Ultrastructure and biochemical organization of an eukaryotic cell. General considerations Cell membrane Organelles with membrane

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1 Ultrastructure and biochemical organization of an eukaryotic cell General considerations Cell membrane Organelles with membrane

2 Functions must be understood in terms of structures; structures must be understood in terms of chemistry (George Emil Palade, awarded Nobel Prize in medicine or physiology, 1974)

3 Ultrastructure of an eukaryotic cell Cell membrane Cytoplasm (cytosol and organelles) Nucleus (the largest membrane-bounded organelle)

4 Ultrastructure of an eukaryotic cell Organelle an intracellular complex element, characterized by a specific morphology and specific function(s) Organelle classification: 1. membrane-bounded 2. organelles without membrane Membranes that bound organelles endomembranes the same general organization as the cell membrane

5 Organization of cellular compartments Endomembranes organize different compartments inside the cell with specific functions: biosynthesis, degradation, energy production, etc. The largest compartment of the cell is the nucleus contains nucleic acids and related proteins

6 Biochemical composition of cellular morphological elements/compartments Each compartment contains a specific set of proteins, required for its distinctive organization and function From a biochemical point of view, the cell is compartmentalized by membranes that contain specific proteins, responsible for functions Sugars on membrane surfaces and organelles lumen exist only bounded on lipids and proteins, to form glycolipids and glycoproteins EXCEPTIONS: sugars stored in cytosol (glycogen) and sugars in nucleic acids

7 Endomembrane bound organelles ORGANELLE NUCLEUS ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM GOLGI COMPLEX LYSOSOME PEROXISOME MITOCHONDRION MAIN FUNCTIONS Command and control Protein and lipid biosynthesis, calcium storage Maturation, sorting, packing and traffic to final destination Digestion (macromolecules and/or particulate material) Peroxide metabolism, fatty acids oxidation Energy (ATP) production 7

8 Cell membrane Biochemical organization: (glyco)lipids and (glyco)proteins Thickness: ~ 10 nm, below both human eye and light microscope limits of resolution Visible only in electron microscopy, as a trilaminar structure

9 Ultrastructure of cell membrane

10 Cell membrane Glycocalyx (outside surface) Plasma membrane (lipid bi-layer and proteins) Membrane associated cytoskeleton (cytoplasm surface)

11 www. studyblue.com 11

12 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM a system of membranous tubules and cisternae with many anastomoses two forms: - rough (RER) - smooth (SER) 12

13 ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

14 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

15 ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM The membrane of the RER is continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes Functions in synthesis and processing of some proteins (membrane proteins, resident proteins in ER, Golgi, lysosome) 15

16 ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM - LM

17 ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM - EM

18 SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC Network of tubules Roles: lipid metabolism dynamic storage for calcium ions cellular detoxification RETICULUM 18

19 SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM - EM

20

21 The Golgi apparatus consists of 8-10 curved, stacked saccules. Five functional regions: cis-golgi network cis-golgi cisternae medial-golgi cisternae trans-golgi cisternae trans-golgi network. Golgi complex 21

22 GOLGI APPARATUS - LM

23 Golgi apparatus medcell.med.yale.edu

24 LYSOSOMES organelles involved in intracellular digestion (contain hydrolytic enzymes) Identified by marker enzyme: acidic phosphatase break the (macro)molecules (DNA, proteins, glycoconjugates etc.) for de novo cellular biosynthesis classification (according to their functional evolution): Primary lysosomes (50-60 nm) Secondary lysosomes ( nm) Tertiary lysosomes (residual bodies)

25 LYSOSOMES Molecular Biology of the Cell, Alberts et al. Lysosomesclasses.kumc.edu 25

26 PEROXISOMES spherical organelle ( nm), with specific enzymatic content (peroxidases) identified by marker enzymes: catalase/peroxidases (LM and EM) can be identified in EM if there is a central crystalline structure crystalloid

27 PEROXISOMES

28 MITOCHONDRIA Structure: mitotrackers (vital) Ultrastructure: 4 elements: - outer membrane - inner membrane cristae - intermembrane space - matrix

29 Mitochondria LM (mitotracker 39.html red)

30

31

32 Summary Ultrastructure of eukaryotic cells consists of cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus Cell membrane is a trilaminar structure covered on the outer surface by glycocalyx and supported by membrane-associated cytoskeleton on the inner surface Eukaryotic cells contain endomembrane-bounded organelles Compartmentalization of eukaryotic cell reflects structural and functional specialization of organelles

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