Solids, Liquids, and Gases

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1 Glencoe Science Chapter Resources Solids, Liquids, and Gases Includes: Reproducible Student Pages ASSESSMENT Chapter Tests Chapter Review HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES Lab Worksheets for each Student Edition Activity Laboratory Activities Foldables Reading and Study Skills activity sheet MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS Directed Reading for Content Mastery Directed Reading for Content Mastery in Spanish Reinforcement Enrichment Note-taking Worksheets TRANSPARENCY ACTIVITIES Section Focus Transparency Activities Teaching Transparency Activity Assessment Transparency Activity Teacher Support and Planning Content Outline for Teaching Spanish Resources Teacher Guide and Answers

2 Directed Reading for Content Mastery Overview Solids, Liquids, and Gases Directions: Complete the concept map using the terms and phrases in the list below. particles liquids definite shape and volume gases Matter is composed of 1. are tightly held with 2. that slide past each other with definite volume but no definite shape collide randomly with each other with no definite volume or shape Directions: Match the definitions in Column II with the terms in Column I. Write the letter of the correct definition in the blank on the left. Column I and form solids 5. absolute zero 6. buoyancy 7. pressure 8. pascal 9. Pascal s principle and form and form Column II a. SI unit of measure b. ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it c. point at which all particle motion stops d. force per unit area e. Pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted unchanged throughout the fluid. Solids, Liquids, and Gases 21

3 Directed Reading for Content Mastery Section 1 Kinetic Theory Section 2 Properties of Fluids Directions: Match the term in Column I with the definition in Column II. Write the letter of the correct definition in the blank at the left. Column I Column II 1. kinetic theory of matter 2. plasma 3. crystals 4. Archimedes principle 5. buoyant force 6. solid 7. amorphous solid 8. Bernoulli s principle 9. steam 10. thermal expansion 11. Pascal s principle 12. liquid 13. gas 14. ice a. water vapor b. state of matter with no definite shape but with definite volume c. explains how airplanes fly d. solid which is not made of crystals e. state of matter that has no definite shape and no definite volume f. determines whether an object will sink or float in a fluid g. Matter expands when it gets hotter and contracts when it cools. h. state of matter with definite shape and definite volume i. water in the solid state j. explains the buoyant force on an object submerged in fluid k. Tiny particles in motion make up all matter. l. particles arranged in repeating geometric patterns m. gaslike mixture of charged particles n. pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid 22 Solids, Liquids, and Gasses

4 Directed Reading for Content Mastery Section 3 Behavior of Gases Directions: Complete the paragraphs by using the words listed below to fill in the blanks. force increase kinetic pressure volume particles Charles s size boiling kilopascals Boyle s absolute decrease larger temperature constantly liquids pressure decrease increased Gases in Earth s atmosphere exert 1. on everything. According to the 2. theory, the particles of a gas are 3. moving. Every time gas particles hit something and bounce off, they exert a tiny force. Pressure is this amount of 4. exerted per unit of area. Air pressure at sea level is The amount of force exerted by a gas depends on the 6. of its container. 7. law states that if a sample of gas is kept at constant 8., decreasing the volume will 9. the pressure the gas exerts. If you increase the volume, the pressure will 10.. According to the kinetic theory, if you do not change the amount of gas or its temperature but 11. the size of the container, the particles will strike the walls more often and the pressure will rise. When the size of the container is 12., the pressure is smaller because the 13. hit the walls less often. According to 14. law, if a sample of gas is kept at constant 15., the volume increases if the temperature is 16.. Charles s measurements suggested that the 17. of a gas would become zero at a temperature of -273º C. The temperature -273º C is called 18. zero. All gases become 19. when cooled to their 20. points. Solids, Liquids, and Gases 23

5 Directed Reading for Content Mastery Key Terms Solids, Liquids, and Gases Directions: Use the clues below to complete the crossword puzzle Across 1. Says that matter is composed of particles in motion 5. Force per unit area 6. Most common state of matter 7. Temperature at which a liquid s vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure 8. Temperature at which a solid begins to liquefy 9. A fluid s resistance to flow 9 Down 2. Liquid rising in a thermometer as temperature increases is an example of. 3. Name of the force exerted by a fluid on objects immersed in it 4. Heat of is the energy needed for a substance to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state. 5. SI unit of pressure 24 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

