UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON EDUCATION & PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATIONS 2014/2015 COGNITIVE & BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES MODULE NO: PSC4003

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1 [EDP 005] UNIVERSITY OF BOLTON EDUCATION & PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY SEMESTER 1 EXAMINATIONS 2014/2015 COGNITIVE & BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES MODULE NO: PSC4003 Date: Wednesday 21 st January, 2015 Time: 2.00pm 4.00pm (2 hours) INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES: Candidates are advised that the examiners attach importance to legibility of writing and clarity of expression. YOU ARE STRONGLY ADVISED TO PLAN YOUR ANSWERS. There are SIXTY questions on this exam paper Answer ALL questions in each section. All questions carry equal marks. Complete your answers on the answer sheet provided.

2 Page 2 of 11 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY (ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS) 1. Which of the following most commonly investigates the abilities and deficits of neurological patients with brain lesions in order to understand normal cognitive processes? a) Comparative b) Experimental c) Neuropsychology d) Computational Modelling 2. The emergence of Cognitive was a consequence of: a) Behaviourism b) Freudian theory c) Information processing approach to psychology d) Gestalt 3. One of the guiding assumptions of Cognitive is that: a) Information processing is unlimited b) Perception is exclusively data-driven c) Perception is exclusively concept-driven d) None of the above 4. What type of information processing takes place when a number of cognitive processes occur simultaneously during one task? a) Serial b) Bottom up c) Top down d) Parallel 5. What type of processing occurs when prior knowledge and expectations, instead of present stimuli, influence cognitive processes? a) Parallel b) Top down c) Serial d) Bottom up

3 Page 3 of How does computational modelling differ from artificial intelligence? a) Computational modelling mimics human cognitive functioning, and artificial intelligence does not b) Artificial intelligence mimics human cognitive functioning, and computational modelling does not c) Artificial intelligence and computational modelling are two terms for the same approach d) Computational modelling relies on verbal models, whereas artificial intelligence relies on computer programming 7. The Stroop Task is an example that: a) Words printed in colours other than black are more difficult to process b) It is easy to process information in a controlled way c) It is easier to read colour words if they are printed in an incongruent colour d) Reading interferes with more controlled cognitive processes 8. According to Broadbent (1958), the initial analysis of auditory stimuli is conducted by: a) The template-matching system b) The perceptual system c) The sensory system 9. According to Treisman s (1964) theory of selective attention, what happens to unattended information? a) It is processed semantically b) It is attenuated c) It is filtered d) Both a and b 10. According to Craik and Tulving (1975), depth of processing results in: a) Decreased recall b) Increased recall c) No differences in recall d) None of the above 11. Which Memory process will be affected when attempting to memorise auditory stimuli contaminated with noise? a) Retrieval b) Storage c) Encoding d) Consolidation

4 Page 4 of By what name is the Atkinson and Shiffrin s (1968) model of Memory, which suggested the existence of multiple memory stores, commonly referred to? a) Computational b) Modal c) Factorial d) Serial 13. What was the function of the tone emitted after briefly presenting a matrix of letters in Sperling s (1960) experiment? a) Creating an interference with visual memory b) Cueing participants regarding categories of stimuli c) Informing participants on which line they should recall d) Preventing rehearsal 14. The primacy effect refers to a benefit regarding the recall of: a) Stimuli presented early in a study list b) Stimuli presented at the end of a study list c) Stimuli primed by a clustering cue d) Stimuli presented in the dominant visual field 15. In Memory, rehearsal is a process associated with: a) The recency effect b) Facilitate the transfer of information to a permanent store c) Maintain items in the short term store 16. Executive Function refers to the processes involved in: a) Controlling and regulating other Cognitive abilities and behaviours b) Allow information processing to go beyond present stimuli c) Synchronise the activity of other cognitive processes 17. The situations in which Executive Function are crucially required are better described as situations requiring: a) Well-learned behaviours b) Cognitive flexibility c) Controlled processing d) Both b and c 18. Which brain region is associated with Executive Function? a) The Superior Temporal Cortex b) The Inferior Parietal Cortex c) The Pre-frontal Cortex

5 Page 5 of According to Norman and Shallice (1986), what is the role of the Supervisory Attentional System? a) Refresh stored information regarding the present task s demands b) Modulate the activity level of Schema Control Units c) Re-experience a physiological state associated with a given behaviour 20. According to Conrad s (1964) and Baddeley s (1966) results, in which format is information coded in short-term memory? a) Visually b) Spatially c) Phonologically d) Semantically 21. Miller s (1958) study suggests a storage capacity of 7 minus or plus 2 items for which memory storage? a) Sensory Memory b) Short-term Memory c) Long-term Memory d) Semantic Memory 22. According to Baddeley and Hitch s (1974) model of Working Memory, which of the following is responsible for encoding and storing visually presented information? a) The Central Executive b) The Phonological Loop c) The Visuo-spatial Sketchpad d) None of the above 23. According to Gregory s (1966, 1970) Constructivist Theory, visual perception is based on: a) Data-driven information b) Conceptual-driven information c) Both d) None 24. Visual illusions based on ambiguous stimuli such as the Necker Cube are better accounted for by: a) Gibson s Direct Theory b) Gregory s Constructivist Theory c) Damásio s Somatic Marker Hypothesis d) None of the above

