# Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen Goals and Introduction As a system exchanges thermal energy with its surroundings, the temperature of the system will usually increase or decrease, depending on the direction of the flow of thermal energy. The exceptions to this occur at particular temperatures of a system where the flow of thermal energy causes a change in phase of the system, rather than a temperature change. These particular temperatures are often referred to as the melting point (when the system changes from solid to liquid or vice-versa) and the boiling point (when the system changes from liquid to gas or viceversa). In this lab, you will investigate the phase change of a substance and compare the rate of flow of thermal energy into the system to the rate at which the mass of the substance undergoes the phase change. In thermodynamics, the system with which we are often concerned is a substance in a particular phase (solid, liquid, or gas). When the temperature of a liquid substance is raised to its boiling point, the further addition of thermal energy (Q) will cause the liquid to start vaporizing, changing phase from liquid to gas. Just as you have probably observed with a boiling pot of water though, the entire substance does not undergo the phase change instantly. Rather, some portion of the liquid is converted to gas while thermal energy continues to flow into the substance. In other words, it takes a certain amount of thermal energy (Q) to transform a certain mass of the substance (Δm). The ratio of these quantities is referred to as the latent heat of the material. When examining the phase transition that occurs at the boiling point, the property is called the latent heat of vaporization (L v ). The relationship between this property, the thermal energy flow, and the mass of the substance is shown in Eq. 1. L v Q m (Eq. 1) The absolute value symbol surrounding Q is required because the same equation governs the phase change whether the heat flow is into (+) or out of (-) the system. In other words, the same equation governs the change from gas to liquid and the change from liquid to gas. Different materials have different values for their latent heats, because the quantity is really a measure of the energy necessary to break intermolecular bonds and allow the substance s phase to change. Today, you will be working with liquid nitrogen, which has a boiling point temperature of 77 K. The difficulty is that the liquid nitrogen will already be undergoing a phase change when you start the lab because the room temperature is closer to 300K! You will be using a thermal container (or thermos) to limit the interaction between the liquid nitrogen and the room, but some thermal energy is going to flow from the room into the liquid regardless. By

2 observing for some amount of time and watching how the mass of the liquid changes, we can quantify the effect of the thermal energy from the room on the liquid. Knowing the rate of mass conversion due to the thermal energy from the room, we can apply a controlled flow of energy and observe its effect on the rate of mass conversion from liquid to gas. This is accomplished by running an electric current through a coil that is immersed in the liquid. Electrical energy from the current will be converted to thermal energy in the coil, which then becomes thermal energy in the liquid. Because you have not yet dealt with modeling electric current, we will have to provide briefly the required knowledge here. When a current (I), measured in amperes (A), flows through a wire (coil) with a potential difference (ΔV), measured in volts (V), the power (P) delivered to the coil is given by Eq. 2. P I V (Eq. 2) Recall that power is the rate at which energy is delivered. While its units are normally expressed in watts (W), an equivalent unit expression is joules per second (J/s). When the current is measured in amperes and the potential difference in volts, the power will have units of joules per second. By observing how the mass of the liquid nitrogen in our experiment changes as time goes on (the mass is being converted to gas and leaves the container), we can find a rate of change of the mass of the liquid nitrogen, symbolized as m t. Looking back at Eq. 1, we find a useful result if we divide both the numerator and denominator by Δt. L v Q m t t Now the numerator is the rate of change of energy, that is the power, and the denominator is the rate of change of mass, as shown in Eq. 4. L v P m t (Eq. 4) The accepted value of the latent heat of vaporization for liquid nitrogen is J/kg. Today, you will perform measurements in an effort to confirm this value. This will be accomplished by measuring the rate of mass loss due to the room itself, and then measuring the rate of mass loss when the electric current is applied.

