1 Nervous Tissue Chapter 12 Overview of the Nervous System Cells of the Nervous System Electrophysiology of Neurons Synapses
2 Subdivisions of the Nervous System Two major anatomical subdivisions: Central Nervous System (CNS) the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) nerves and ganglia outside of the CNS. (Ganglia are clusters of neurons)
4 Functional Divisions of PNS Sensory (Afferent) Division brings visceral (thoracic and abdominal organs) and somatic (skeletal muscle, skin, bone and joints) sensory information into the CNS Motor (Efferent) Division sends out information from the CNS. visceral motor division (Autonomic NS) innervates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands sympathetic division (active, arousing responses) parasympathetic division (calming, maintenance functions like digestion) somatic motor division innervates skeletal muscle voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
5 Types of Neurons Sensory Neurons (afferent neurons) receptors that detect changes in the external environment and within the body (temperature, pressure, vibrations, light, chemicals) this information is transmitted into brain or spinal cord Interneurons (association neurons) positioned between sensory neurons and motor neurons in the CNS 90% of human neurons are interneurons interneurons process, store and retrieve information Motor Neurons (efferent neurons) send signals out to muscles and glands
6 Types of Neurons
7 Characteristics of Neurons Excitation (irritability) cells respond to changes in the body and external environment (the cells respond to stimuli) Conduction cells produce signals that travel from cell to cell Secretion when a signal reaches the end of an axon, a chemical neurotransmitter is released
8 Structure of a Neuron Cell Body (Soma) Axon Hillock Initial Segment Axon Dendrites Nissl (clumps of RER) Schwann Cells Nodes of Ranvier Terminal Arborization Terminal Bouttons
9 Dr. Franz Nissl ( ) was born in Germany, he gravitated to medicine and as a student in Munich he wrote on pathology of cortical cells in which he used a stain he created which opened up a new era in neurocytology and neuropathology. Nissl Granules brought out by basic aniline stains perpetuate his name."but he also did outstanding work in psychiatry and demonstrated the correlation of nerves and mental disease by relating them to changes in glial cells, blood elements, blood vessels, and brain tissue in general. He worked with Alzheimer on general paresis. In the last 10 years of his life he did studies in which he established connections between the cortex and certain thalamic nuclei.
10 Axon Hillock
12 Neurons and Glia immunofluorescent preparation
13 Neuron Morphologies Multipolar Neuron many dendrites one axon that may brach most common type of neuron Bipolar Neuron one dendrite one axon olfactory, retina, inner ear Unipolar Neuron only one process comes off soma also called pseudounipolar neurons sensory from skin and organs to spinal cord
14 Neuroglia Neuroglia are cells other than neurons in the nervous system (90% of cells in the CNS are glia, but they only account for 50% of the volume of the CNS). Many Schwann Cells cover each axon in the PNS. Each Oligodendrocyte covers parts of multiple axons in the CNS. Astrocytes most abundant glial cells - form framework of CNS form an important part of the blood-brain barrier by separating neurons from capillaries help regulate the composition of brain tissue intercellular fluid can produce action potentials like neurons Ependymal Cells form a ciliated simple columnar epithelium that lines cavities in the CNS and circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Microglia are bone marrow derived macrophages that move into the CNS and concentrate in areas of infection, trauma or stroke.
16 Neuroglia of the Central Nervous System
17 Ventricles of the Human Brain
19 Myelin Sheath Myelin is formed by multiple wrappings of a glial cell membrane around an axon. Myelin is formed by oligodendrocytes in the CNS and by Schwann cells in the PNS. Myelination takes place during development of the nervous system. Wrappings of glial cell plasma membrane are about 20% protein and 80% lipid and make the axons look shiny white. Not all axons are myelinated, but all axons are covered by glial cells. Schwann cells hold short unmyelinated axons in grooves with only one membrane wrapping. Gaps between myelin segments are called Nodes of Ranvier these gaps are extremely small spaces where two myelin segments meet.
