1 Barbara St. Marie, PhD Candidate Nurse Practitioner Supervisor Pain and Palliative Care Fairview Ridges Hospital Minneapolis, MN
2 Pain Physiology Objectives: Explain how pain is transmitted through the body Peripheral nervous system Central nervous system Match pharmacological approaches to pain processes
3 Pain Process Definition of pain process: The neural mechanisms by which pain is perceived involves a process that has four major steps: Transduction Transmission Perception Modulation
4 Transduction Definition: A conversion of a mechanical thermal chemical stimulus to a neuronal action potential
5 Facilitating Transduction Biochemical mediators: Chemical Soup Prostaglandins Bradykinins Serotonin Histamines Cytokines Leukotrienes Substance P Norepinephrine
6 Tissue Injury Tissue injury causes release of inflammatory pain mediators resulting in peripheral sensitization Sensitization results in more frequent action potential along nociceptive neurons. Threshold for activation of nociceptor neurons is decreased at the synapse level Hyper excitable transmission occurs Central sensitization results from prolonged pain
7 Peripheral Excitatory Mediators Substance Substance P (SP) Prostaglandin (PG) Bradykinin Receptor NK 1 (Pain) Mechanism neuronal excitability, edema? Sensitize nociceptors, inflammation, edema B 2 (normal) B 1 (inflammation) Sensitize nociceptors PG production Histamine H 1 C-fiber activation, edema, vasodilatation Serotonin 5-HT 3 C-fiber activation, release SP Norepinephrine (NE) 1 Sensitize nociceptors Activate nociceptors
8 NSAIDs Mechanism of Action Arachidonic acid COX 1 (constitutive ) NSAIDs COX 2 (inducible) Prostaglandins Prostaglandins GI cytoprotection Platelet activity Renal function Inflammation Pain Fever COX = Cyclooxygenase; NSAID = Nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug; GI = Gastrointestinal. Adapted from Solomon GD. In Tollison CD, Satterthwaite JR, Tollison JW, eds. Practical Pain Management, 3rd edition. Philadelphia, PA:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002:
9 Cyclooxygenase inhibitors COX found in all tissues, encourages synthesis of prostaglandins COX 1: present in all tissues, protects gastric mucosa, supports renal function, promotes platelet aggregation (good) COX 2: at site of tissue injury & brain Mediates inflammation, pain, fever response (bad)
10 Nonsteroidal Anti inflammatory Drugs NSAIDs) Inhibit both COX 1 & 2 Initial analgesic effect 1 hour Maximum anti inflammatory effect 2 wks Uses rheumatoid arthritis, OA, pain, fever, bursitis, tendonitis ADRs GI upset, ulceration, bleeding, renal failure, anaphylaxis
11 Nonsteroidal Anti inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Prostaglandin mediated sensitization in cutaneous terminals of primary afferent nociceptors may be blocked by aspirin, diclofenac and indomethacin Diclofenac (Flector) 1.5% transdermal bid FDA approved for treatment of acute pain associated with sprain and strains Diclofenac (Solaraze) 3% solution bid FDA approved for actinic keratosis Ketoprofen 10% gel TID off label use Some efficacy noted in literature Compounded by pharmacy Reference: J. Pain Symptom Manage, 33:356 64, 2007
15 Transmission of pain Defined as: Projection of pain into the Central Nervous System
17 Peripheral Nerves: Transmission of Action Potential myelin Na+ A K+ A C peripheral nerve spinal cord
21 Figure 4. Ion exchange along the neuronal membrane creating action potential.
22 Transmission A synapse contains three elements: the presynaptic terminal the synaptic cleft the receptive membrane
24 Transmission The presynaptic terminal is the axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron Here that the presynaptic neuron releases neurotransmitters which are found in vesicles
26 Capsaicin Hot peppers May deplete & prevent reaccumulation of substance P in primary afferent neurons responsible for transmitting painful impulses from peripheral sites to the CNS. Absorption, distribution, metabolism & excretion, half life unknown May produce transient burning with application, usually disappears in 2 4 days, but may persist for several weeks.