3 Goals: (1) Become more familiar with the concept of the material property latent heat of vaporization. (2) Use the rate of mass loss and the power delivered to measure the latent heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen. Procedure Equipment stopwatch, liquid nitrogen, thermal container, balance, ammeter, voltmeter, coil heating element, power supply WARNING: During the experiment, never allow the electric current to exceed 0.5 A! 1. Place the thermal container on the balance and suspend the heating element within it in such a way that it is not contacting the bottom or inner walls of the container. 2. The ammeter measures current in amps (A), while the voltmeter measures the potential difference across the heating element in volts (V). Check and verify that the heating element, voltmeter, ammeter, and power supply are connected as shown in Figure Note that you should be connected to the 1 A scale on the ammeter and the 30 V scale on the voltmeter. This should be done for you ahead of time. Note! The voltage knob on the power supply (knob on the wall unit) should be turned all the way counter-clockwise (i.e. all the way off) before you turn on any of the equipment. Have your TA check your setup if you are unsure. Figure 17.1

4 3. Turn on the power supply, slowly turn the voltage knob, and verify that both meters register a change in electrical behavior. Turn the knob until the ammeter shows a current of 0.5 A and then turn off the power supply. In the next few steps you will practice the procedure for taking data in this lab exercise. Be sure you understand the measurement process before actually starting the experiment (step 7) where you need to record timed results. 4. Fill the container with liquid nitrogen and wait for 3-5 minutes while the nitrogen cools the container and the heating element. Have one lab partner prepare the stopwatch, while the other prepares to operate the balance and record the mass and time during the experiment. Once it appears most of the liquid nitrogen has boiled off, note the mass of the container with the liquid nitrogen. At that same moment, start the stopwatch and then set the balance for 2 g less than your recorded mass. The system will eventually be balanced again as the liquid nitrogen slowly vaporizes. Once it is, you would record the time and set the balance for 2 g less than the current mass. This process would then continue. 5. To practice with the heating element turned on, repeat the last step of the procedure, but turn the power supply on when you start the stopwatch. Note that the liquid nitrogen is vaporizing faster and that you will need to reduce the balance by 2 g more often, as it comes into balance more quickly. 6. Turn off the power supply and note the mass at that moment. Restart the stopwatch and again set the balance for 2 g less than the current mass. Observe the time when the system comes into balance and set the balance for 2 g less than the current mass again. You are now done with practicing unless you would like to try again. Check with your TA if there is any confusion. Be sure you understand how to turn the power supply on and off and know how to adjust the voltage on the supply so that the current on the ammeter remains at 0.5 A. During this experiment, you will record the time each time the mass of the container has dropped by 2 g. You should prepare to record your data by making three tables, where each table has two columns: one labeled mass and the other labeled time. You will now proceed with steps similar to what you practiced to fill in each table. Be sure the heating element is off at the start. WARNING: Read the entire rest of the procedure before beginning to take data, so that you are prepared for each step and understand the process.

7 Pre-Lab Questions Please read through all the instructions for this experiment to acquaint yourself with the experimental setup and procedures, and develop any questions you may want to discuss with your lab partner or TA before you begin. Then answer the following questions and type your answers into the Canvas quiz tool for Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen, and submit it before the start of your lab section on the day this experiment is to be run. PL-1) The latent heat of vaporization, L v, has units of (A) joules/degrees Celsius. (B) newtons. (C) watts. (D) joules/kilogram. (E) joules. PL-2) The accepted value for the latent heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen is 199,200 J/kg. How much energy, in Joules is required to completely vaporize 2.0 kg of liquid nitrogen? PL-3) The accepted value for the latent heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen is 199,200 J/kg. If the rate of mass conversion is entirely due to a heating element that delivers 150 J/s (or 150 W), how long will it take, in seconds, for the heating element to completely vaporize 2.0 kg of liquid nitrogen? PL-4) Patrick and Domonique are performing the Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen lab. They notice that when they turn on the power supply the ammeter says the current in the electrical circuit is 0.75 A. They should (A) adjust the power supply so that the current is decreased to 0.5 A. (B) adjust the power supply so that the current is increased to 1.0 A. (C) panic. (D) be thankful that the previous lab group had left the power supply set exactly where it should be for this experiment.

8 PL-5) Patrick and Domonique are performing the Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen lab and they determine that the rate of mass conversion due to the heating element is 15 g/s. By what factor would this rate change if the power of the heating element were tripled? (A) It would double. (B) It would triple. (C) It would be one-third as much. (D) It would be one-half as much (E) It would be about six times greater. (F) It would be about one-sixth as much.

