Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry

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1 Chapter 13 Organic Chemistry Carbon Bonds Alkanes Petroleum Products Structural Formulas Isomers Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Benzene Hydrocarbon Groups Functional Groups Polymers Carbohydrates Photosynthesis Lipids Proteins Soil Nitrogen Nucleic Acids Origin of Life 1 1

2 Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds; inorganic chemistry is the chemistry of compounds of all elements other than carbon. The general properties of carbon compounds are: 1. Most carbon compounds are non-electrolytes. 2. The reaction rates of carbon compounds are usually slow. 3. Many carbon compounds oxidize slowly in air but rapidly if heated. 4. Most carbon compounds are unstable at high temperatures. 2 2

3 Petroleum Products Fractional distillation Catalytic cracking Modern cracking uses zeolites as the catalyst. 3 3

4 Petroleum Products Polymerization-the making of plastics Vinyl 4 4

5 Petroleum Products 5 5

6 13-4. Structural Formulas Methane 1 carbon Ethane 2 carbons Propane 3 carbons Butane 4 carbons Pentane 5 carbons Hexane 6 carbons Heptane 7 carbons Octane 8 carbons Alkanes or Hydrocarbons 6 6

7 Table

8 13-4. Structural Formulas Functional Groups Alkenes Ethene 2 carbons Propene 3 carbons Butene 4 carbons Pentene 5 carbons Hexene 6 carbons Heptene 7 carbons Octene 8 carbons Alkynes Acetylene 2 carbons Propyne 3 carbons Butyne 4 carbons Pentyne 5 carbons Hexyne 6 carbons Heptyne 7 carbons Octyne 9 carbons 8 8

9 Fig. 13.9, etc. Acetylene gas welding and cutting. 9 9

10 13-4. Structural Formulas Functional Groups Alcohols Ethanol 2 carbons Propanol 3 carbons Butanol 4 carbons Pentanol 5 carbons Hexanole 6 carbons Heptanol 7 carbons Octanol 8 carbons 10 10

11 13-4. Structural Formulas Functional Groups Ethers oxygen in the middle Aldehydes Double bond O with H on end 11 11

12 13-4. Structural Formulas Functional Groups Ketones Double bond O in middle Carboxylic Acids Double bond O with OH 12 12

13 13-4. Structural Formulas Functional Groups Amines NH 2 on end Esters Double bond O with O both in middle 13 13

14 Table

15 13-5. Isomers Optical Isomers m19104/isomers/stereoisomers/index.htm Structural Isomers at/chm19104/isomers/intro.htm Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Unsaturated compounds have double or triple carbon-carbon bonds and are more reactive than saturated compounds, which have only single carbon-carbon bonds (alkanes and similar compounds)

16 13.7 Benzene Aromatic compounds Aliphatic compounds are organic compounds that do not contain benzene rings

17 13-10 Polymers A polymer is a long chain of simple molecules (monomers) linked together. Polymers that contain the vinyl group are classed as vinyls. Some examples of polymers include Styrofoam, Teflon, Orlon, and Plexiglas (or Lucite). Plexiglas is thermoplastic, meaning it softens and can be shaped when heated but becomes rigid again on cooling

18 Table

19 13-10 Polymers.A copolymer is a polymer that consists of two different monomers. Dynel and Saran Wrap are examples. Certain monomers that contain two double bonds in each molecule form flexible, elastic polymers called elastomers; rubber and neoprene are examples. Polyamides and polyesters are polymers produced by chemical reactions rather than by the polymerization of monomers

20 13-10 Polymers.Teflon is polymer with a strong bond between carbon and fluorine atoms. It is used as a nostick surface in cookware

21 Carbohydrates D-Allose D-Altrose D-Glucose D-Mannose D-Gulose D-Idose D-Galactose D-Talose D-Glucose (an aldose) α-d-glucose β-d-glucose β-d-glucose (chair form) 21 21

22 13.11 Polysaccharides Sucrose Lactose Maltose Amylopectin 22 22

23 13.11 Polysaccharides Cellulose in wood is extracted and converted to paper at this plant in Maine. Microorganisms in the stomachs of cows help them digest cellulose in plants

24 13.12 Photosynthesis 24 24

25 13.12 Photosynthesis 25 25

26 Lipids Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acid 26 26

27 Lipids 27 27

28 Proteins The polypeptide chain forms a backbone structure in proteins: On first inspection, this structure appears to be connected entirely by single C-C or C-N bonds. It should therefore be as flexible as a simple hydrocarbon chain. Note that flexing in a covalent structure does not occur by bending bonds, and the normal tetrahedral or trigonal planar bond angles are maintained. Instead, different shapes are obtained by torsional rotation about the axis of the bonds: 28 28

29 Soil Nitrogen 29 29

30 Nucleic Acids. Chromosomes consist of DNA molecules. Changes in the sequence of the bases in a DNA molecule can result in a mutation

31 Origin of Life 31 31

32 Lecture Quiz What is the primary product we get from oil? 2. Give an example of an alcohol. 3. What would be the name of an alkane with 8 carbons? 4. What is another name for sugars? 5. Give an example of a polysaccharide

33 33 33

34 Lecture Quiz What is the primary product we get from oil? gasoline 2. Give an example of an alcohol. CH 3 OH 3. What would be the name of an alkane with 8 carbons? octane 4. What is another name for sugars? carbohydrates 5. Give an example of a polysaccharide. Cellulose, starch, sucrose or table sugar 34 34

35 Lecture Quiz What are 3 products we get from oil? 2. Give an example of a polymer. 3. What would be the name of an alkane with 4 carbons? 4. What is another name for carbohydrates? 5. Give an example of a lipid

36 Lecture Quiz What are 3 products we get from oil? 2. Give an example of a polymer. 3. What would be the name of an alkane with 4 carbons? butane 4. What is another name for carbohydrates? sugars 5. Give an example of a lipid. soap, cholesterol 36 36

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