24 Electrical Potentials and Currents Nerve pathways are not continuous wires but a series of separate cells that relay signals. Neuronal communication is based on mechanisms for producing electrical potentials and currents. electrical potential - difference in concentration of charged ions across a membrane measured in millivolts (mv) electrical current - flow of ions across a membrane measured in milliamps (ma) Living cells have polarized membranes. Ions are maintained by the cell at different concentrations inside and outside of the cells. Membrane polarity of a resting (inactive) neuron is about - 70 mv because of a relatively negative charge inside of the cell compared to the outside of the cell.
25 Electrical potentials of living cells are measured using a sensitive voltmeter with tiny glass electrodes. One electrode is placed inside the cell (intracellular) and one electrode is placed just outside the cell (extracellular).
26 Neurophysiologists make extremely thin glass recording electrodes from glass tubes with instruments that precisely control the heat and tension on the tube. These hollow glass needles are then filled with a conducting salt solution. note: a sheet of paper is about 100 m thick!
27 Resting Membrane Potential (RMP) RMP is a voltage difference across the membrane of an inactive neuron and is usually about -70 mv. RMP is caused by: unequal ion distribution between Extracellular Fluid (ECF) and the Intracellular Fluid (ICF) caused by selective permeability of plasma membrane and active transport. Na + /K + pumps transport Na + and K + in a 3:2 ratio 3 Na + out of the neuron and 2 K + into the neuron pumps work continuously and require ATP high use of ATP means glucose and oxygen must be supplied continuously to nerve tissue large cytoplasmic anions do not escape (anionic proteins, PO 4 2-, SO 4 2- ) so inside of cell is negative.
29 Local Potentials Dendrite and soma membranes start to depolarize in a particular location when a neuron is stimulated by ligands (hormones or neurotransmitters from another cell), light, heat or a mechanical disturbance. membrane depolarizes due to opening of gated Na + channels that let Na + rush in according to its concentration and electrical gradients Local Potentials: are graded (vary in magnitude with stimulus strength) are decremental (get weaker the farther they spread) are reversible (as K + leaks out of cell and the Na + /K + pump works to restore membrane polarity) can lead to an action potential
31 Generation of a Local Membrane Potential
32 Summation of Depolarizations from Local Potentials can lead to an Action Potential Local depolarizing potentials are excitatory. Local potentials that bring the cell closer to threshold are called EPSPs (excitatory postsynaptic potentials). Depolarization must reach a threshold to trigger an action potential Local hyperpolarizing potentials would be inhibitory.
34 Postsynaptic Potentials Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) cause a positive voltage change in the postsynaptic cell making it more likely to fire (depolarize). result from Na + flowing into the cell noradrenaline and glutamate are excitatory neurotransmitters Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSP) cause a voltage change in the postsynaptic cell that makes it less likely to fire because it is hyperpolarized. results from Cl - flowing into the cell or K + leaving the cell glycine and GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) are examples of inhibitory neurotransmitters Some neurotransmitters, like ACh and norepinephrine, can be either excitatory or inhibitory depending on the type of membrane receptor it binds to.
35 Excitatory (a) and Inhibitory (b) Postsynaptic Potentials
36 Summation of Postsynaptic Potentials Temporal Summation occurs when a single cell receives many EPSPs in a short period of time. Spatial Summation occurs when a single cell receives many EPSPs from more than one presynaptic cell.
37 Summation of EPSP s brings a cell to Threshold
38 Summation of IPSP s Inhibit Neurons synapse Inhibitory Neuron I suppresses presynaptic neuron S by releasing an inhibitory neurotransmitter like glycine. Inhibitory neurotransmitters can block voltage-gated calcium channels and open K + channels in neuron S dropping its membrane potential so it will not release neurotransmitter onto neuron R.
39 Action Potential Action Potential plotted on a realistic timescale looks like a spike. Initial depolarization events are very subtle and happen very quickly. Characteristics of an AP follows an all-or-none law voltage gates either open or they don t irreversible (once started, it goes to completion and can not be stopped)
40 Action Potential at the Axon Hillock 1. Sodium influx due to local potential spreads to the high density of voltage-gated channels at the trigger zone (500 channels/ m 2 at hillock vs 50 channels/ m 2 on soma). 2. If threshold potential (-55mV) is reached, voltage-gated Na + channels open (more Na + enters causing more depolarization). 3. Voltage-gated Na + channels open quickly. Incoming Na + further depolarizes membrane which opens more Na + channels (positive feedback). Voltage gated K + channels slowly start to open. 4. Depolarization peaks at+35mv
41 Action Potential at the Axon Hillock 4. Na + channels are inactivated and close above 0mV. Membrane is now positive on the inside. 5. Voltage-gated K + channels fully open, K + diffuses out. K + outflow and the Na + /K + pump repolarize the membrane. 6. K + channels stay open longer than Na + channels so more K + leaves the cell and the membrane voltage hyperpolarizes below the resting potential. 7. Ion diffusion through K + leak channels in the membrane or astrocyte scavenging of K + from the interstitial fluid restores resting membrane potential.