### Experiment #4, Ohmic Heat

Experiment #4, Ohmic Heat 1 Purpose Physics 18 - Fall 013 - Experiment #4 1 1. To demonstrate the conversion of the electric energy into heat.. To demonstrate that the rate of heat generation in an electrical

### Type: Single Date: Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12

Type: Single Date: Objective: Latent Heat Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12 AP Physics B Date: Mr. Mirro Heat and Phase Change When bodies are heated or cooled their

### Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State

Energy Matters Heat Changes of State Fusion If we supply heat to a lid, such as a piece of copper, the energy supplied is given to the molecules. These start to vibrate more rapidly and with larger vibrations

### Buoyant Force. Goals and Introduction

Buoyant Force Goals and Introduction When an object is placed in a fluid, it either floats or sinks. While the downward gravitational force, F g, still acts on the object, an object in a fluid is also

### Lab 3 - DC Circuits and Ohm s Law

Lab 3 DC Circuits and Ohm s Law L3-1 Name Date Partners Lab 3 - DC Circuits and Ohm s Law OBJECTIES To learn to apply the concept of potential difference (voltage) to explain the action of a battery in

### Experiment 6 ~ Joule Heating of a Resistor

Experiment 6 ~ Joule Heating of a Resistor Introduction: The power P absorbed in an electrical resistor of resistance R, current I, and voltage V is given by P = I 2 R = V 2 /R = VI. Despite the fact that

### EXPERIMENT 7 OHM S LAW, RESISTORS IN SERIES AND PARALLEL

260 7- I. THEOY EXPEIMENT 7 OHM S LAW, ESISTOS IN SEIES AND PAALLEL The purposes of this experiment are to test Ohm's Law, to study resistors in series and parallel, and to learn the correct use of ammeters

### Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture

Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture 5.1 Temperature and Molecular Motion What is evaporative cooling? 5.2 Temperature and Phase Changes How much energy is required for a phase

### Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs

59 Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs Study the description of the experiment that follows and answer the following questions.. (3 marks) Explain why a mass suspended vertically

### 7. What is the current in a circuit if 15 coulombs of electric charge move past a given point in 3 seconds? (1) 5 A (3) 18 A (2) 12 A (4) 45 A

1. Compared to the number of free electrons in a conductor, the number of free electrons in an insulator of the same volume is less the same greater 2. Most metals are good electrical conductors because

### Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions

Thermodynamics AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the name of the following statement: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium

### People s Physics Book

The Big Ideas: The name electric current is given to the phenomenon that occurs when an electric field moves down a wire at close to the speed of light. Voltage is the electrical energy density (energy

### Joule Equivalent of Electrical Energy

by Dr. James E. Parks Department of Physics and Astronomy 401 Nielsen Physics Building The University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200 Copyright October, 2013 by James Edgar Parks* *All rights

### Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing point depression describes the process where the temperature at which a liquid freezes is lowered by adding another

### CALIBRATION OF A THERMISTOR THERMOMETER (version = fall 2001)

CALIBRATION OF A THERMISTOR THERMOMETER (version = fall 2001) I. Introduction Calibration experiments or procedures are fairly common in laboratory work which involves any type of instrumentation. Calibration

### FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ

UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.3 Thermal Properties of Materials 1 Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ The MASS (m) of

### CHAPTER 14 THE CLAUSIUS-CLAPEYRON EQUATION

CHAPTER 4 THE CAUIU-CAPEYRON EQUATION Before starting this chapter, it would probably be a good idea to re-read ections 9. and 9.3 of Chapter 9. The Clausius-Clapeyron equation relates the latent heat

### Specific Heat (slope and steepness)

1 Specific Heat (slope and steepness) 10 pages. According to the Physical Science text book, the Specific Heat of a material is DEFINED as the following: Specific heat is the amount of heat energy required

### Measuring Electric Phenomena: the Ammeter and Voltmeter

Measuring Electric Phenomena: the Ammeter and Voltmeter 1 Objectives 1. To understand the use and operation of the Ammeter and Voltmeter in a simple direct current circuit, and 2. To verify Ohm s Law for

### Mechanical Energy and Heat

Mechanical Energy and Heat Purpose: Students will observe the conversion of mechanical energy to thermal energy. Introduction: The principle of conservation of energy is surprisingly new. No one person

### Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits

E1.1 Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits The purpose of the this lab is to introduce you to some basic instrumentation used in electrical circuits. You will learn to use a DC power supply, a digital multimeter

### LAB 15: HEAT ENGINES AND

251 Name Date Partners LAB 15: HEAT ENGINES AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS... the quantity of heat produced by the friction of bodies, whether solid or liquid, is always proportional to the quantity

### E/M Experiment: Electrons in a Magnetic Field.

E/M Experiment: Electrons in a Magnetic Field. PRE-LAB You will be doing this experiment before we cover the relevant material in class. But there are only two fundamental concepts that you need to understand.

