# Chapter 2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding"

## Transcription

1 Chapter 2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding Interatomic Bonding Bonding forces and energies Primary interatomic bonds Secondary bonding Molecules Bonding Forces and Energies Considering the interaction between two isolated atoms as they are brought into close proximity from an infinite separation. At larger distances, the interactions are negligible. As the atoms approach, each exerts forces on the other. Attractive Repulsive Ultimately, the outer electron shells of the two atoms begin to overlap, and a strong repulsive force comes into play. 1

2 Bonding Models Bonding holds atoms together to form solids materials In solids, atoms are held at preferred distances from each other (equilibrium distances) Distances larger or smaller than equilibrium distances are not preferred. Equilibrium spacing r 0 is approximately 0.3nm Consequently, as atomic bonds are stretched, atoms tend to attract each other, and as the bonds are compressed, atoms repel each other. Simple bonding models assume that the total bonding results from the sum of two forces: an attractive force (F A ) and a repulsive (F R ). the net force F = F + N The repulsive force dominates at small distances, and the attractive force dominates at larger distances. At equilibrium they are just equal. A F R Bonding Forces and Energies It is convenient to work with energy than forces. Bonding energy (also called interaction energy or potential energy) between two isolated atoms at separation r is related to the force by The total energy has a minimum at the point of equilibrium separation. Bonding energy E 0 corresponds to the energy at r o the energy that would be required to separate these two atoms to an infinite separation. Interpretation: holding one atom at the origin, a second atom would repel that atom at separation r < r o and attract it when r o < r. 2

3 Bonding energy between two atoms The interaction energy at equilibrium is called the bonding energy between the two atoms. To break the bond, this energy must be supplied from outside. Breaking the bond means that the two atoms become infinitely separated. In real materials, containing many atoms, bonding is studied by expressing the bonding energy of the entire materials in terms of the separation distances between all atoms, see later discussion. Primary bonding: Bonding Ionic (transfer of valence electrons) Covalent (sharing of valence electrons, directional) Metallic (delocalization of valence electrons) Secondary or van der Waals Bonding: (Common, but weaker than primary bonding) Dipole-dipole -bonds Polar molecule-induced dipole Fluctuating dipole (weakest) 3

4 Ionic Bonding Occurs between + and - ions. Requires electron transfer. Large difference in electronegativity required. Example: NaCl Nondirectional 3p 3s Na (χ = 0.9) 3p 3s Cl (χ = 3.0) Ionic Bonding E A = 2 z1z2e 4πε r o Since z 1 = +1 for Na + and z 2 = -1 for Cl - E A 2 e = 4πε r o = A r Negative energy means attraction only. Will the atoms collapse on themselves? No, there is also repulsive energy (e.g. steric repulsion, e-e repulsion) B E R = n r B and n depend on atoms involved. In many cases n ~ 8. 4

5 Ionic Bonding E B E R = n r Bond energy E A = A r r Equilibrium bond length Note: Other types of bonds can also be described in a similar manner Ionic Bonding: examples Predominant bonding in Ceramics \$ ) ( )!! *! %! %! +! + # ) ',- ) \$ )!. )! #! *! * / ) ' ) 0,-2 \$ 1 \$! 2 " '! "! # \$ % & \$ ' \$ \$ 334- \$ \$ +334(6-5/747 7#35"3358-7)*"*3)*!5"33 8-7)*0! : 5

6 Bonding Energies and Melting Temperatures for Various Substances Covalent Bonding Sharing of electrons Why do some atoms want to share electrons? Molecular orbitals Example1: 2 Atomic orbitals 1s 1s Example2: C4 C: has 4 valence e, needs 4 more C4 shared electrons from carbon atom : has 1 valence e, needs 1 more C Electronegativities are same or comparable. shared electrons from hydrogen atoms 334- \$ )!50 6

