Molecular Formula Determination

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Molecular Formula Determination"

Transcription

1 Molecular Formula Determination Classical Approach Qualitative elemental analysis Quantitative elemental analysis Determination of empirical formula Molecular weight determination Molecular formula determination Modern Approach High Resolution Mass Spectroscopy (HRMS) Precise masses for substances of molecular mass 44 amu Compound Exact Mass (amu) CO N 2 O C 2 H 4 O C 3 H

2 Knowledge of Molecular Formula Great deal of information about the structure of an unknown substance can be learned from molecular formula. Alkane C n H 2n +2 Cycloalkane or alkene C n H 2n Alkyne C n H 2n 2 3

3 Molecular formula with non carbon or non hydrogen elements Applicable to an open-chain, saturated hydrocarbon Formula containing Group V elements (N, P, As, Sb, Bi) One additional hydrogen atom must be added to the molecular formula for each Group V element present C 2 H 6 C 2 H 7 N C 2 H 8 N 2 C 2 H 9 N 3 Formula containing Group VI elements (O, S, Se, Te) No change in the number of hydrogens is required C 2 H 6 C 2 H 6 O C 2 H 6 O 2 C 2 H 6 O 3 Formula containing Group VII elements (F, Cl, Br, I) One additional hydrogen atom must be subtracted from the molecular formula for each Group V element present C 2 H 6 C 2 H 5 F C 2 H 4 F 2 C 2 H 3 F 3 4

4 Index of Hydrogen Deficiency (Unsaturation Index) Number of bonds and/or rings a molecule contains The formula of the unknown substance is compared with the formula of the corresponding acyclic, saturated compound. The differences in the numbers of hydrogens between these formulas, when divided by 2, gives the index of hydrogen deficiency. 5

5 Information from hydrogen deficiency index Compound with an Index of one must have one double bond or one ring, but not both. Consult IR spectrum to find the presence of a double bond. If no double bond is present, the compound is cyclic and saturated. Compound with an index of two could have a triple bond, or it could have two double bonds, or two rings, or one of each. Benzene contains one ring and three double bonds and thus an index of four. Any substance with an index of four or more may contain a benzenoid ring: a substance with an index less than four cannot contain such a ring. 6

6 Index of Hydrogen Deficiency - Example 1 Molecular Formula C 7 H 14 O 2 Determine the formula for the saturated, acyclic hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms as the unknown substance C n H 2n+2, where n = 7. Calculated formula C 7 H 16 Correct this formula for the nonhydrocarbon elements present in the unknown. Correction for oxygens (no change in the number of hydrogens) C 7 H 16 O 2 Compare this formula with the molecular formula of the unknown. Determine the number of hydrogens by which the two formula differ. Compare C 7 H 16 O 2 with C 7 H 14 O 2 7

7 Index of Hydrogen Deficiency - Example 1 The index of hydrogen deficiency equals one. There must be one ring or one double bond in the unknown substance. IR analysis indicates the presence of carbonyl (C=O) group. Further analysis identifies the unknown as isopentyl acetate. O H 3 C O CH 3 CH 3 8

8 The rule of thirteen A method for generating possible molecular formulas for a given molecular mass An example Unknown Substance Molecular Wt. 94 Generate a base formula, which contains only carbon and hydrogen. Divide the molecular wt. By 13. M/13 = n + r/13 The base formula becomes C n H n+r In the example, 94/13 = 7 + 3/13, n = 7 and r = 3 The base formula = C 7 H 10 9

9 The rule of thirteen and index of hydrogen deficiency The index of hydrogen deficiency (U) is determined by applying the relationship U = (n r + 2) / 2 In the example, U = ( ) / 2 = 3 The unknown substance could have three rings or multiple bonds. CH 3 10

10 The rule of thirteen and index of hydrogen deficiency Compound with same molecular mass but with one oxygen atom. Base Formula = C 7 H 10 U = 3 Add: +O Subtract: -CH4 Change in U: U = 1 New Formula = C 6 H 6 O New index of hydrogen deficiency: U = 4 OH 11

11 Additional molecular formulas Molecular mass 94 amu C 5 H 2 O 2 U = 5 C 5 H 2 S U = 5 C 6 H 8 N U = 3 ½ CH 3 Br U = 0 Impossible combinations U = 3 ½ U = < 0 If enough hydrogens are not present, we can subtract 1 carbon and add 12 hydrogens. If the value of U > 7, we can add 1 carbon and subtract 12 hydrogens. 12

