) (e) None of these ab 6. #46. log ( 3 ) + 1 ( 2) 2 = (a) 3 log log( + 1) 2 log( 2) (b) 3 log log( + 1) + 2 log( 2) 3 log + log( + 1) log( 2) (d) 3 log + log( + 1) + log( 2) (e) None of these

14 92 CHAPTER 6. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS ( ) #49. ln ( 4) 3 = (a) ln + ln(1 + 3) + ln( 4) (b) ln + ln(1 + 3) ln( 4) ln + ln ln(1 + 3) 3 ln( 4) (d) ln + ln ln(1 + 3) + 3 ln( 4) (e) None of these 6. #72. log π 2 = (a) 1 2 ln π (d) ln 2 ln π (b) ln 2 ln π (e) None of these ln 2 2 ln π 6. #83. Epress as a function of : ln = ln + ln( + 1) + ln C (a) = C (d) = e C(+1) (b) = C( + 1) (e) None of these = Ce (+1) 6. #8. Epress as a function of (the constant C is positive). ln = 3 + ln C (a) = ln(3) + C (d) = e 3 + C (b) = Ce 3 (e) None of these = C 3 6. #87. Solve for (the constant C is positive): ln( 3) = 4 + ln C (a) = 3 4 ln + C (d) = 3 + e 4 + C (b) = 3 + C 4 (e) None of these = 3 + Ce 4

15 A. Solve for : ln( + 1) + ln() = ln(6) (a) = 1/ (d) = 2 (b) = 3 (e) None of these = 3 or = B. Solve for : log 2 (3 1) = 3 (a) = 7 3 (d) = 4 3 (b) = 10 3 (e) None of these = C. Solve for : 2 +1 = 6 (a) = ln 3 (d) = ln 3 ln 2 (b) = ln 4 (e) None of these = ln 4 ln D. Solve for : = ( ) 1 2 (a) = 1 3 (d) = 1 (b) = 0 (e) None of these = E. Solve for : = (a) = 3/7 (d) ln + 2 ln 3 (b) = 11/7 (e) None of these ln 3 ln + 2 ln 3

16 94 CHAPTER 6. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 6.1 #11a. 6.1 #11. (a) 6.1 #1a. (b) 6.1 A. (d) 6.1 #31b. (d) 6.1 Eample 4a. (a) 6.1 #3a1. (d) 6.1 #3a2. (e) 6.1 #36. (d) 6.1 #61. (d) 6.1 #63a. 6.1 B. (a) 6.2 A. (d) 6.2 # B. (a) 6.2 #7a. (b) 6.2 #7b. 6.2 #9a. 6.2 #9b. (a) 6.2 #60. (a) 6.2 #63a. 6.2 #63b. 6.2 C. (d) 6.2 #94. (d) 6.3 A. (d) 6.3 B. (d) 6.3 C. 6.3 # #2a. (a) 6.3 #2b. (e) Answer Ke

17 9 6.3 #. (e) 6.3 D. (d) 6.3 #61. (d) 6.3 #63. (d) 6.3 E. 6.3 # #86. (e) 6.4 A. (b) 6.4 B. (e) 6.4 C. (a) 6.4 D. 6.4 E. (b) 6.4 #29. (e) 6.4 #33. (e) 6.4 #3. (b) 6.4 F. (d) 6.4 #43. (d) 6.4 #82. (a) 6.4 G. (b) 6.4 #89. (e) 6. #14. (a) 6. A. (b) 6. B. 6. #29. (b) 6. #46. (a) 6. # # #83. (b) 6. #8. (b) 6. # A. (d)