7 atomic orbitals for carbon: Atomic Orbitals an s-orbital z 2p 2s 1s 4 valence electrons but two different types orbitals. s on C 4 should be equivalent. the three p orbitals p x p y p z x y ybridization 1s + 1p = sp-orbitals z 1s + 2p = sp 2 -orbitals z sp3 hybridization for C in C 4 1s + 3p = sp 3 -orbitals z x y x 60 y 60 x y \$ ) ( )!! *! %! %! +! + Examples: Covalent Bonding # ) ',- ) \$ )!. )! #! *! * \$ / ) ' ) 0 \$ Molecules with nonmetals Molecules with metals and nonmetals Elemental solids (RS of Periodic Table) Compound solids (about column IVA) ) 0 &; \$ '.. 6 \$! 2 \$!! "! # \$ % & \$ ' \$ \$ \$ \$ 334- \$ \$ + 334(6-5/7477#35" )*"*3)*!5"33 8-7)*0!89 8 0: 7

8 % ionic character The covalent bond is directional. The number of covalent bonds that is possible for a particular atom is determined by the number of valence electrons. Most bonds between two different types of atoms are somewhere in between ionic and covalent. Very few compounds exhibit pure ionic or covalent bonding. 2 % ionic character = {1 exp[ 0.25( χ A χ ) ]} 100 B χ j = electronegativity of atom j Example problem Order the following semiconductors from most covalent to most ionic. 1) ZnS, GaP, CuCl 2) ZnS, ZnSe, ZnO 8

9 Metallic Bonding Arises from a sea of donated valence electrons Fixed ion cores (nuclei and inner electrons) sea of electrons 334- \$ ))50 Primary bond for metals and their alloys. Large atomic radius and small IP will more likely lead to metallic bonding. Metallic Bonding Valence electrons are completely delocalized to form an electron cloud, in which positive ionic cores are embedded. The remaining nonvalence electrons and atomic nuclei form ion cores, which posses a net positive charge equal in magnitude to the total valence electron charge per atom. The metallic bond is nondirectional. Metallic bonding is found in the periodic table for Group IA and IIA elements. Electron delocalization is the origin of good electrical and thermal conductivities in metals. (Ionically and covalently bonded materials are typically electrical and thermal insulators, due to the absence of large numbers of free electrons). 9

10 Secondary Bonds: Intermolecular Forces Secondary, Van der Waals, or physical bonds are weak in comparison to the primary bonds. Secondary bonding exists between virtually all atoms or molecules, but its presence may be obscured if any of the three primary bonding types is present. Secondary bonding forces arise from atomic or molecular dipoles. An electric dipole exists whenever there is some separation of positive and negative portions of an atom or molecule. Dipole interactions occur between induced dipoles, between induced dipoles and polar molecules (which have permanent dipoles), and between polar molecules. ydrogen bonding, a special type of secondary bonding, is found to exist between some molecules that have hydrogen as one of the constituents. Secondary Bonds: Intermolecular Forces Dipole-dipole interaction: secondary bond between molecules with permanent dipole moments -general case: Adapted from Fig. 2.14, Callister 6e. -ex: liquid Cl Adapted from Fig. 2.14, Callister 6e. -ex: polymer 383- From Callister 6e resource CD. ydrogen bonding O O O 10

11 Polar molecule-induced dipole interaction: Polar molecules (with asymmetric arrangement of positively and negatively charged regions) can induce dipoles in adjacent nonpolar molecules + - polar Nonpolar (e.g. atom) Fluctuating dipoles Constant vibrational motion can cause distortions of electrical symmetry Adapted from Fig. 2.13, Callister 6e. secondary bonding <=3\$ \$ \$ SUMMARY: BONDING Type Ionic Bond Energy Large! Comments Nondirectional (ceramics) Covalent Metallic Secondary Variable large-diamond small-bismuth Variable large-tungsten small-mercury smallest Directional (semiconductors, ceramics polymer chains) Nondirectional (metals) Directional inter-chain (polymer) inter-molecular 11

