Name Date Class. As you read about the properties of air, fill in the detail boxes that explain the main idea in the graphic organizer below.

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1 Name Date Class The Atmosphere Guided Reading and Study Air Pressure This section describes several properties of air, including density and air pressure. The section also explains how air pressure is measured and how it changes with altitude. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about the properties of air, fill in the detail boxes that explain the main idea in the graphic organizer below. Main Idea Because air has mass, it also... Detail Detail a. b. Introduction 1. Suppose that you are not carrying anything on your back. Why do your shoulders still have pressure on them? Properties of Air 2. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about air. a. Air has mass because it is composed of atoms and molecules. b. Because air has mass, it has density and pressure. c. The more molecules in a given volume of air, the greater its density. d. The greater the density of air, the less pressure it exerts.

2 The Atmosphere Name Date Class The Atmosphere Guided Reading and Study 3. Complete the cause-and-effect table to show the relationship among mass, volume, and density. CAUSE EFFECT If mass and volume then density increases stays the same, a. b. stays the same, decreases. stays the same decreases, c. stays the same d. decreases. e. Use the information in the table to write one or two sentences about the relationship among mass, volume, and density. Measuring Air Pressure 4. An instrument that is used to measure air pressure is a(n). 5. What is the difference between how air pressure is indicated in a mercury barometer and an aneroid barometer? 6. Draw a line on the glass tube to show where the level of the mercury might be if the air pressure fell. Mercury Air pressure Air pressure

3 Name Date Class The Atmosphere Guided Reading and Study 7. Two different units used to measure air pressure are and. 8. If the air pressure is 30 inches, how many millibars of air pressure are there? _ Altitude and the Properties of Air 9. Another word for elevation, or distance above sea level, is _. 10. Is the following sentence true or false? Air pressure increases as altitude increases. 11. Is the following sentence true or false? As air pressure decreases, so does air density. 12. Why is air pressure greater at sea level than at the top of a mountain? 13. Is the following sentence true or false? As altitude increases, so does air density. 14. Explain why mountain climbers sometimes bring tanks of oxygen along with them on their climbs. 15. Circle the letter of the sentence that helps explain why you would have more difficulty breathing at high altitudes than at sea level. a. Air pressure is higher at high altitudes. b. Density of the air is greater at high altitudes. c. The percentage of oxygen in the air is lower at high altitudes. d. The amount of oxygen in each breath is less at high altitudes.

4 The Atmosphere Name Date Class The Atmosphere Section Summary Air Pressure Key Concepts What are some of the properties of air? What instruments are used to measure air pressure? How does increasing altitude affect air pressure and density? Air consists of atoms and molecules that have mass. Therefore, air has mass. Because air has mass, it also has other properties, including density and pressure. The amount of mass in a given volume of air is its density. The force pushing on an area or surface is called pressure. Air pressure is the result of the weight of a column of air pushing down on an area. The molecules in air push in all directions. This is why air pressure doesn t crush objects. A barometer is an instrument that is used to measure air pressure. Two common kinds of barometers are mercury barometers and aneroid barometers. A mercury barometer consists of a glass tube open at the bottom end and partially filled with mercury. The open end of the tube rests in a dish of mercury, and the space above the mercury in the tube contains almost no air. The air pressure pushing down on the surface of the mercury in the dish is equal to the weight of the column of mercury in the tube. At sea level, the mercury column is about 76 centimeters high, on average. An aneroid barometer has an airtight metal chamber that is sensitive to changes in air pressure. The thin walls of the chamber flex in and out as air pressure changes, and the movements are recorded on a dial. In weather reports, air pressure usually is given in inches of mercury. National Weather Service maps indicate air pressure in millibars. One inch of mercury equals millibars. Altitude, or elevation, is the distance above sea level. Air pressure decreases as altitude increases. As air pressure decreases, so does density. Sea-level air has the weight of the whole atmosphere pressing on it, so air pressure is highest at sea level. Air pressure is much lower at the tops of mountains. There the low density of air can make it hard to breathe because there is less oxygen in each cubic meter of air.