18 96 CHAPTER 6. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 6.6 B. (e) 6.6 C. (d) 6.6 D. 6.6 E. Solutions 6.1 A. Let f() = and let g() = + 3. Find the composite function (f g)(). Solution: (d) Write the formula for f() in this wa: f( ) = 2( ) Then ou have (f g)() = f(g()) = 2g() 2 +1 = 2(+3) 2 +1 = 2( )+1 = #36. Find the domain of f g if f() = and g() =. Solution: (d) { 0 and 2/3} First, ou must eclude = 0, since it is not in the domain of the first function g(). If ou compute the composite function f(g()), ou 1 get f(g()) = = denominator equal to 0). 2+3, so ou must also eclude = 2/3 (found b setting the 6.1 B. If f() = and g() = 2 + a, find a so that the graph of f g crosses the -ais at. Solution: (a) One method of solution is to compute the composite function f(g()). You get f(g()) = 3(2 + a) 2 7 = 3( a + a 2 ) 7 = a + 3a 2 7. The problem asks ou to find a so that the -intercept is. Since the -intercept is 3a 2 7, ou need to solve 3a 2 7 =. You get 3a 2 = 12, so a = ±2. Another method of solution is to find the -intercept in two steps. The first is b substituting = 0 into g(). You get g(0) = a, and then, as the second step, ou get f(g(0)) = 3a 2 7. The answer a = ±2 again comes from the solution of the equation 3a 2 7 =. 6.2 A. If f() has an inverse, and (2, 1 2 ) is on the graph of f(), then what point is on the graph of f 1 ()? Solution: (d) ( 1 2, 2) If (a, b) is on the graph of f(), then (b, a) is on the graph of f 1 (). 6.2 B. The function f() = 2, for 2, is a one-to-one function. Find the inverse function f 1. Solution: (a) f 1 () = 2 + 2, for 0. Step 1. Write the function in the form = 2. Step 2. Interchange and to get = 2. Step 3. Solve for in terms of. = 2 2 = ( 2) 2 = 2 = To find the domain of f 1 (), it ma be easiest to find the range of f(). Since 2, this includes the square root of ever number 0, so the range of f() is { 0}. This means that the domain of f 1 () is { 0}, so the solution is the one given above.

19 6.2 #60. The function f() = 4 2, for 2, is a one-to-one function. Find the inverse function f 1. Solution: (a) f 1 () = 2 4 Write = 4 2, then echange and and solve for. = 4 2 (2 ) = 4 2 = 4 = 4 2 = 4 2 = 2 4 = C. The function f() = 3 2 is a one-to-one function. Find the inverse function f 1. Solution: (d) f 1 () = = 3 2 = = 3 = #94. The period T of a simple pendulum is T = 2π g, where is its length and g is a constant (the acceleration due to gravit). Solve for as a function of T. Solution: (d) T = 2π g, T 2 = 4π 2 ( g ) 2 T 2 = 4π 2 g gt 2 = 4π 2 Answer: = gt 2 4π A. Which answer describes the graph of the eponential function f() = e? (a) The graph goes through (0, e) and decreases as increases. (b) The graph goes through (0, e) and increases as increases. The graph goes through (0, 1) and decreases as increases. (d) The graph goes through (0, 1) and increases as increases. (e) The graph is a straight line through (1, e). Solution: (d) When = 0, we have f(0) = e 0 = 1, so the answer must be or (d). As the eponent increases, the values of e get larger and larger, so the -values increase as increases, and the answer must be (d). 6.3 B. Which of the following is the graph of = 2? (a) (b) (d) (1, 0) (0, 1) (0, 0) (0, 1) Solution: (d) The graph must go through (0, 1), and must increase as increases. 6.3 C. Which eponential function is represented b this graph? (see the original problem) Solution: The first choice (a) f() = is not an eponential function. The graph is decreasing, not increasing, so it cannot be (d) f() = or (e) f() = 1 + e. We need to decide between (b) f() = 1 2 and f() = 1 2. Note that (0, 0) and (1, 1) are on the graph. Both (b) and have f(0) = 0, but onl has f(1) = 1.