12 1/14/2011 Bonding and materials properties Materials with large bonding energies usually have high melting temperatures. There is a correlation between the magnitude of the bonding energy and the state of materials Solids have large bonding energies Liquids tend to have relatively lower energies The expansion/contraction during heating/cooling of materials is related to the shape of its E(r) curve. A deep and narrow trough, which typically occurs for materials having large bonding energies, usually imply a low coefficient of thermal expansion. PROPERTIES FROM BONDING: T M >#3-75 >#3-85??-8 >,-/ 5/?-8 / A3-8B -/ / -4? - 0: 12

13 PROPERTIES FROM BONDING: E >?35? -75( 343 ( 343?3 ( >?C? ?,3 -?,3?-4-0: SUMMARY: BONDING and Materials properties &D 3- = (-3-8 -/ -? α,,3- = 68 D.38 = 383- ; 3-8 3/ 3? 3α : /? -α 0 : 13

### Classes of materials

Classes of materials POLYMERS CERAMICS METALS DUCTILITY Varies Poor Good CONDUCTIVITY (ELECTRICAL & THERMAL) Low Low High HARDNESS/STRENGTH Low medium Very high Medium high CORROSION RESISTANCE Fair good

### Periodic Table. inert gases. Columns: Similar Valence Structure. give up 1e - give up 2e - Oaccept 2e- accept 1e - give up 3e -

Periodic Table give up 1e - give up 2e - give up 3e - H Li Be Na Mg K Ca Columns: Similar Valence Structure Sc Oaccept 2e- accept 1e - inert gases S Se F Cl Br He Ne Ar Kr Adapted from Fig. 2.6, Callister

### phys4.17 Page 1 - under normal conditions (pressure, temperature) graphite is the stable phase of crystalline carbon

Covalent Crystals - covalent bonding by shared electrons in common orbitals (as in molecules) - covalent bonds lead to the strongest bound crystals, e.g. diamond in the tetrahedral structure determined

### CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding SECTION 1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding OBJECTIVES 1. Define Chemical bond. 2. Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds. 3. Describe ionic and covalent bonding.. 4. Explain

### Several important material properties are determined on the type and characteristic interatomic/interionic/intermolecular bonds:

Interatomic and intermolecular forces. What will be covered? 1. Binding energy: basic concepts 2. Ionic bonding. 3. Chemical bonding. a. Primary bonds. b. Secondary bonds. Why do we need to know this material?

### Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue

### CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16 Covalent Bonding Goals : To gain an understanding of : NOTES: 1. Valence electron and electron dot notation. 2. Stable electron configurations. 3. Covalent bonding. 4. Polarity

### Chapter Outline. Review of Atomic Structure Electrons, Protons, Neutrons, Quantum mechanics of atoms, Electron states, The Periodic Table

Review of Atomic Structure Electrons, Protons, Neutrons, Quantum mechanics of atoms, Electron states, The Periodic Table Atomic Bonding in Solids Bonding Energies and Forces Periodic Table Chapter Outline

### Chapter 11. Intermolecular Forces Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. States of Matter Dependent on 2 things: Closeness Motion States of Matter Liquid & solid: atoms/molecules/ ions perpetually touching. condensed

### Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure

Topic 4. Chemical bonding and structure There are three types of strong bonds: Ionic Covalent Metallic Some substances contain both covalent and ionic bonding or an intermediate. 4.1 Ionic bonding Ionic

### Covalent Bonding and Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces are electromagnetic forces that hold like molecules together. Strong intermolecular forces result in a high melting point and a solid state at room temperature. Molecules that are

### CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

Name Date lass APTER 6 REVIEW hemical Bonding SETIN 1 SRT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. a A chemical bond between atoms results from the attraction between the valence

### Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

### Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Intermolecular Forces

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Intermolecular Forces Physical Properties & Bond Types Physical properties of substances are affected by the attractive forces between particles Greater attraction

### 2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties:

Electronegativity and polarity Polar and non-polar bonds: 1) Non-Polar bonds: 2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: A covalent bond shares an electron pair: In a hydrogen molecule, the electrons

### Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key 1) Nitrogen is the central atom in each of the following species: N2 N2 - N2 + Nitrogen can also form electron deficient compounds with a single unpaired electron on the

### A pure covalent bond is an equal sharing of shared electron pair(s) in a bond. A polar covalent bond is an unequal sharing.