12 Nitrogen Rule When the number of nitrogen atoms present in the molecule is odd, the molecular mass will be an odd number When the number of nitrogen atoms present in the molecule is even or zero, the molecular mass will be an even number. For example, ethylamine, C 2 H 5 NH 2 has one nitrogen atom, and its mass is an odd number (45). Ethylenediamine, H 2 N-CH 2 -CH 2 -NH 2, has two nitrogen atoms, and its mass is an even number (60) 13

Calculating the Degrees of Unsaturation From a Compound s Molecular Formula

Calculating the Degrees of Unsaturation From a Compound s Molecular Formula Calculating the Degrees of Unsaturation From a Compound s Molecular Formula Alkanes have the molecular formula C n. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons because each member of the family has the maximum

More information

For example: (Example is from page 50 of the Thinkbook)

For example: (Example is from page 50 of the Thinkbook) SOLVING COMBINED SPECTROSCOPY PROBLEMS: Lecture Supplement: page 50-53 in Thinkbook CFQ s and PP s: page 216 241 in Thinkbook Introduction: The structure of an unknown molecule can be determined using

More information

Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models

Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models Survival Organic Chemistry Part I: Molecular Models The goal in this laboratory experience is to get you so you can easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed formulas,

More information

EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models

EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models EXPERIMENT 1: Survival Organic Chemistry: Molecular Models Introduction: The goal in this laboratory experience is for you to easily and quickly move between empirical formulas, molecular formulas, condensed

More information

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry general characteristics of organic molecules introduction to hydrocarbons alkanes unsaturated hydrocarbons functional groups: alcohols and ethers compounds

More information

Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space

Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space BACKGROUND INFORMATION Infrared Spectroscopy Before introducing the subject of IR spectroscopy, we must first review some aspects of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is composed

More information

CHEM1002 Worksheet 4: Spectroscopy Workshop (1)

CHEM1002 Worksheet 4: Spectroscopy Workshop (1) CHEM1002 Worksheet 4: Spectroscopy Workshop (1) This worksheet forms part of the Spectroscopy Problem Solving Assignment which represents 10% of the assessment of this unit. You should use the support

More information

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS: IR SPECTROSCOPY AND 13C NMR. The peak at 1720 indicates a C=O bond (carbonyl). One possibility is acetone:

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS: IR SPECTROSCOPY AND 13C NMR. The peak at 1720 indicates a C=O bond (carbonyl). One possibility is acetone: HMEWRK PRBLEMS: IR SPECTRSCPY AND 13C NMR 1. You find a bottle on the shelf only labeled C 3 H 6. You take an IR spectrum of the compound and find major peaks at 2950, 1720, and 1400 cm -1. Draw a molecule

More information

Monday, September 10th

Monday, September 10th Monday, September 10th Review Chapter 11 iclicker Quiz #1 Chapter 12 Chapter 13(maybe) Group assignment Keep checking the class webpage at www.bhsu.edu/danasunskis. Go to the course tab then CHEM107 Lecture

More information

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic.

Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. Organic Chemistry. 10.1 Organic Compounds. Organic vs. Inorganic. Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 10.1 Organic Compounds Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also

More information

Mass Spectrometry. Overview

Mass Spectrometry. Overview Mass Spectrometry Overview Mass Spectrometry is an analytic technique that utilizes the degree of deflection of charged particles by a magnetic field to find the relative masses of molecular ions and fragments.2

More information

How to Quickly Solve Spectrometry Problems

How to Quickly Solve Spectrometry Problems How to Quickly Solve Spectrometry Problems You should be looking for: Mass Spectrometry (MS) Chemical Formula DBE Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) Important Functional Groups o Alcohol O-H o Carboxylic Acid

More information

Interpreting Infrared Spectra Painlessly, Quickly, and Correctly

Interpreting Infrared Spectra Painlessly, Quickly, and Correctly Interpreting Infrared Spectra Painlessly, Quickly, and Correctly Knowing how to interpret infrared (IR) spectra is of immense help to structure determination. Not only will it tell you what functional

More information

Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas. AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights.

Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas. AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights. 1 Introduction to Chemistry Atomic Weights (Definitions) Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights.