6 Page 6 of According to Marr s (1982) Computational Theory of Visual Perception, at which stage of object recognition is the representation independent from the viewer s perspective? a) Raw Image b) Primal Sketch c) 2 ½ D Sketch d) 3 D Model 26. According to Gestalt s laws of perceptual organisation, we tend to: a) Organise perception in terms of constituent parts b) Organise perception into meaningful wholes c) Organise perception randomly 27. Template-matching models of object recognition suggest that, in order to recognise objects, we: a) Compare whole image of object to stored representations of whole object b) Compare details of object to stored representations of object s details c) Compare features of object to stored representation of defining features of objects d) None of the above 28. Biederman s (1987) Recognition by Components Model of Visual Perception suggests that object recognition is achieved by means of comparing: a) The whole object with a stored representation of the whole object b) Parts of the object with a stored representation of parts of that object c) Parts of objects and their spatial relationships with a stored representation of parts of objects and their spatial relationships d) Both a and b 29. Which of the following models of Executive Function is supported by human physiological data? a) The Working Memory Model b) The Supervisory Attentional Model c) The Somatic Marker Hypothesis 30. The central objective of Cognitive is the study of: a) Observable behaviour b) Mental processes c) Neural networks d) Learning and Memory

7 Page 7 of 11 BIOPSYCHOLOGY (ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS) ( NS= nervous system NT = neurotransmitter) 1. One theory of schizophrenia is that it is caused by: a) An excess of ach b) A lack of serotonin c) A lack of dopamine d) An excess of dopamine 2. The pons is located in the: a) Mid brain b) Peripheral NS c) Hindbrain d) Forebrain 3. The hippocampus is part of the a) Sympathetic NS b) Limbic system c) Cerebellum d) Motor system 4. The following is not a lobe in the brain a) Frontal b) Central c) Parietal d) Occipital 5. The two hemispheres of the brain are connected by the : a) Cingulate Cortex b) Corpus callosum c) Thalamus d) Cerebellum 6. The primary visual cortex is located in the: a) Occipital lobe b) Limbic lobe c) Optic nerve d) Frontal lobe

8 Page 8 of The nodes of Ranvier are located a) On the dendrites b) In the thalamus c) On the axon d) On the cell body 8. The transmission of an action potential is achieved by a) Glial cells b) Propagation c) Regeneration d) Dopamine 9. At resting potential which positive ion is more prevalent outside the axon? a) Potassium b) Oxygen c) Sodium d) Chlorine 10. One function glial cells don't do is: a) Create myelin b) Create neurotransmitters c) Form scar tissue d) Remove waste 11. The resting potential is maintained by the: a) Sodium-potassium pump b) Chlorine ion pump c) Action potential pump d) Nitric oxide pump 12. Multiple sclerosis is a: a) Frontal syndrome b) Vitamin deficiency c) Demylenating disease d) Spinal dysfunction 13. An excitatory post synaptic potential causes the neuron to : a) Hyperpolarise b) Neutralise c) Depolarise d) Excytosis

9 Page 9 of The main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS is: a) Glutamate b) ACh c) 5-HT d) GABA 15. Re-uptake is a means of : a) Recycling NT's b) Making NT's c) Destroying NT's d) Releasing NT's 16. Once NT's bind they usually: a) Open ion gates on the post- synaptic membrane b) Diffuse into the postsynaptic membrane c) Go into an action potential d) Stop neuronal activity 17. The main NT at the neuromuscular junction is: a) Dopamine b) Serotonin c) Acetylcholine d) GABA 18. Sensory neurons enter which part of the spinal column? a) Lateral b) Dorsal c) Ventral d) Medial 19. The majority of pyramidal fibres come from the: a) Sensory cortex b) Visual cortex c) Neocortex d) Motor cortex

10 Page 10 of Apraxia is a deficit in: a) Reading b) Writing c) Movement d) Listening 21. The substantia nigra is connected to the : a) Limbic system b) Basal Ganglia c) Cerebellum d) Visual cortex 22. A reflexive action relies upon: a) An interneuron in the spine b) The motor cortex c) The neuromuscular junction d) Skin cells 23. Monoamine Oxidase... a) Is a NT b) Creates Nts c) Binds to the post synaptic receptor d) Breaks down NT's 24. A drug that increases the effect of a NT is a: a) Stimulant b) Agonist c) Antagonist d) Enzyme 25. The action of amphetamine causes an: a) Increase in emotions b) Increase in GABA c) Increase in dopamine d) Increase in serotonin 26. Benzodiazepines bind to: a) Nicotine receptors b) GABA receptors c) ACh receptors d) Ion gates in general

11 Page 11 of Haloperidol is a a) Dopamine agonist b) Sedative c) Dopamine antagonist d) Dopamine precursor 28. Which of the following is not a usual symptom of schizophrenia? a) Thought disorders b) Delusions c) Violent behaviour d) Hallucinations 29. Schizophrenia is differentiated from normal development by a) The rate of myelination b) The rate of grey matter loss c) White matter volume d) Inaffective action potentials 30. Neuronal dysfunction is often seen in which brain area in schizophrenia? a) Fusiform gyrus b) Sensory cortex c) Frontal cortex d) Thalamus End of questions

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