CHAPTER EIGHT BNDING: GENERAL CNCEPT or Review 1. Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself. Electronegativity is a bonding term. Electron affinity is the

### Molecular Compounds. Chapter 5. Covalent (Molecular) Compounds

Molecular Compounds Chapter 5 Covalent (Molecular) Compounds Covalent Compound- a compound that contains atoms that are held together by covalent bonds Covalent Bond- the force of attraction between atoms

### INTERMOLECULAR FORCES

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES Intermolecular forces- forces of attraction and repulsion between molecules that hold molecules, ions, and atoms together. Intramolecular - forces of chemical bonds within a molecule

### Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s)

BONDING MIDTERM REVIEW 7546-1 - Page 1 1) Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) 2) The bond between hydrogen and oxygen in

### Problem Set VIII Liquids, Solids, Intermolecular Forces and Phase Diagrams

Chem 121 Problem set VIII LUTI - 1 Problem et VIII Liquids, olids, Intermolecular orces and Phase Diagrams 1a) this is a point on the vapour pressure curve 1b) gas 1c) gas to liquid Water C 2 2a) solid

### POLAR COVALENT BONDS Ionic compounds form repeating. Covalent compounds form distinct. Consider adding to NaCl(s) vs. H 2 O(s):

POLAR COVALENT BONDS Ionic compounds form repeating. Covalent compounds form distinct. Consider adding to NaCl(s) vs. H 2 O(s): Sometimes when atoms of two different elements form a bond by sharing an

### Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson

Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\00bondingtrans.doc The Nature of Bonding Types 1. Ionic 2. Covalent 3. Metallic 4. Coordinate covalent Driving

### CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

### Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date:

Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date: 1. At STP, fluorine is a gas and bromine is a liquid because, compared to fluorine, bromine has 1) stronger covalent bonds 2) stronger intermolecular forces

### H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart

Non-Covalent Molecular Forces 2/27/06 3/1/06 How does this reaction occur: H 2 O (liquid) H 2 O (gas)? Add energy H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart H 2O liquid: bonding between molecules Use heat

### The breaking of bonds and the forming of bonds occur during chemical reactions.

Chemical Bonding The breaking of bonds and the forming of bonds occur during chemical reactions. Aspirin The formula for a molecule of aspirin is C 9 H 8 O 4 Is it an ionic or covalent (molecular) compound?

### CHEM 2323 Unit 1 General Chemistry Review

EM 2323 Unit 1 General hemistry Review I. Atoms A. The Structure of the Atom B. Electron onfigurations. Lewis Dot Structures II. Bonding A. Electronegativity B. Ionic Bonds. ovalent Bonds D. Bond Polarity

### Lecture 2 ( ) Chapters 2 and 3

Lecture 2 (9-12-16) Chapters 2 and 3 Goals: Review Periodic Table and the atom, types of bonding for carbon (hybridization), and Lewis structure Learn how to draw bond-line structures Problems: (for all

### Covalent Bonds. A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is called a molecule.

Covalent Bonds The bond formed when atoms share electrons is called a covalent bond. (Unlike ionic bonds, which involve the complete transfer of electrons). A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds

### Chemical Bonding. Elements of the Lewis Theory. More Lewis Theory. Electron Dot Diagrams. Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification

Elements of the Lewis Theory Chemical Bonding Lewis Structures, Polarity and Bond Classification 1. Valence electrons play a fundamental role in chemical bonding 2. Sometimes bonding involves the TRANSFER

### Drawing Lewis Structures

Drawing Lewis Structures 1. Add up all of the valence electrons for the atoms involved in bonding 2. Write the symbols for the elements and show connectivity with single bonds (2 electrons shared). a.