More information

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z Mass spectrum for the ionization of acetone MS of Acetone + Relative Abundance CH 3 H 3 C O + M 15 (loss of methyl) + O H 3 C CH 3 43 58 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z It is difficult to identify the ions

More information

H NMR (proton NMR): determines number and type of H atoms 13. C NMR (proton NMR): determines number and type of C atoms

H NMR (proton NMR): determines number and type of H atoms 13. C NMR (proton NMR): determines number and type of C atoms 14.1 An Introduction to NMR Spectroscopy A. The Basics of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy nuclei with odd atomic number have a S = ½ with two spin states (+1/2 and -1/2) 1 H NMR (proton NMR):

More information

Alkenes and Alkynes. Chapter 1.2

Alkenes and Alkynes. Chapter 1.2 Alkenes and Alkynes Chapter 1.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons An alkene is a hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon double bond An alkyne is a

More information

By far the most important and useful technique to identify organic molecules. Often the only technique necessary.

By far the most important and useful technique to identify organic molecules. Often the only technique necessary. Chapter 13: NMR Spectroscopy 39 NMR Spectroscopy By far the most important and useful technique to identify organic molecules. Often the only technique necessary. NMR spectrum can be recorded for many

More information

UV-Visible Spectroscopy

UV-Visible Spectroscopy UV-Visible Spectroscopy UV-Visible Spectroscopy What is UV-Visible Spectroscopy? Molecular spectroscopy that involves study of the interaction of Ultra violet (UV)-Visible radiation with molecules What

More information

2B: The Chemical Formula

2B: The Chemical Formula Name: Section: Date: 2B: What is a chemical formula, and how is it used? Paper, glass, plastic, metal, skin, leaves, etc. are all matter. Although different substances are made of different combinations

More information

Organic Chemistry. Hydrocarbons. Introduction to Organic Molecules. The simplest organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms

Organic Chemistry. Hydrocarbons. Introduction to Organic Molecules. The simplest organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms Introduction to Organic Molecules Organic Chemistry: (1828) Friedrich Wohler first synthesized an organic compound from an inorganic source leading to the birth of Organic Chemistry. Organic chemistry

More information

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY. Alkanes In your textbook, read about organic chemistry, hydrocarbons, and straight-chain alkanes.

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY. Alkanes In your textbook, read about organic chemistry, hydrocarbons, and straight-chain alkanes. ydrocarbons Section 22.1 Alkanes In your textbook, read about organic chemistry, hydrocarbons, and straight-chain alkanes. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. hydrocarbons homologous

More information

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules

AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic and Biological Molecules AP Chemistry Chapter - Organic and Biological Molecules.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Straight-chain Hydrocarbons 1. Straight-chain alkanes have the formula C n H n+. Carbons are sp hybridized The

More information

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter: Selected Answersc for Practice Exam.

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter: Selected Answersc for Practice Exam. Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter: Selected Answersc for Practice Exam. MULTIPLE CHOICE 50. 5.80 g of dioxane (C 4 H 8 O 2 ) is how many moles of dioxane? 0.0658 mol 0.0707 mol 0.0725 mol d. 0.0804

More information

Question Bank Organic Chemistry-I

Question Bank Organic Chemistry-I Question Bank Organic Chemistry-I 1. (a) What do you understand by the following terms : (i) Organic chemistry (ii) Organic compounds (iii) Catenation? [3] (b) Why are there very large number of organic

More information

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Lecture Notes Chapter 4 Educational Goals 1. Given the formula of a molecule, the student will be able to draw the line-bond (Lewis) structure. 2. Understand and construct condensed structural

More information

electron does not become part of the compound; one electron goes in but two electrons come out.

electron does not become part of the compound; one electron goes in but two electrons come out. Characterization Techniques for Organic Compounds. When we run a reaction in the laboratory or when we isolate a compound from nature, one of our first tasks is to identify the compound that we have obtained.