### Physics 221 Experiment 5: Magnetic Fields

Physics 221 Experiment 5: Magnetic Fields August 25, 2007 ntroduction This experiment will examine the properties of magnetic fields. Magnetic fields can be created in a variety of ways, and are also found

### IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES

2/2016 ideal gas 1/8 IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES PURPOSE: To measure how the pressure of a low-density gas varies with temperature, to determine the absolute zero of temperature by making a linear fit to

### 1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

### Energy Conversions I. Unit of measure (most common one) Form Definition Example

Energy Conversions I Energy can take many forms, but any one form can usually be converted into another. And no matter what form we talk about, we can use conversion factors to calculate equivalent amounts

### Experiment 12E LIQUID-VAPOR EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER 1

Experiment 12E LIQUID-VAPOR EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER 1 FV 6/26/13 MATERIALS: PURPOSE: 1000 ml tall-form beaker, 10 ml graduated cylinder, -10 to 110 o C thermometer, thermometer clamp, plastic pipet, long

### Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

### Experiment #3, Ohm s Law

Experiment #3, Ohm s Law 1 Purpose Physics 182 - Summer 2013 - Experiment #3 1 To investigate the -oltage, -, characteristics of a carbon resistor at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature,

### Temperature Scales. The metric system that we are now using includes a unit that is specific for the representation of measured temperatures.

Temperature Scales INTRODUCTION The metric system that we are now using includes a unit that is specific for the representation of measured temperatures. The unit of temperature in the metric system is

### VAPOR PRESSURE AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE. This laboratory covers material presented in section 11.8 of the 9 th Ed. of the Chang text.

VAPOR PRESSURE AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE Objectives: (1) Observe and measure the change in the vapor pressure (dependent variable) as a function of temperature (independent variable). (2) Analyze the

### Chapter 13: Electric Circuits

Chapter 13: Electric Circuits 1. A household circuit rated at 120 Volts is protected by a fuse rated at 15 amps. What is the maximum number of 100 watt light bulbs which can be lit simultaneously in parallel

### Resistance, Ohm s Law, and the Temperature of a Light Bulb Filament

Resistance, Ohm s Law, and the Temperature of a Light Bulb Filament Name Partner Date Introduction Carbon resistors are the kind typically used in wiring circuits. They are made from a small cylinder of

### ME 315 - Heat Transfer Laboratory. Experiment No. 7 ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED CONCENTRIC TUBE AND SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

ME 315 - Heat Transfer Laboratory Nomenclature Experiment No. 7 ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED CONCENTRIC TUBE AND SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS A heat exchange area, m 2 C max maximum specific heat rate, J/(s

### Triple Point Experiment

Equipment List Rotary vane vacuum pump 2-stage, 2 to 7 CFM. For example, Edwards 2M2 (2 CFM), Edwards RV5 (3.5 CFM), Edwards E2M8 (6.7 CFM) or equivalent. Bell jar Nalgene polycarbonate plastic, 5-5/8

### SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES LAB

SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES LAB Purpose: Most ionic compounds are considered by chemists to be salts and many of these are water soluble. In this lab, you will determine the solubility,

### Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat GOALS When you have mastered the contents of this chapter, you will be able to achieve the following goals: Definitions Define each of the following terms, and use it an

### Experiment #8: Magnetic Forces

Experiment #8: Magnetic Forces Purpose: To study the nature of magnetic forces exerted on currents. Equipment: Magnet Assembly and Stand Set of Current Loop PC oards Triple-Arm Pan alance 0 15 V dc Variable

### Part 1 Expressions, Equations, and Inequalities: Simplifying and Solving

Section 7 Algebraic Manipulations and Solving Part 1 Expressions, Equations, and Inequalities: Simplifying and Solving Before launching into the mathematics, let s take a moment to talk about the words