### COVALENT BOND VS IONIC BOND

COVALENT BOND VS IONIC BOND You have seen how elements are similar to us and as you know them closely you will find some more similarities to our behaviour. You must have experienced the law of attraction

### Section 3: Crystal Binding

Physics 97 Interatomic forces Section 3: rystal Binding Solids are stable structures, and therefore there exist interactions holding atoms in a crystal together. For example a crystal of sodium chloride

### Solid Type of solid Type of particle

QUESTION (2015:3) Complete the table below by stating the type of solid, the type of particle, and the attractive forces between the particles in each solid. Solid Type of solid Type of particle Cu(s)

### Packet 4: Bonding. Play song: (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs)

Most atoms are not Packet 4: Bonding Atoms will, or share electrons in order to achieve a stable. Octet means that the atom has in its level. If an atom achieves a stable octet it will have the same electron

### Use the Force! Noncovalent Molecular Forces

Use the Force! Noncovalent Molecular Forces Not quite the type of Force we re talking about Before we talk about noncovalent molecular forces, let s talk very briefly about covalent bonds. The Illustrated

### Ch. 11: Liquids and Intermolecular Forces

Ch. 11: Liquids and Intermolecular Forces Learning goals and key skills: Identify the intermolecular attractive interactions (dispersion, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding, ion-dipole) that exist between

### Test 8: Review Questions

Name: Thursday, February 14, 2008 Test 8: Review Questions 1. Based on bond type, which compound has the highest melting point? 1. CH OH 3. CaCl 3 2 2. C H 4. CCl 6 14 4 2. Which compound contains ionic

### GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES SESSION 3: CHEMICAL BONDING. Key Concepts. X-planation

GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES SESSION 3: CHEMICAL BONDING Key Concepts In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Bonding Covalent bonding Electronegativity in covalent bonding

### AP CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 6 (8 points) Answer the following questions related to sulfur and one of its compounds. (a) Consider the two chemical species S and S 2. (i) Write the electron

### Introduction to Ionic Bonds

Introduction to Ionic Bonds The forces that hold matter together are called chemical bonds. There are four major types of bonds. We need to learn in detail about these bonds and how they influence the

### Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1

Unusual electron configurations Transition metals: half-filled and fully-filled subshells have extra stability. d 5 s 1 d 10 s 1 Examples: Cr and Cu Transition metal ions: s and d energy levels change

### comparing ionic and covalent bonding.notebook October 16, 2014 Bond strength IMF strength Oct 6 10:43 AM Oct 14 10:06 PM

Bond strength IMF strength Oct 6 10:43 AM Oct 14 10:06 PM 1 Oct 14 10:07 PM Oct 14 10:07 PM 2 Oct 14 10:10 PM Oct 14 10:11 PM 3 comparing ionic and covalent bonding.notebook October 16, 2014 Hardness Ionic

### Get Your Forces Right!

First, what is a covalent bond? Get Your Forces Right! Covalent Bond Definition: The sharing of a pair of electrons through orbital overlap. Some examples: Methane, CH4 Cyclohexane, C6H12 Covalent bonds

### Chemical Bonding. There are three types of bonding:

Chemical Bonding What is a chemical bond? If a system has a lower energy when the atoms are close together than when apart, then bonds exist between those atoms. A bond is an electrostatic force that holds

### Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Problems to try at end of chapter: Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7b,9b,15,17,23,25,29,31,33,45,49,51,53,61 13.1 Properties of Liquids 1. Liquids take the shape of their container,

### CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW

Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.