More information

Unit VII Compound Formula Writing and Nomenclature Review Sheet. Chapter 6: Basic Naming & Formula Writing

Unit VII Compound Formula Writing and Nomenclature Review Sheet. Chapter 6: Basic Naming & Formula Writing Unit VII Compound Formula Writing and Nomenclature Review Sheet Chapter 6: Basic Naming & Formula Writing 1. Distinguish among: a. Atoms b. Molecules: combinations of covalently bonded nonmetals c. Formula

More information

II cm -1. Carbon hydrogen bonds absorb here. Alkanes absorb cm-1, Akene C-H cm-1 Aromatic C-H shorter and spikey

II cm -1. Carbon hydrogen bonds absorb here. Alkanes absorb cm-1, Akene C-H cm-1 Aromatic C-H shorter and spikey How to Interpret an IR Spectrum The IR may be broken down into 5 distinct regions. I. 3100-3600cm -1. Alcohols, Carboxylic Acids, Amines and Terminal Alkynes absorb here. The shape and exact location of

More information

Unit 9 Compounds Molecules

Unit 9 Compounds Molecules Unit 9 Compounds Molecules INTRODUCTION Compounds are the results of combinations of elements. These new substances have unique properties compared to the elements that make them up. Compounds are by far

More information

Chapter 13 Spectroscopy NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis

Chapter 13 Spectroscopy NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis Chapter 13 Spectroscopy NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis Main points of the chapter 1. Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance a. Splitting or coupling (what s next to what) b. Chemical shifts (what type is it) c. Integration

More information

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Chapter: Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Organic Chemistry An organic compound is a compound made from carbon atoms. has one or more C atoms. has many H atoms. may also contain O, S, N, and

More information

Solving Spectroscopy Problems

Solving Spectroscopy Problems Solving Spectroscopy Problems The following is a detailed summary on how to solve spectroscopy problems, key terms are highlighted in bold and the definitions are from the illustrated glossary on Dr. Hardinger

More information

Number of carbon atoms. 3 propane 8 octane. 4 butane 9 nonane. 5 pentane 10 decane

Number of carbon atoms. 3 propane 8 octane. 4 butane 9 nonane. 5 pentane 10 decane Name: Date: Pd: Accelerated Chemistry - Naming Hydrocarbons Alkane Nomenclature 1. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, with each C bonded to as many atoms as possible (4 other atoms, C or H). For example,

More information

Suggested solutions for Chapter 3

Suggested solutions for Chapter 3 s for Chapter PRBLEM Assuming that the molecular ion is the base peak (00% abundance) what peaks would appear in the mass spectrum of each of these molecules: (a) C5Br (b) C60 (c) C64Br In cases (a) and

More information

Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀

Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀 Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀 Introduction Spectroscopy is an analytical technique which helps determine structure. It destroys little or no sample (nondestructive method). The amount of light absorbed

More information

Last Time: Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) Last Time: Organic Compounds. Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size

Last Time: Alkanes (C n H 2n+2 ) Last Time: Organic Compounds. Last Time: Intermolecular Forces- BP Increases w/ Increasing Size Announcements & Agenda (0/02/07) Welcome Visitors! Please make yourselves comfortable; we will start with a quiz Mid-term grades are only based on lecture I will give you detailed grade sheets on Monday

More information

Atomic Masses. Chapter 3. Stoichiometry. Chemical Stoichiometry. Mass and Moles of a Substance. Average Atomic Mass

Atomic Masses. Chapter 3. Stoichiometry. Chemical Stoichiometry. Mass and Moles of a Substance. Average Atomic Mass Atomic Masses Chapter 3 Stoichiometry 1 atomic mass unit (amu) = 1/12 of the mass of a 12 C atom so one 12 C atom has a mass of 12 amu (exact number). From mass spectrometry: 13 C/ 12 C = 1.0836129 amu

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHM 210 Chemistry Homework #6 Alkanes (Ch. 10) Due: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Compounds that have the same molecular formula

More information

1) A compound gives a mass spectrum with peaks at m/z = 77 (40%), 112 (100%), 114 (33%), and essentially no other peaks. Identify the compound.

1) A compound gives a mass spectrum with peaks at m/z = 77 (40%), 112 (100%), 114 (33%), and essentially no other peaks. Identify the compound. 1) A compound gives a mass spectrum with peaks at m/z = 77 (40%), 112 (100%), 114 (33%), and essentially no other peaks. Identify the compound. First, your molecular ion peak is 112 and you have a M+2

More information

Chemistry I: Using Chemical Formulas. Formula Mass The sum of the average atomic masses of all elements in the compound. Units are amu.