20 98 CHAPTER 6. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 6.4 A. Which answer describes the graph of the logarithmic function f() = ln? (a) The graph goes through (0, 1) and has = 0 as a vertical asmptote. (b) The graph goes through (1, 0) and has = 0 as a vertical asmptote. The graph goes through (0, 1) and has = 0 as a horizontal asmptote. (d) The graph goes through (1, 0) and has = 0 as a horizontal asmptote. (e) The graph is a straight line through (0, 1) and (e, 1). Solution: (b) The log function is the inverse of the eponential function, whose graph goes through (0, 1), so its graph must go (1, 0). It has a vertical asmptote, but no horizontal asmptote. 6.4 B. List the properties of the graph of = ln. A: The graph has a vertical asmptote at = 1. B: The graph has a vertical asmptote at = 0. C: The graph goes through (e, 0). D: The graph goes through (1, 0). E: The graph has a horizontal asmptote. F: The graph increases as increases. Solution: (e) B, D, and F The graph does have a vertical asmptote, the -ais, so B holds. Since ln(e) = 1, condition C is false. The graph goes through (1, 0) so D is true. The graph has no horizontal asptote so E is false. Finall, F is true. 6.4 C. Which of the following is the graph of = ln? (a) (b) (d) (1, 0) (1, 0) (1, 0) (1, 0) Solution: (a) Use the properties of = ln. The graph has a vertical asmptote at = 0, goes through (1, 0), and increases as increases. 6.4 D. Which of the following pairs of functions are inverses of each other? (a) ln() and 10 (b) log() and e ln() and e (d) log 2.7 () and e (e) log 2 () and ( ) 1 2 Solution: The base must be the same in both functions. Since ln() = log e (), the onl pair for which this is true is. 6.4 E. If f() = log 3 (), what is f 1 ()? Solution: (b) f 1 () = 3 The inverse is an eponential function with the same base. 6.4 F. The domain of f() = log(1 ) is Solution: (d) (, 1 ) The log function is onl defined for positive values, so the domain is found b setting 1 > 0. We get < 1.

21 #82. Find the vertical asmptote of the graph of f() = 2 log 3 ( + 1). Solution: (a) = 1 The domain of f() is { + 1 > 0} = { > 1}. 6.4 G. The equation log π = 1 2 can be written in eponential form as Solution: (b) To remove the log π, substitute both sides of the equation into the inverse function g() = π of f() = log π (). This works because π log π () = for all > 0. π log π () = π 1/2 = π 1/2 6. A. (log 2 6)(log 6 8) = Solution: (b) Convert log 6 8 to base 2 using the formula log a M = log b M ( ) log b a log2 8 This gives (log 2 6)(log 6 8) = (log 2 6) = (log 2 6)(log 2 8) = log log 2 6 log = 3. (see p4). 6. B. (log 3 6)(log 6 9) = Solution: (log 3 6)(log 6 9) = (log 3 6) ( 3 ) #46. log ( 2) 2 = Solution: (a) ( 3 ) + 1 log ( 2) 2 ( ) log3 9 = log log = 2. = log( 3 ) + log( + 1) log(( 2) 2 ) = 3 log + 1 log( + 1) 2 log( 2) 2 6. #72. log π 2 = ln 1 2 Solution: log π 2 = ln π = 2 ln 2 ln π = ln 2 b formula (9) on p4. 2 ln π 6.6 A. Solve for : ln( + 1) + ln() = ln(6) Solution: (d) ln( + 1) + ln() = ln(6) ln( + 1)() = ln(6) 2 + = = 0 ( + 3)( 2) = 0 = 3 or = 2 Since ln is defined onl for positive numbers, = 3 cannot be a solution, and the correct answer is = B. Solve for : log 2 (3 1) = 3 Solution: (e) To simplif b removing the term log 2, use the inverse function 2. log 2 (3 1) = 3 2 log 2 (3 1) = = 8 3 = 9 = C. Solve for : 2 +1 = 6 Solution: (d) Since the answers are given in terms of ln, take the natural log of both sides = 6 ln(2 +1 ) = ln 6 ( + 1) ln 2 = ln 6 (ln 2) + ln 2 = ln 6 (ln 2) = ln 6 ln 2 = ln 6 ln 3 2 = ln 3 = ln 2

22 100 CHAPTER 6. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS 6.6 D. Solve for : = ( ) 1 2 Solution: Rewrite the problem so that the base is the same on both sides = ( 1 2) = ( 2 1) = 2 Now ou can equate the eponents since both sides have base = = E. Solve for : = Solution: Take the natural log of both sides. = ln( ) = ln(3 1 2 ) ln = (1 2) ln 3 ln + 2 ln 3 = ln 3 (ln + 2 ln 3) = ln 3 = ln 3 ln +2 ln 3

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