6 1 Reinforcement Kinetic Theory Directions: Look carefully at the graph. It was drawn from the data collected when a substance was heated at a constant rate. To heat at a constant rate means to add heat evenly as time passes. Use the graph to complete the paragraphs that follow. Temperature ( C) A B Solid C Liquid Time (minutes) D E Gas F At the start of observations, Point A, the substance exists in the 1. state. The temperature at this point is 2.. As energy is absorbed, the temperature of the substance rises at a constant rate for two minutes. At Point B, the temperature is 3., and the solid begins to 4.. The temperature remains constant until the change from solid to 5. is complete. It has taken three minutes to add enough energy to melt the solid completely. From Point C to Point D, the substance is in the 6. state. Its temperature rises at a constant rate to 7.. The temperature remains constant while the liquid changes to a 8.. At Point E, the substance exists as a 9.. Its temperature rises evenly as energy is added. When the gaseous substance is allowed to cool, it releases energy. The cooling curve will be the reverse of the warming curve. Energy will be released as the substance changes from a 10. to a 11. and also from a 12. to a 13.. The amount of energy released during condensation will be the same as the amount absorbed during vaporization. Solids, Liquids, and Gases 29

7 2 Reinforcement Properties of Fluids Directions: Determine whether the italicized term makes each statement true or false. If the statement is true, write true in the blank. If the statement is incorrect, write in the blank the term that makes the statement true. 1. A fluid is a liquid or a solid. 2. Buoyancy is the ability of a fluid to exert a downward force on an object immersed in it. 3. If the buoyant force on an object is greater than the weight of the object, the object will sink. 4. The buoyant force on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. 5. Archimedes principle states that pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted unchanged throughout the fluid. 6. As the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid increases. 7. Temperature and viscosity are inversely related; that is, higher temperature means lower viscosity. Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided. 8. A hydraulic machine can be used to lift extremely heavy objects. Why is the fluid in the hydraulic machine a liquid rather than a gas? 9. A block of wood is floating in water. The weight of the part of the block above water is onethird of the total weight of the block. What is the weight of the water displaced by the block of wood? Explain your answer in terms of Archimedes principle. 10. A passenger jet in the air increases its speed. Does the downward force of air on the top of the wings increase or decrease? Does the net lifting force of the air on the wings increase or decrease? Explain your answer. 30 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

8 3 Reinforcement Behavior of Gases Directions: Write the definitions for the following terms in the spaces provided. 1. Boyle s law 2. Charles s law 3. pressure 4. absolute zero Directions: Explain what will happen in each of the following cases. 5. If the temperature remains constant, what will happen to the pressure of a gas if you decrease the volume of the container that holds it? 6. If the volume of a container of gas remains constant, what will happen to the pressure of a gas if you increase temperature? Directions: Answer the following questions regarding temperature. 7. On the Kelvin scale, what is the freezing point of water? 8. On the Kelvin scale, what is the boiling point of water? 9. On the Celsius scale, what are the freezing and boiling points of water? Solids, Liquids, and Gases 31

9 1 Enrichment Bimetallic Strip When heated, different materials expand at different rates. A strip of metal can be made of brass and iron bonded together. This piece of metal is called a bimetallic strip, Figure 1. Figure 1 Brass Bimetallic Strip When heated, the brass and iron parts of a bimetallic strip expand. However, the brass expands more than the iron expands. This causes the strip to bend. 1. Why do you think the bimetallic strip bends? Iron 2. Figure 2 shows a bent bimetallic strip that has been heated. Label the diagram to indicate the brass side and the iron side. Figure 2 Figure 3 3. What do you think would happen when a bimetallic strip is cooled below room temperature? Explain your answer. 4. Figure 3 shows a bent bimetallic strip that has been cooled. Label the diagram to indicate the brass side and the iron side. 5. Bimetallic strips are used in many thermostats. Find out how a bimetallic strip works in a thermostat. a. b. c. d. 32 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

10 2 Enrichment How do airplanes fly? Look at the parts of the airplane below. The rudder of an airplane is the vertical part of the tail hinged to the fin (vertical stabilizer). Tipping the left wing down and turning the rudder to the left causes the airplane to turn left. Figure 1 Rudder Elevators Right aileron The pilot moves the rudder to turn the nose of the airplane. The elevators are hinged to the horizontal stabilizer. When the elevators are in the down position, air hits the elevators from the bottom. This pushes the tail up and the nose down. When the elevators are up, the opposite occurs. The pilot uses the elevators to raise or lower the plane s nose. Flaps on the wings are lowered to increase lift at low speeds. The positions of the flaps and elevators are critical for safe takeoffs and landings. Turning is done with the rudder and ailerons. When the aileron is up on one side, the wing lift decreases. The other aileron is down and lift increases. This causes the airplane to bank or tip. 21 cm Vertical stabilizer Horizontal stabilizer 27 cm Left aileron Flaps Right wing Figure 2 Tape here Cut flaps here Left wing Materials notebook paper or construction paper tape paper clips Procedure 1. Using Figure 2 as a guide, fold the corners of a sheet of paper at line 1 to the center line. Fold the airplane in half along the center, line 2 (fold up). Fold down along lines marked 3. Fold down along lines marked 4. Tape as shown in Figure In the gymnasium or outside, throw your airplane and let it glide. What are your observations? 3. Fly the plane with one, two, and three paper clips attached to the nose. What is the effect of the paper clips? 4. Fly the plane with the flaps down and then with the flaps up. What are your observations? 5. Fly the airplane with one flap down and one flap up. What are your observations? 6. Make the wings wider and fly the airplane. Then make the wings narrower and fly the airplane. What are your observations? 4 4 Solids, Liquids, and Gases 33