Chemistry I: Using Chemical Formulas. Formula Mass The sum of the average atomic masses of all elements in the compound. Units are amu. Chemistry I: Using Chemical Formulas Formula Mass The sum of the average atomic masses of all elements in the compound. Units are amu. Molar Mass - The mass in grams of 1 mole of a substance. Substance

More information

How to Interpret an IR Spectrum

How to Interpret an IR Spectrum How to Interpret an IR Spectrum Don t be overwhelmed when you first view IR spectra or this document. We have simplified the interpretation by having you only focus on 4/5 regions of the spectrum. Do not

More information

Chapter 11 Organic Compounds: Alkanes

Chapter 11 Organic Compounds: Alkanes Spencer L. Seager Michael R. Slabaugh www.cengage.com/chemistry/seager Chapter 11 Organic Compounds: Alkanes Jennifer P. Harris ORGANIC COMPOUNDS In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler first synthesized an organic

More information

DETERMINACIÓN DE ESTRUCTURAS ORGÁNICAS (ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY) IR SPECTROSCOPY

DETERMINACIÓN DE ESTRUCTURAS ORGÁNICAS (ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY) IR SPECTROSCOPY DETERMINACIÓN DE ESTRUCTURAS ORGÁNICAS (ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY) IR SPECTROSCOPY Hermenegildo García Gómez Departamento de Química Instituto de Tecnología Química Universidad Politécnica de Valencia 46022

More information

EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULA

EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULA EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULA Percent Composition: law of constant composition states that any sample of a pure compound always consists of the same elements combined in the same proportions by mass

More information

Chapter Thirteen. Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds

Chapter Thirteen. Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Chapter Thirteen Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds Saturated: A molecule whose carbon atoms bond to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated: A molecule that contains a carbon carbon multiple

More information

Welcome to day 4! Announcements Molecular Representations Naming & Nomenclature

Welcome to day 4! Announcements Molecular Representations Naming & Nomenclature Welcome to day 4! Announcements Molecular Representations Naming & Nomenclature What kind of ion does Sr like to form? 25% 1. +1 25% 2. +2 25% 3. -1 25% 4. -2 Announcements Seminar Friday 4:00 this room

More information

CH102 Practice Exam #1 WAY longer than actual exam, answers are at the end

CH102 Practice Exam #1 WAY longer than actual exam, answers are at the end CH102 Practice Exam #1 WAY longer than actual exam, answers are at the end True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement true or false. 1. Organic chemtry can be defined as the chemtry of carbon-containing

More information

Chapter 13 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy

Chapter 13 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy Chapter 13 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy Copyright 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Overview of Mass Spectrometry Mass spectrometry

More information

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde Unit Vocabulary: Addition rxn Esterification Polymer Alcohol Ether Polymerization Aldehyde Fermentation Primary Alkane Functional group Saponification Alkene Halide (halocarbon) Saturated hydrocarbon Alkyne

More information

Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass = sum of the Atomic Masses in a molecule

Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass = sum of the Atomic Masses in a molecule CHAPTER THREE: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance A. Molecular Mass and Formula Mass. (Section 3.1) 1. Just as we can talk about mass of one atom of

More information

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? 7. How many carbon atoms are contained in an ethyl group? 1 3 2 4 2. In the alkane series, each molecule

More information

Identifying an Unknown Substance using Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 13 C NMR), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic

Identifying an Unknown Substance using Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 13 C NMR), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Identifying an Unknown Substance using Infrared Spectroscopy (I), arbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic esonance ( 13 NM), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic esonance ( 1 NM) Identifying an Unknown Substance using Infrared

More information

MOLECULAR REPRESENTATIONS AND INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

MOLECULAR REPRESENTATIONS AND INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY MLEULAR REPRESENTATINS AND INFRARED SPETRSPY A STUDENT SULD BE ABLE T: 1. Given a Lewis (dash or dot), condensed, bond-line, or wedge formula of a compound draw the other representations. 2. Give examples

More information

PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (H-NMR)

PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (H-NMR) PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (H-NMR) WHAT IS H-NMR SPECTROSCOPY? References: Bruice 14.1, 14.2 Introduction NMR or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a technique used to determine

More information

How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique.

How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique. How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique. What units do we use to define the weight of an atom? amu units of atomic weight. (atomic

More information

Topic: Intermolecular forces. 7. Which compound would you expect to have the lowest boiling point? A) NH 2 B) NH 2

Topic: Intermolecular forces. 7. Which compound would you expect to have the lowest boiling point? A) NH 2 B) NH 2 SS2009-08-24 MULTIPLE CICE QUESTIS Part 2: unktionella grp intermolekylära krafter (Answers on pages 17-18) Topic: Intermolecular forces 1. Which compound would you expect to have the lowest boiling point?