### Learn Chemistry. Starter for Ten 3. Bonding. Registered Charity Number

Learn Chemistry Starter for Ten 3. Bonding Developed by Dr Kristy Turner, RSC School Teacher Fellow 2011-2012 at the University of Manchester, and Dr Catherine Smith, RSC School Teacher Fellow 2011-2012

### CHEMISTRY NOTES: Structures, Shapes, Polarity and IMF s

CHEMISTRY NOTES: Structures, Shapes, Polarity and IMF s DRAWING LEWIS STRUCTURES: RULES 1) Draw the skeleton structure for the molecule. The central atom will generally be the least electronegative element

### Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases

John E. McMurry http://www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases Javier E. Horta, M.D., Ph.D. University of Massachusetts Lowell Polar Covalent Bonds: Electronegativity

### CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING

CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING Active Learning Questions: 3-9, 11-19, 21-22 End-of-Chapter Problems: 1-36, 41-59, 60(a,b), 61(b,d), 62(a,b), 64-77, 79-89, 92-101, 106-109, 112, 115-119 An American chemist

### Chemistry Honors Lesson 3 Molecular Biology/Biochemistry

Chemistry Honors Lesson 3 Molecular Biology/Biochemistry Noncovalent Interactions In Biology, the way molecules interact are determined by weak interactions that result in unique 3D structures and function.

### Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases

John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Modified by Dr. Daniela R. Radu Why This Chapter? Description of basic ways chemists account for chemical

### A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n)

Chemistry I ATOMIC BONDING PRACTICE QUIZ Mr. Scott Select the best answer. 1) A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is

### Lesmahagow High School CfE Higher Chemistry. Chemical Changes & Structure Structure and Bonding

Lesmahagow High School CfE Higher Chemistry Chemical Changes & Structure Structure and Bonding Page 1 of 26 No. Learning Outcome Understanding? 1 2 The bonding types of the first twenty elements; metallic

### Bonding Practice Problems

NAME 1. When compared to H 2 S, H 2 O has a higher 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: boiling point because H 2 O contains stronger metallic bonds covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds 2. Which

### Chapter Outline. Review of Atomic Structure Electrons, protons, neutrons, quantum mechanics of atoms, electron states, the periodic Table

Chapter Outline Review of Atomic Structure Electrons, protons, neutrons, quantum mechanics of atoms, electron states, the periodic Table Atomic Bonding in Solids Bonding energies and forces Primary Interatomic

### Non-Covalent Bonds (Weak Bond)

Non-Covalent Bonds (Weak Bond) Weak bonds are those forces of attraction that, in biological situations, do not take a large amount of energy to break. For example, hydrogen bonds are broken by energies

### Chem 112 Intermolecular Forces Chang From the book (10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20,84,92,94,102,104, 108, 112, 114, 118 and 134)

Chem 112 Intermolecular Forces Chang From the book (10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20,84,92,94,102,104, 108, 112, 114, 118 and 134) 1. Helium atoms do not combine to form He 2 molecules, What is the strongest attractive

### Physics 551: Solid State Physics F. J. Himpsel

Physics 551: Solid State Physics F. J. Himpsel Background Most of the objects around us are in the solid state. Today s technology relies heavily on new materials, electronics is predominantly solid state.

### Lewis Structures. Molecular Shape. VSEPR Model (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory)

Lewis Structures Molecular Shape VSEPR Model (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory) PART 1: Ionic Compounds Complete the table of Part 1 by writing: The Lewis dot structures for each metallic and

### KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

### 3/5/2014. iclicker Participation Question: A. MgS < AlP < NaCl B. MgS < NaCl < AlP C. NaCl < AlP < MgS D. NaCl < MgS < AlP

Today: Ionic Bonding vs. Covalent Bonding Strengths of Covalent Bonds: Bond Energy Diagrams Bond Polarities: Nonpolar Covalent vs. Polar Covalent vs. Ionic Electronegativity Differences Dipole Moments

### Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding. Chris J. Pickard

Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding Chris J. Pickard Why should a theorist care? Where the atoms are determines what they do Where the atoms can be determines what we can do Overview of Structure

### Section Activity #1: Fill out the following table for biology s most common elements assuming that each atom is neutrally charged.