11 3 Enrichment Carbonated Beverages When you open a container of your favorite soft drink, what do you hear and see? Have you ever wondered why it went pop or why it fizzed? Carbon dioxide is added to the drink to give it a lively, tingling sensation. Inside that bottle or can is a lot of chemistry. Get information from a local soft drink maker or the library and answer the following questions. 1. What ingredients are in a soft drink? 2. How is carbon dioxide added to the water? 3. What happens in the space above the soft drink in a closed bottle or can as the soft drink warms to room temperature? 4. Why are bubbles released when the bottle or can is opened? 5. When a bottle or can of soft drink is opened, why does it pop? 34 Solids, Liquids, and Gasses

12 Note-taking Worksheet Solids, Liquids, and Gases Section 1 Kinetic Theory A. of matter solid, liquid, gas 1. theory explains how particles in matter behave a. All matter is composed of small. b. Particles are in constant, random. c. Particles with each other and walls of their containers. 2. total energy of a material s particles; causes particles to vibrate in place 3. Average kinetic energy of the substance, or how fast the particles are moving; the lower the temperature, the slower the particle motion 4. state particles are closely packed together in a specific type of geometric arrangement. 5. state a solid begins to liquefy at the melting point as the particles gain enough energy to overcome their ordered arrangement. a. Energy required to reach the melting point is called the heat of. b. Liquid particles have more space between them, allowing them to flow and take the shape of their container. 6. state a liquid s particles have enough energy to escape the attractive forces of the other particles in the liquid a. Heat of is the energy required for a liquid to change to a gas. b. At the, the pressure of a liquid s vapor is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere, and the liquid becomes a gas. c. Gas particles spread evenly throughout their container in the process of. 7. Heating curve of a liquid as a solid melts and a liquid vaporizes, the temperature remains ; the temperature will increase after the attractive forces of the earlier state have been overcome. 8. state of matter consisting of high-temperature gas with balanced positively and negatively charged particles. Solids, Liquids, and Gases 35

13 Note-taking Worksheet (continued) B. expansion increase in the size of a substance when the temperature increases 1. The size of a substance will then when the temperature decreases. 2. Expansion and contraction occur in solids, liquids, and gases. 3. is an exception because it expands as it becomes a solid. C. Some substances do not react as when changing states. 1. solids lack the tightly ordered structure found in crystals a. Do not have definite temperature at which they change from solid to liquid b. Glass, plastic 2. crystals do not lose their ordered arrangement completely upon melting; used in liquid crystal in watches, clocks, calculators, and some notebook computers. Section 2 Properties of Fluids A. ability of a fluid (liquid or gas) to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it 1. An object in a fluid will if its weight is less than the buoyant force acting on it from the fluid. 2. An object in a fluid will if its weight is more than the buoyant force acting on it from the fluid. 3. principle buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. 4. An object will float if its is less than the density of the fluid it is placed in. B. principle pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid 1. Pressure is exerted per unit area. 2. machines use this principle to lift heavy loads. C. principle as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases; airplanes use this principle to fly. 36 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

14 Note-taking Worksheet (continued) D. a liquid s resistance to flow 1. Molecular determines a fluid s viscosity. 2. Increased will lower viscosity. Section 3 Behavior of Gases A. is measured in a unit called a pascal (Pa). 1. of particles in air result in atmospheric pressure. 2. Moving particles colliding with the inside walls of a container result in pressure. B. Law relates pressure and volume 1. Volume decreases as increases. 2. Pressure decreases as increases. 3. Pressure multiplied by volume is always equal to a if the temperature is constant. C. Law relates volume and temperature 1. At a constant pressure, increases as temperature increases. 2. At a constant pressure, volume decreases as decreases. Solids, Liquids, and Gases 37