More information

13C NMR Spectroscopy

13C NMR Spectroscopy 13 C NMR Spectroscopy Introduction Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is the most powerful tool available for structural determination. A nucleus with an odd number of protons, an odd number

More information

Analytical chemistry year 12

Analytical chemistry year 12 Analytical chemistry year 12 1) Consider the molecule on the right. a) How many sets of peaks are present in the 1 H NMR spectrum? 3 b) How many sets of peaks are present in the 13 C NMR spectrum? 4 c)

More information

Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes. Hydrocarbons

Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes. Hydrocarbons Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes Hydrocarbons A vast number of different hydrocarbons exist and so chemists have grouped them into sub-sets to make them easier to study. In this topic we

More information

Formula Stoichiometry. Text pages

Formula Stoichiometry. Text pages Formula Stoichiometry Text pages 237-250 Formula Mass Review Write a chemical formula for the compound. H 2 CO 3 Look up the average atomic mass for each of the elements. H = 1.008 C= 12.01 O = 16.00 Multiply

More information

Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes

Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes Study Guide Chapters 19-20 Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes 1) Carbon-Carbon Bonding in Alkanes (C-C), Alkenes (C=C) and Alkynes (C C). Understand the hybridization of atomic orbitals (ground state promotion

More information

Ch09. Formulas. Exploring the molecular blueprint. How we represent compounds & molecules. version 1.5

Ch09. Formulas. Exploring the molecular blueprint. How we represent compounds & molecules. version 1.5 Ch09 Formulas Exploring the molecular blueprint. How we represent compounds & molecules. version 1.5 Nick DeMello, PhD. 2007-2015 Chemical Formulas Molecules & Compounds Compounds are not mixtures. Chemical

More information

CORE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

CORE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY MODULE 4 CORE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CHEMISTRY NOTES I have designed and compiled these beautiful notes to provide a detailed but concise summary of this module. I have spent a lot of time perfecting the content

More information

Suggested solutions for Chapter 7

Suggested solutions for Chapter 7 s for Chapter 7 7 PRBLEM 1 Are these molecules conjugated? Explain your answer in any reasonable way. C Et C Et C Et Revision of the basic kinds of conjugation and how to show conjugation with curly arrows.

More information

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Introduction: The NMR Spectrum serves as a great resource in determining the structure of an organic compound by revealing the hydrogen and carbon skeleton.

More information

Organic Chemistry Tenth Edition

Organic Chemistry Tenth Edition Organic Chemistry Tenth Edition T. W. Graham Solomons Craig B. Fryhle Welcome to CHM 22 Organic Chemisty II Chapters 2 (IR), 9, 3-20. Chapter 2 and Chapter 9 Spectroscopy (interaction of molecule with

More information

1. How many hydrogen atoms are in 1.00 g of hydrogen?

1. How many hydrogen atoms are in 1.00 g of hydrogen? MOLES AND CALCULATIONS USING THE MOLE CONCEPT INTRODUCTORY TERMS A. What is an amu? 1.66 x 10-24 g B. We need a conversion to the macroscopic world. 1. How many hydrogen atoms are in 1.00 g of hydrogen?

More information

IR Applied to Isomer Analysis

IR Applied to Isomer Analysis DiscovIR-LC TM Application Note 025 April 2008 Deposition and Detection System IR Applied to Isomer Analysis Infrared spectra provide valuable information about local configurations of atoms in molecules.

More information

Organic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry Table. Alkane Single bond - Propane. Alkene Double bond = Propene. Alkyne Triple bond Propyne

Organic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry Table. Alkane Single bond - Propane. Alkene Double bond = Propene. Alkyne Triple bond Propyne Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Table Homologous Series Functional Group Structure of Group Name Example Alkane Single bond - Propane Alkene Double bond = Propene Alkyne Triple bond Propyne Chloroalkane

More information

1. The percent by mass of nitrogen in Mg(CN) 2 is equal to 1) 3)

1. The percent by mass of nitrogen in Mg(CN) 2 is equal to 1) 3) 1. The percent by mass of nitrogen in Mg(CN) 2 is equal to 2. A compound consists of 40.% sulfur and 60.% oxygen by mass. What is the empirical formula of this compound? 1) SO 2) SO 2 3) SO 3 4) SO 4 3.