5 The Atmosphere Name Date Class The Atmosphere Review and Reinforce Air Pressure Understanding Main Ideas Study the figure below, and then complete the following statements. 1. Altitude is greater at point. 2. Air pressure is greater at point. 3. Density of the air is greater at point. A 4. A cubic meter of air has less mass at point. 5. The percentage of oxygen in the air at point A is about percent. B 6. State three properties of air. 7. Why doesn t air pressure crush objects such as your desk? _ 8. What two units of air pressure are commonly used in weather reports? _ Building Vocabulary Match each term with its definition by writing the letter of the correct definition on the line beside the term. 9. air pressure 10. altitude 11. aneroid barometer 12. barometer 13. density 14. mercury barometer 15. pressure a. the amount of mass in a given volume of air b. force pushing on an area or surface c. the result of the weight of a column of air pushing down on an area d. any instrument that measures air pressure e. instrument that measures air pressure using liquid mercury f. the distance above sea level g. instrument that measures air pressure without using a liquid

6 Name Date Class The Atmosphere Enrich Isobars and Air Pressure Air pressure is an important factor affecting weather. Changes in air pressure help weather forecasters predict how the weather will change. Falling air pressure usually indicates stormy weather. Rising air pressure means that the weather is clearing. Air pressure readings from barometers are shown on weather maps, like the one below, with lines called isobars. Isobars are drawn to connect areas that have the same air pressure New York 1004 Los Angeles Refer to the map to complete the following statements. 1.Each isobar differs from the next isobar by millibars. 2.The lowest air pressure reading on the map is millibars. 3.Where this low pressure occurs, the weather is likely to be _. 4.The highest air pressure reading on the map is millibars. 5.This high-pressure area is likely to be experiencing weather. 6.An area of air pressure is centered northwest of Chicago. 7.The air pressure in Chicago is about millibars. 8.The air pressure in Los Angeles is about millibars. 9.The air pressure in New York City is about millibars. 10.Most of Florida has a barometric pressure between about 1008 millibars and millibars.

7 The Atmosphere Name Date Class The Atmosphere Skills Lab Working Under Pressure Measuring Air pressure changes are related to changing weather conditions. In this lab, you will build and use your own barometer to measure air pressure. Problem How can a barometer detect changes in air pressure? Materials modeling clay white glue pencil metric ruler large rubber balloon drinking straw, cm long cardboard strip, 10 cm 25 cm scissors tape wide-mouthed glass jar rubber band Procedure Review the safety guidelines in Appendix A. 1. Cut off the narrow opening of the balloon. 2. Fold the edges of the balloon outward. Carefully stretch the balloon over the open end of the glass jar. Use a rubber band to hold the balloon on the rim of the glass jar. 3. Place a small amount of glue on the center of the balloon top. Attach one end of the straw to the glue. Allow the other end to extend several centimeters beyond the edge of the glass jar. This is your pointer. 4. While the glue dries, fold the cardboard strip lengthwise and draw a scale along the edge with marks 0.5 cm apart. Write High pressure at the top of your scale and Low pressure at the bottom. 5. After the glue dries, add a pea-sized piece of modeling clay to the end of the pointer. Place your barometer and its scale in a location that is as free from temperature changes as possible. Arrange the scale and the barometer as shown in the diagram in your textbook. Note that the pointer of the straw must just reach the cardboard strip.

8 Name Date Class The Atmosphere Skills Lab Working Under Pressure (continued) 6. Tape both the scale and the barometer to a surface so they do not move during your experiment. 7. In your notebook, make a data table, or use the one below. Record the date and time. Note the level of the straw on the cardboard strip. 8. Check the barometer twice a day. Record your observations in your data table. 9. Record the weather conditions for at least three days. Data Table Date and Time Air Pressure Weather Conditions Analyze and Conclude Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Interpreting Data What change in atmospheric conditions must occur to cause the free end of the straw to rise? What change must occur for it to fall? 2. Drawing Conclusions Based on your observations, what kind of weather is usually associated with high air pressure? With low air pressure? 3. Communicating Write a paragraph in which you discuss what effect, if any, a large temperature change might have on the accuracy of your barometer. More to Explore Compare your pressure readings with high and low air pressure readings shown on newspaper weather maps during the same period. How do your readings compare with those in the newspapers?

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