### EXPERIMENT 3 Analysis of a freely falling body Dependence of speed and position on time Objectives

EXPERIMENT 3 Analysis of a freely falling body Dependence of speed and position on time Objectives to verify how the distance of a freely-falling body varies with time to investigate whether the velocity

### Phase Diagram of tert-butyl Alcohol

Phase Diagram of tert-butyl Alcohol Bill Ponder Department of Chemistry Collin College Phase diagrams are plots illustrating the relationship of temperature and pressure relative to the phase (or state

### THE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINETIC THEORY

Chapter 14 he Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic heory Chapter 14 HE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINEIC HEORY REIEW Kinetic molecular theory involves the study of matter, particularly gases, as very small particles in constant

### Chemistry 212 VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Chemistry 212 VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER LEARNING OBJECTIVES The learning objectives of this experiment are to explore the relationship between the temperature and vapor pressure of water. determine the molar

### Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

### KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS

KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS 1. Basic ideas Kinetic theory based on experiments, which proved that a) matter contains particles and quite a lot of space between them b) these particles always move

### GENERAL SCIENCE LABORATORY 1110L Lab Experiment 6: Ohm s Law

GENERAL SCIENCE LABORATORY 1110L Lab Experiment 6: Ohm s Law OBJECTIVES: To verify Ohm s law, the mathematical relationship among current, voltage or potential difference, and resistance, in a simple circuit.

1/7 2009/11/14 上 午 11:10 Manage this Assignment: Chapter 16 Due: 12:00am on Saturday, July 3, 2010 Note: You will receive no credit for late submissions. To learn more, read your instructor's Grading Policy

### Chapter 1: Chemistry: Measurements and Methods

Chapter 1: Chemistry: Measurements and Methods 1.1 The Discovery Process o Chemistry - The study of matter o Matter - Anything that has mass and occupies space, the stuff that things are made of. This

### Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will

Name: Thursday, December 13, 2007 Test 5 Review questions 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will 1. decrease 2. increase 3. remain the same 2. The graph below

### ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE Introduction Heat transfer is the movement of heat energy from one place to another. Heat energy can be transferred by three different mechanisms: convection,

### Chapter 1 Lecture Notes: Science and Measurements

Educational Goals Chapter 1 Lecture Notes: Science and Measurements 1. Explain, compare, and contrast the terms scientific method, hypothesis, and experiment. 2. Compare and contrast scientific theory

### Light Bulbs in Parallel Circuits

Light Bulbs in Parallel Circuits In the last activity, we analyzed several different series circuits. In a series circuit, there is only one complete pathway for the charge to travel. Here are the basic

### 6. Block and Tackle* Block and tackle

6. Block and Tackle* A block and tackle is a combination of pulleys and ropes often used for lifting. Pulleys grouped together in a single frame make up what is called a pulley block. The tackle refers

### The Electrical Properties of Materials: Resistivity

The Electrical Properties of Materials: Resistivity 1 Objectives 1. To understand the properties of resistance and resistivity in conductors, 2. To measure the resistivity and temperature coefficient of

### SEPARATION OF A MIXTURE OF SUBSTANCES LAB

SEPARATION OF A MIXTURE OF SUBSTANCES LAB Purpose: Every chemical has a set of defined physical properties, and when combined they present a unique fingerprint for that chemical. When chemicals are present

### UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT ME269 ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES AND POWER PROCESSING.

UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT ME269 ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES AND POWER PROCESSING. Group # First Name Last Name UserID @uwaterloo.ca Experiment #3: DIRECT CURRENT

### 6/2016 E&M forces-1/8 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES. PURPOSE: To study the deflection of a beam of electrons by electric and magnetic fields.