More information

Organic Chemistry Questions

Organic Chemistry Questions Organic Chemistry Questions 1 Molecules of 1-propanol and 2-propanol have different (1) percentage compositions (2) molecular masses (3) molecular formulas (4) structural formulas 2 Which compound is an

More information

Covalent Bonding Notes

Covalent Bonding Notes Covalent Bonding Notes Ionic vs Covalent Bonding Ionic: electron(s) leave one atom & gained by another atom to satisfy both atoms octets, this results in the formation of ions. The resulting opposite charges

More information

JEOL Mass Spectrometers

JEOL Mass Spectrometers JEOL Mass Spectrometers MS: Elemental Composition Calculations and their Interpretation Introduction Accurate mass measurements are frequently used to determine the elemental composition for molecular

More information

Top five list for Mass Spectrometry. 1. Molecular weight 2. Fragmentation pattern 3. Isotope ratio 4. Nitrogen rule 5. Exact mass

Top five list for Mass Spectrometry. 1. Molecular weight 2. Fragmentation pattern 3. Isotope ratio 4. Nitrogen rule 5. Exact mass Mass Spectrometry Top five list for Mass Spectrometry 1. Molecular weight 2. Fragmentation pattern 3. Isotope ratio 4. Nitrogen rule 5. Exact mass A Mass Spectrometer A mass spectrometer is designed to

More information

2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3

2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3 2. Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 3 Families of Organic Compounds Organic compounds can be grouped into families by their common

More information

Experiment 11. Infrared Spectroscopy

Experiment 11. Infrared Spectroscopy Chem 22 Spring 2010 Experiment 11 Infrared Spectroscopy Pre-lab preparation. (1) In Ch 5 and 12 of the text you will find examples of the most common functional groups in organic molecules. In your notebook,

More information

Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry

Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry Chapter 24 Organic Chemistry Student: 1. The general formula for alkenes is A. C n H 2n+2 B. C 2n H 2n C. C n H n+2 D. C n H 2n E. C n H 2n-2 2. The general formula of an alkane is A. C n H 2n B. C n H

More information

CHAPTER 12 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. and MASS SPECTROSCOPY

CHAPTER 12 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. and MASS SPECTROSCOPY KOT 222 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II CHAPTER 12 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY and MASS SPECTROSCOPY Part I Infrared Spectroscopy What is Spectroscopy? Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of matter and electromagnetic

More information

MOLECULAR MASS AND FORMULA MASS

MOLECULAR MASS AND FORMULA MASS 1 MOLECULAR MASS AND FORMULA MASS Molecular mass = sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in the molecule. Formula mass = sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in the formula unit. 2 MOLECULAR MASS AND

More information

Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)

Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) I. Alkanes A. Alkanes: Simple-Chain Alkanes consist of only hydrogen and carbon molecules and are known to be the simplest type of

More information

CHEM 203 Exam 1. KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

CHEM 203 Exam 1. KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHEM 203 Exam 1 KEY Name Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. _D C 1. Which of the following elements is a large percentage of both

More information

Chemistry Entrance Examination Topics

Chemistry Entrance Examination Topics Chemistry Entrance Examination Topics 1. General characteristics of the group 6 elements of the main subgroups on the basis of the position in the Periodic table and of atomic structure. Sulfuric acid,

More information

Lecture 4: (Lec 3B) Stoichiometry

Lecture 4: (Lec 3B) Stoichiometry Lecture 4: (Lec 3B) Stoichiometry Sections (Zumdahl 6 th Edition) 3.6-3.7 Outline: Mass Composition of Molecules Conservation of Atoms (Modern version of the law of definite proportions) Balancing Chemical

More information

The Nature of Organic Molecules

The Nature of Organic Molecules The Nature of Organic Molecules Organic chemistry: The study of carbon compounds. Carbon is tetravalent; it always forms four bonds. In methane carbon is connected to four hydrogen atoms. Copyright 2010

More information

Lewis Structures. Sections Learning goals:

Lewis Structures. Sections Learning goals: 1 Lewis Structures. Sections 3.3-3.7 Learning goals: (1) Writing valid Lewis structures for the constitutional structure of molecular substances for a given composition. (2) Predicting molecular geometry

More information

Hydrocarbon Frameworks. Alkanes

Hydrocarbon Frameworks. Alkanes Hydrocarbon Frameworks. Alkanes SUMMARY Section 2.1 Section 2.2 Section 2.3 The classes of hydrocarbons are alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and arenes. Alkanes are hydrocarbons in which all of the bonds are