LS1a Fall 2014 Section Week #1 I. Valence Electrons and Bonding The number of valence (outer shell) electrons in an atom determines how many bonds it can form. Knowing the number of valence electrons present

### Chapter 2: Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding

Chapter 2: Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding Materials Molecules Atoms Atoms = protons (p) + neutrons (n) + electrons (e) Protons and neutrons are made of quarks Quantitative measurements need units:

### Chapter 14 Liquids: Condensation, Evaporation, and Dynamic Equilibrium. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 14 Liquids: Condensation, Evaporation, and Dynamic Equilibrium An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Condensation (Gas to Liquid) Evaporation Particle Escape For a particle to

### A REVIEW OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY: ELECTRONS, BONDS AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES

A REVIEW OF GENERAL CEMISTRY: ELECTRONS, BONDS AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES A STUDENT SOULD BE ABLE TO: 1. Draw Lewis (electron dot and line) structural formulas for simple compounds and ions from molecular

### Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids

1 Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids * 10.1 Polar Covalent Bonds & Dipole Moments - van der Waals constant for water (a = 5.28 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) vs O 2 (a = 1.36 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) -- water is polar (draw diagram)

### Chemical Bonding. 6 th Year Chemistry Higher Level Sinéad Nolan

6 th Year Chemistry Higher Level Sinéad Nolan Chemical Bonding No part of this publication may be copied, reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,

### Chapter 5. The covalent bond model

Chapter 5 The covalent bond model What s a comin up? Covalent bond model Lewis structures for molecular compounds Multiple bonds Coordinate covalent bonds Guidelines for drawing correct Lewis structures

### Chemistry 1050 Chapter 13 LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS 1. Exercises: 25, 27, 33, 39, 41, 43, 51, 53, 57, 61, 63, 67, 69, 71(a), 73, 75, 79

Chemistry 1050 Chapter 13 LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS 1 Text: Petrucci, Harwood, Herring 8 th Edition Suggest text problems Review questions: 1, 5!11, 13!17, 19!23 Exercises: 25, 27, 33, 39, 41, 43, 51, 53, 57,

### Lewis Structure Exercise

Lewis Structure Exercise A Lewis structure shows how the valence electrons are arranged and indicates the bonding between atoms in a molecule. We represent the elements by their symbols. The shared electron

### Bonding Web Practice. Trupia

1. If the electronegativity difference between the elements in compound NaX is 2.1, what is element X? bromine fluorine chlorine oxygen 2. Which bond has the greatest degree of ionic character? H Cl Cl

### Lecture 2: Semiconductors: Introduction

Lecture 2: Semiconductors: Introduction Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Band formation in semiconductors 2 3 Classification of semiconductors 5 4 Electron effective mass 10 1 Introduction Metals have electrical

### Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases

John E. McMurry http://www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases Richard Morrison University of Georgia, Athens 2.1 Polar Covalent Bonds: Electronegativity Chemical

### Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 1 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties design of periodic table is based on observing properties

### Chapter 8: Bonding General Concepts. Valence Electrons. Representative Elements & Lewis Dot Structures

Chapter 8: Bonding General Concepts Valence Electrons 8.1 Chemical Bond Formation 8.2 Covalent Bonding (Lewis Dot Structures) 8.3 Charge Distribution in Covalent Compounds 8.4 Resonance 8.5 Molecular Shapes

### Illustrating Bonds - Lewis Dot Structures

Illustrating Bonds - Lewis Dot Structures Lewis Dot structures are also known as electron dot diagrams These diagrams illustrate valence electrons and subsequent bonding A line shows each shared electron

### SAM Teachers Guide Chemical Bonds

SAM Teachers Guide Chemical Bonds Overview Students discover that the type of bond formed ionic, non polar covalent, or polar covalent depends on the electronegativity of the two atoms that are bonded

### 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties

11 Chemical Bonds The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter Outline 11.1 11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 11.3 The Ionic Bond Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 11.4 Predicting Formulas of