6/016 E&M forces-1/8 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FORCES PURPOSE: To study the deflection of a beam of electrons by electric and magnetic fields. APPARATUS: Electron beam tube, stand with coils, power supply,

### Rotational Motion: Moment of Inertia

Experiment 8 Rotational Motion: Moment of Inertia 8.1 Objectives Familiarize yourself with the concept of moment of inertia, I, which plays the same role in the description of the rotation of a rigid body

### Chapter 1 Chemistry: The Study of Change

Chapter 1 Chemistry: The Study of Change This introductory chapter tells the student why he/she should have interest in studying chemistry. Upon completion of this chapter, the student should be able to:

### Series and Parallel Circuits

Series and Parallel Circuits Components in a circuit can be connected in series or parallel. A series arrangement of components is where they are inline with each other, i.e. connected end-to-end. A parallel

### OPEN LESSON SAMPLE LESSONS FOR THE CLASSROOM FROM LAYING THE FOUNDATION

OPEN LESSON SAMPLE LESSONS FOR THE CLASSROOM FROM LAYING THE FOUNDATION Middle Grades Science Running the Stairs Measuring Work, Energy, and Power About this Lesson This activity can be used to introduce

### TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY In general, when an object performs work on another object, it does not transfer all of its energy to that object. Some of the energy is lost as heat due to

### Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold

Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold Radiation Radiation: Heat energy transmitted by electromagnetic waves Q t = εσat 4 emissivity

### THE HUMIDITY/MOISTURE HANDBOOK

THE HUMIDITY/MOISTURE HANDBOOK Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Relative Humidity... 3 Partial Pressure... 4 Saturation Pressure (Ps)... 5 Other Absolute Moisture Scales... 8 % Moisture by Volume (%M

### 13.1 The Nature of Gases. What is Kinetic Theory? Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases. Chapter 13: States of Matter. Principles of Kinetic Theory

Chapter 13: States of Matter The Nature of Gases The Nature of Gases kinetic molecular theory (KMT), gas pressure (pascal, atmosphere, mm Hg), kinetic energy The Nature of Liquids vaporization, evaporation,

10. A ircuits* Objective: To learn how to analyze current and voltage relationships in alternating current (a.c.) circuits. You will use the method of phasors, or the vector addition of rotating vectors

### EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor

EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor Purpose: In this experiment you will use the ideal gas law to calculate the molecular weight of a volatile liquid compound by measuring the mass,

### Ampere's Law. Introduction. times the current enclosed in that loop: Ampere's Law states that the line integral of B and dl over a closed path is 0

1 Ampere's Law Purpose: To investigate Ampere's Law by measuring how magnetic field varies over a closed path; to examine how magnetic field depends upon current. Apparatus: Solenoid and path integral

### (Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION

Convection (Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION You know from common experience that when there's a difference in temperature between two places close to each other, the temperatures

### A Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion

A Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion Objective In the experiment you will determine the cart acceleration, a, and the friction force, f, experimentally for

### = 800 kg/m 3 (note that old units cancel out) 4.184 J 1000 g = 4184 J/kg o C

Units and Dimensions Basic properties such as length, mass, time and temperature that can be measured are called dimensions. Any quantity that can be measured has a value and a unit associated with it.

### Objectives 200 CHAPTER 4 RESISTANCE

Objectives Explain the differences among conductors, insulators, and semiconductors. Define electrical resistance. Solve problems using resistance, voltage, and current. Describe a material that obeys

### We will study the temperature-pressure diagram of nitrogen, in particular the triple point.

K4. Triple Point of Nitrogen I. OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT We will study the temperature-pressure diagram of nitrogen, in particular the triple point. II. BAKGROUND THOERY States of matter Matter is made

### AP Physics 1 Summer Assignment

AP Physics 1 Summer Assignment AP Physics 1 Summer Assignment Welcome to AP Physics 1. This course and the AP exam will be challenging. AP classes are taught as college courses not just college-level courses,

### Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

### 1 Introduction The Scientific Method (1 of 20) 1 Introduction Observations and Measurements Qualitative, Quantitative, Inferences (2 of 20)

The Scientific Method (1 of 20) This is an attempt to state how scientists do science. It is necessarily artificial. Here are MY five steps: Make observations the leaves on my plant are turning yellow

### Lab 2: Resistance, Current, and Voltage

2 Lab 2: Resistance, Current, and Voltage I. Before you come to la.. A. Read the following chapters from the text (Giancoli): 1. Chapter 25, sections 1, 2, 3, 5 2. Chapter 26, sections 1, 2, 3 B. Read

### Physical Properties of a Pure Substance, Water

Physical Properties of a Pure Substance, Water The chemical and physical properties of a substance characterize it as a unique substance, and the determination of these properties can often allow one to

### PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.

PS-6.1 Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy,

### Force on Moving Charges in a Magnetic Field

[ Assignment View ] [ Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007 27. Magnetic Field and Magnetic Forces Assignment is due at 2:00am on Wednesday, February 28, 2007 Credit for problems submitted late will decrease to 0% after

### The purposes of this experiment are to test Faraday's Law qualitatively and to test Lenz's Law.

260 17-1 I. THEORY EXPERIMENT 17 QUALITATIVE STUDY OF INDUCED EMF Along the extended central axis of a bar magnet, the magnetic field vector B r, on the side nearer the North pole, points away from this

### Mixing Warm and Cold Water

Mixing Warm and Cold Water A Continuing Investigation of Thermal Pollution By Kevin White 1 Context: This lesson is intended for students conducting an ongoing study of thermal pollution. Perhaps, students

### Determining Equivalent Weight by Copper Electrolysis

Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the equivalent mass of copper based on change in the mass of a copper electrode and the volume of hydrogen gas generated during an electrolysis reaction.

### Updates to Graphing with Excel

Updates to Graphing with Excel NCC has recently upgraded to a new version of the Microsoft Office suite of programs. As such, many of the directions in the Biology Student Handbook for how to graph with

### UNDERSTANDING REFRIGERANT TABLES

Refrigeration Service Engineers Society 1666 Rand Road Des Plaines, Illinois 60016 UNDERSTANDING REFRIGERANT TABLES INTRODUCTION A Mollier diagram is a graphical representation of the properties of a refrigerant,

### SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature

SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature Overview Students learn that temperature measures average kinetic energy, and heat is the transfer of energy from hot systems to cold systems. They consider what

### Junior Cert Science Numeracy Resources

Focus on Numeracy Junior Cert Science Numeracy Resources Let s Talk About Measurement Measurement of Time Directions: Put a < (less than), > (greater than), or = symbol between the two amounts of time.

### Stoichiometry Exploring a Student-Friendly Method of Problem Solving

Stoichiometry Exploring a Student-Friendly Method of Problem Solving Stoichiometry comes in two forms: composition and reaction. If the relationship in question is between the quantities of each element

### Introduction to the Ideal Gas Law

Course PHYSICS260 Assignment 5 Consider ten grams of nitrogen gas at an initial pressure of 6.0 atm and at room temperature. It undergoes an isobaric expansion resulting in a quadrupling of its volume.

### THE BREADBOARD; DC POWER SUPPLY; RESISTANCE OF METERS; NODE VOLTAGES AND EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE; THÉVENIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

THE BREADBOARD; DC POWER SUPPLY; RESISTANCE OF METERS; NODE VOLTAGES AND EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE; THÉVENIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT YOUR NAME LAB MEETING TIME Reference: C.W. Alexander and M.N.O Sadiku, Fundamentals

### 1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws Heat and Temperature Often the concepts of heat and temperature are thought to be the same, but they are not. Perhaps the reason the two are incorrectly thought to be the same is because

### Module 5: Combustion Technology. Lecture 34: Calculation of calorific value of fuels

1 P age Module 5: Combustion Technology Lecture 34: Calculation of calorific value of fuels 2 P age Keywords : Gross calorific value, Net calorific value, enthalpy change, bomb calorimeter 5.3 Calculation

### We will try to get familiar with a heat pump, and try to determine its performance coefficient under different circumstances.

C4. Heat Pump I. OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT We will try to get familiar with a heat pump, and try to determine its performance coefficient under different circumstances. II. INTRODUCTION II.1. Thermodynamic

### Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Wire Warm Up

Magnet Force on Current-1 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Wire Warm Up 1. Forces on magnets Assume that we have a magnet of mass m 1 sitting on a scale (force meter 1), situation A. For this configuration

### Pressure -Temperature Relationship in Gases. Evaluation copy. Figure 1. 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Vernier computer interface

Pressure -Temperature Relationship in Gases Computer 7 Gases are made up of molecules that are in constant motion and exert pressure when they collide with the walls of their container. The velocity and

### UNIT (1) MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY

UNIT (1) MEASUREMENTS IN CHEMISTRY Measurements are part of our daily lives. We measure our weights, driving distances, and gallons of gasoline. As a health professional you might measure blood pressure,