27 Transmission The synaptic cleft is the narrow intercellular space between neurons. Neurotransmitters cross the synaptic cleft and bind to specific receptors on the postsynaptic neurons This will excite or inhibit the postsynaptic neurons.
29 Transmission What stimulates the presynaptic neuron to release the transmitters? Neurotransmitters are amino acids (glutamate and GABA), acetylcholine, norepinephrine and serotonin. Larger molecules such as enkephalin and substance P serve as neurotransmitters.
31 Neurotransmitter activity Sodium ions flow into the postsynaptic neuron and excites or depolarizes the neuron Chloride ions flow into a neuron and inhibits or hyperpolarizes the neuron Glutamate excites neurons GABA inhibits neurons
33 Muscle Pain Correlated with Lactic acid levels Lactic acid levels in the blood vessels of the muscle influence neuronal noxious stimuli What might that tell us about intervening with muscle pain?
35 Peripheral Nervous System Two divisions Autonomic division Regulates body function sympathetic parasympathetic
36 Autonomic Divisions Sympathetic system Release of norepinephrine Increase BP Increase pulse Increase respirations Vasoconstriction Decrease GI motility
37 Autonomic Divisions Parasympathetic system Acetylcholine Decrease BP Decrease pulse Decrease respirations Vasodilatation Increase GI motility
39 Ascending Facilitation of Pain Nociceptive impulses proceed into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (mainly in laminae I through laminae V) Secondary neurons in the laminae become excited and send the impulse to brain via chemical transmission Pain is perceived after nociceptive information reaches the cerebral cortex
40 Ascending fibers
41 Intraspinal Noxious Stimuli Received by receptor neurons through the anterolateral system of the spinal cord. Dorsal root ganglion (to Lissauer s tract) Small diameter fibers terminate at laminae I, II, and V. Substantia gelatinosa (laminae II) opioid receptors
42 Intraspinal Noxious Stimuli The laminae in the dorsal horn Projection to the brain stem Projection to the Thalamus
44 Sensory Stimuli from Spinal Neurons At each vertebral body level, nerve roots exit from the spinal cord bilaterally. Specific skin surface areas are innervated by a single spinal nerve or group of spinal nerves. These skin area are called dermatomes
45 Perception Review: Impulses go through the postsynaptic junction Cross the dorsal horn To the spinothalamic tract
47 Perception Axons in the spinothalamic tract synapse in three nuclei of the thalamus Ventral posterior lateral nucleus Ventromedial posterior nucleus Medial dorsal nucleus Each play role in pain perception
49 Ventral Posterior Lateral Nucleus These neurons project to the primary somatic sensory cortex
50 Ventromedial Posterior Nucleus These neurons project to the insular cortex important in behavioral and autonomic responses to pain important to emotions and memories of pain Mediates pain perception Projects into the limbic system (emotional center)
51 Medial Dorsal Nucleus Neurons project to the cingulate cortex Mediates the emotional responses to pain
52 Descending Pathway Mediates voluntary and involuntary motor control Regulates somatic sensory processing Regulates the autonomic nervous system
53 Descending Pathway Anatomic path From cerebral cortex Brain stem To dorsal horn Pain inhibition Enkephalin excites inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn
56 Anandamine Binds to the cannabinoid (CB 1 ) receptor CB 1 receptors are located the hippocampus, cerebellum, and the limbic and mesocortical systems Endocannabinoids and CB 1 receptor distributions are not always equal in their locations.
57 Endocannibinoids Found in most brain function Equal balance between endocannibinoids and their receptors occur (Fride, 2005) Role in brain plasticity leading to long term effects on movement and coordination habit formation reward and addiction
58 Cannabinoid & Opioid Synergism Combination cannabinoid opioid therapy maybe effective for neuropathic pain The two systems may work synergistically in converging brain pathways. The cannabinoids have a distinct mechanism of action, targeting ubiquitous cannabinoid (CB) receptors in the central nervous system and periphery Opioid analgesics less effective for neuropathic pain
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