More information

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H-NMR) Spectroscopy

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H-NMR) Spectroscopy Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H-NMR) Spectroscopy Theory behind NMR: In the late 1940 s, physical chemists originally developed NMR spectroscopy to study different properties of atomic nuclei,

More information

Lecture Topics: I. IR spectroscopy

Lecture Topics: I. IR spectroscopy IR and Mass Spectrometry Reading: Wade chapter 12, sections 12-1- 12-15 Study Problems: 12-15, 12-16, 12-23, 12-25 Key Concepts and Skills: Given an IR spectrum, identify the reliable characteristic peaks

More information

Molecular Models Experiment #1

Molecular Models Experiment #1 Molecular Models Experiment #1 Objective: To become familiar with the 3-dimensional structure of organic molecules, especially the tetrahedral structure of alkyl carbon atoms and the planar structure of

More information

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers Key Questions & Exercises Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers 1. The atomic weight of carbon is 12.0107 u, so a mole of carbon has a mass of 12.0107 g. Why doesn t a mole of

More information

Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry CHEM 1021 TESTING FOR ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry CHEM 1021 TESTING FOR ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS TESTING FOR ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Caution: Chromic acid is hazardous as are many of the organic substances in today s experiment. Treat all unknowns with extreme care. Many organic substances are flammable.

More information

Assignment 9 Solutions. Chapter 8, #8.32, 36, 38, 42, 54, 56, 72, 100, 102, Chapter 10, #10.24, 40, 55, 63. Number of e in Valence Shell

Assignment 9 Solutions. Chapter 8, #8.32, 36, 38, 42, 54, 56, 72, 100, 102, Chapter 10, #10.24, 40, 55, 63. Number of e in Valence Shell Assignment 9 Solutions Chapter 8, #8.32, 36, 38, 42, 54, 56, 72, 100, 102, Chapter 10, #10.24, 40, 55, 63. 8.32. Collect and Organize Of B 3+, I, Ca 2+, and Pb 2+ we are to identify which have a complete

More information

Practice questions for Ch. 3

Practice questions for Ch. 3 Name: Class: Date: ID: A Practice questions for Ch. 3 1. A hypothetical element consists of two isotopes of masses 69.95 amu and 71.95 amu with abundances of 25.7% and 74.3%, respectively. What is the

More information

Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts

Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts Mr. Kent s Organic Chemistry Unit Notes I Basic Concepts A. Organic Chemistry-The study of containing compounds. 1. They occur extensively in nature because all living things are made of containing compounds.

More information

Introduction. Chapter 12 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Types of Spectroscopy 8/29/2011

Introduction. Chapter 12 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Types of Spectroscopy 8/29/2011 Organic Chemistry, 6 th Edition L. G. Wade, Jr. Chapter 12 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy Introduction Spectroscopy is an analytical technique which helps determine structure. It destroys

More information

Lecture 15 - Covalent Bonding. Lecture 15 - Introduction. Lecture 15 - Introduction. Lecture 15 - The Formation of the Covalent Bond

Lecture 15 - Covalent Bonding. Lecture 15 - Introduction. Lecture 15 - Introduction. Lecture 15 - The Formation of the Covalent Bond hem 103, Section 0 Unit VI - ompounds Part II: ovalent ompounds Lecture 15 The formation of covalent bonds Naming binary covalent and organic compounds The covalent bonding model Lecture 15 - ovalent Bonding

More information

Alkanes. Chapter 1.1

Alkanes. Chapter 1.1 Alkanes Chapter 1.1 Organic Chemistry The study of carbon-containing compounds and their properties What s so special about carbon? Carbon has 4 bonding electrons. Thus, it can form 4 strong covalent bonds

More information

CHM220 Addition lab. Experiment: Reactions of alkanes, alkenes, and cycloalkenes*

CHM220 Addition lab. Experiment: Reactions of alkanes, alkenes, and cycloalkenes* CM220 Addition lab Experiment: Reactions of alkanes, alkenes, and cycloalkenes* Purpose: To investigate the physical properties, solubility, and density of some hydrocarbon. To compare the chemical reactivity

More information

Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds Transfer of Electrons When metals bond with nonmetals, electrons are from the metal to the nonmetal The becomes a cation and the becomes an anion. The between the cation

More information