### Crystalline solids. A solid crystal consists of different atoms arranged in a periodic structure.

Crystalline solids A solid crystal consists of different atoms arranged in a periodic structure. Crystals can be formed via various bonding mechanisms: Ionic bonding Covalent bonding Metallic bonding Van

### KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER - molecules in matter are always in motion - speed of molecules is proportional to the temperature

1 KINETIC TERY F MATTER - molecules in matter are always in motion - speed of molecules is proportional to the temperature TE STATES F MATTER 1. Gas a) ideal gas - molecules move freely - molecules have

### Assignment 9 Solutions. Chapter 8, #8.32, 36, 38, 42, 54, 56, 72, 100, 102, Chapter 10, #10.24, 40, 55, 63. Number of e in Valence Shell

Assignment 9 Solutions Chapter 8, #8.32, 36, 38, 42, 54, 56, 72, 100, 102, Chapter 10, #10.24, 40, 55, 63. 8.32. Collect and Organize Of B 3+, I, Ca 2+, and Pb 2+ we are to identify which have a complete

### When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS

When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS 1. The 3 types of chemical bonds are IONIC, COVALENT, and METALLIC bonds. 2. When atoms have 8 valence electrons they are most stable. (exception 2 for

### Leaving Cert Chemistry. Free Notes. Chemical Bonding

Leaving Cert Chemistry Free Notes Chemical Bonding Chemical Bonding: Molecule: Group of atoms which are chemically joined e.g. 2 0, CO 2 and C 4. A molecule can be polar or non polar. Difference between

### Why? Intermolecular Forces. Intermolecular Forces. Chapter 12 IM Forces and Liquids. Covalent Bonding Forces for Comparison of Magnitude

1 Why? Chapter 1 Intermolecular Forces and Liquids Why is water usually a liquid and not a gas? Why does liquid water boil at such a high temperature for such a small molecule? Why does ice float on water?

### Introduction to Organic Molecules And Functional Groups

Introduction to Organic Molecules And Functional Groups 1 Functional Groups A functional group is an atom or a group of atoms with characteristic chemical and physical properties. It is the reactive part

### 8/19/2011. Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures. Review PERIODIC Table

Periodic Trends and Lewis Dot Structures Chapter 11 Review PERIODIC Table Recall, Mendeleev and Meyer organized the ordering the periodic table based on a combination of three components: 1. Atomic Number

### Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life

Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life Multiple-Choice Questions 1) About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living

### Valence shell electrons repel each other Valence shell electrons are arranged geometrically around the central atom to

Molecular Geometry (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion -VSEPR) & Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals (Valance Bond Theory) Chapter 10 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Valence shell electrons

### Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding 6.1 Organizing the Elements I. The Periodic Law A. The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers B. Elements

### c) If a sample of each were stirred into a beaker of water, which beaker would conduct electricity?

Chapter 8: Bond Review Characteristics of ionic compounds: (a) have high melting and boiling points (b) exist as crystals and are therefore brittle and will cleave when struck (c) many are soluble in water

### Chapter 8 Molecules. Some molecular bonds involve sharing of electrons between atoms. These are covalent bonds.

Chapter 8 Molecules (We have only three days for chapter 8!) 8.1 The Molecular Bond A molecule is an electrically neutral group of atoms held together strongly enough to behave as a single particle. A

### Polarity, Electronegativity; Lewis Structures for Molecules and Ions 1

1 Class 5: Polarity, Electronegativity, and Lewis Structures for Molecules and Polyatomic Ions Sec 9.6 Electronegativty and Electronegativity, Dipole Moment and Percent Ionic Character Sec 9.7 Lewis Structures

### Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: States of Matter In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. The kinetic-molecular

### Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular Forces: Introduction Intermolecular Forces Forces between separate molecules and dissolved ions (not bonds) Van der Waals Forces 15% as strong as covalent or ionic bonds Chapter 11 Intermolecular