15 Chapter Review Solids, Liquids, and Gases Part A. Vocabulary Review Directions: Write the term that matches each description below in the spaces provided. Then unscramble the letters in the boxes to reveal the mystery term assumes matter is made of small particles in constant motion 2. the force which supports objects in fluids 3. temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid 4. equals F/A 5. form of matter found in lightning bolts, nuclear reactors, and stars 6. the reason a car s dashboard might crack when exposed to high temperatures 7. defined as the point at which a liquid s vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure 8. SI unit of pressure 9. energy released as a gas changes to a liquid 10. property of fluids which enables ships and balloons to float 11. random spreading of molecules 12. a fluid s resistance to flow 13. Mystery term: Assessment Solids, Liquids, and Gases 39

16 Chapter Review (continued) Part B Concept Review Directions: Match each theory, principle, or law in Column II with its description in Column I. Write the letter of the correct term in the blank at the left. Column I Column II 1. All matter is made of small particles that are in motion. 2. If the volume of a container of gas is decreased, the pressure on the gas will increase if the temperature does not change. 3. The volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature provided the pressure does not change. 4. The buoyant force on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid the object displaces. 5. Pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted unchanged throughout the fluid. 6. As the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases. Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided. 7. What are two properties of amorphous solids? a. Boyle s law b. Bernoulli s principle c. Pascal s principle d. kinetic theory of matter e. Charles s law f. Archimedes principle Assessment 8. In terms of thermal expansion, why is water unusual? 9. Why does water behave in this unusual fashion? 10. Why does water s boiling point decrease with increases in elevation? 40 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

17 1 Section Focus Transparency Activity Water Works Sculptors use a variety of materials to create their works of art. Those who sculpt marble or wood expect their work to last for many years. Ice sculptors, on the other hand, know that the Sun will soon turn their intricate works into pools of water. Transparency Activities 1. What happens to molecules of water as ice melts? 2. Why does snow melt when you hold it in your hand? 3. What happens when water boils? 46 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

18 2 Section Focus Transparency Activity The Deepest Dive Ever This is a type of deep-sea submersible called a bathyscaph. Named the Trieste, this submersible set the record for deep dives in The record setting dive took place in the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean where the Trieste reached a depth of 10,916 m. 1. Of what material are submarines usually made? Does this material float? 2. What aspect of a boat might help it float even when it is made of a material that does not? 3. How might a submersible control its rate of ascent and descent? Transparency Activities Solids, Liquids, and Gases 47

19 3 Section Focus Transparency Activity One Small Step From a farm in Massachusetts, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid powered rocket in Using liquid oxygen and gasoline as propellants, the small rocket rose to 41 feet, arched over, and landed in a cabbage patch. The flight lasted only 2.5 seconds, yet it was the beginning of the rocket age. Transparency Activities 1. When you heat a liquid, what happens? 2. When you heat a gas, what will it do? 3. Why do you think gases are cooled to a liquid state for use in rocket fuel? 48 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

20 Teaching Transparency Activity 1 Structure of a Solid, Liquid, and Gas Transparency Activities Solids, Liquids, and Gases 49

21 Teaching Transparency Activity (continued) 1. What are the four states of matter? 2. How do the positions of the particles in a solid compare with the positions of the particles in an equal volume of liquid? 3. What do we call the amount of energy required to change from a liquid to a gas? 4. What do we call the temperature at which a solid begins to liquefy? 5. How does decreasing the temperature of a liquid change the particles that make up the liquid? 6. What causes the particles in a solid to vibrate? Transparency Activities 7. What is heat of fusion? 50 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

22 Assessment Transparency Activity Solids, Liquids, and Gases Directions: Carefully review the table and answer the following questions. Temperature of Water Samples ( C) Time (minutes) Beaker A (25 ml) Beaker B (50 ml) Beaker C (100 ml) Beaker D (200 ml) The temperature of the water in each beaker is recorded every few minutes. Which variable is being investigated? A the size of the beaker C the volume of water heated B the temperature of the room D the air pressure in the room 2. About how much longer did it take the water in Beaker D to reach its boiling point than the water in Beaker A? F 5 minutes G 7 minutes H 8 minutes J 10 minutes 3. The table was used to record data from an experiment. Which of the following statements is a likely hypothesis for this experiment? A The time required to boil water determines the boiling point. B Boiling water in different containers produces different boiling points. C Different thermometers give different boiling points. D Increasing the volume also increases the time needed to reach the boiling point. Transparency Activities Solids, Liquids, and Gases 51

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