42 Membrane Potential (mv) Phases of the Action Potential Phases of the Action Potential Time (milliseconds) TIME (msec) Phase Name of Phase Resting Membrane Graded Local Potential Depolarization Repolarization Hyperpolarization Na + /K + pump Na + out K + in Na + out K + in Na + out K + in Na + out K + in Na + out K + in K + leak channels K + out K + out K + out K + out K + out voltage-gated Na + channel Closed and ready to open Closed and ready to open Open Closed and not able to open Closed and ready to open voltage-gated K + channel Closed Closed Slowly opening Open Slowly Closing Ion primarily responsible for the membrane voltage K + (out) Na + (in) Na + (in) K + (out) K + (out) membrane channel(s) primarily responsible for membrane voltage Na + /K + pump K + leak channels ligand-gated Na + channels voltage-gated Na + channels voltage-gated K + channels voltage-gated K + channels Na + /K + pump
47 Membrane Potential (mv) Depolarization Repolarization Hyperpolarization 0 Time (milliseconds)
48 Saladin Text page 460: A traveling nerve signal is an electrical current, but it is not the same as a current traveling through a wire. A current in a wire travels millions of meters per second and is decremental it gets weaker with distance. A nerve signal is much slower (not more than 2m/sec in unmyelinated fibers), but is nondecrimental. Even in the longest axons, the last action potential generated at a synaptic knob has the same voltage as the first one generated at the trigger zone. We can compare the nerve signal to a burning fuse. When a fuse is lit, the heat ignites powder immediately in front of this point and this repeats itself in a selfpropagating fashion until the end of the fuse is reached. At the end, the fuse burns just as hotly as it did at the beginning. In a fuse the combustible powder is the source of potential energy that keeps the process going in a nondecremental fashion. In an axon, the potential energy comes from the ion gradient across the plasma membrane. Thus, the signal does not grow weaker with distance; it is selfpropagating, like the burning of a fuse.
49 Burning Fuse Myth Busters outrunning a gunpowder trail 8:37-9:25
50 The Refractory Period The Refractory Period is when a cell is resistant to stimulation. Assures one way conduction of the impulse because membrane channels are temporarily deactivated. No stimulus can start an action potential during the Absolute Refractory Period because the voltage-gated Na + channels are closed. Another action potential can be started by a stronger than normal stimulus because some voltage-gated Na + channels are reactivated.
51 The Refractory Period During the Refractory Period, voltage-gated Na + channels are inactivated by a protein tail that temporarily plugs the channel.
52 Impulse Conduction in Unmyelinated Fibers All healthy axons are covered by glial cells. Unmyelinated Axons are covered by a single layer of Schwann cell membrane (in the PNS) or oligodendrocyte membrane (in the CNS). Myelinated Axons are wrapped with many layers of glial cell membrane. Threshold voltage in the trigger zone (axon hillock) starts the impulse down the axon. Nerve signal (impulse) is a chain reaction of sequentially opening voltage-gated Na + channels down entire length of axon.
53 Impulse Conduction in Unmyelinated Fibers
54 Speed of Nerve Signals Signal speed depends on: diameter of the axon larger diameter = faster signal conduction because of increased membrane surface area for signal conduction myelination myelinated axons are faster because of saltatory conduction axons can be fast and thin (saves space) if they are myelinated Speeds: slow, unmyelinated fibers conduct at m/sec (1-4 mph) slow pain fibers (burning, aching, throbbing pain) from a sprain, sun burn or stubbing a toe take a relatively long time to reach the CNS and last a long time. fast, myelinated fibers conduct at 120 m/sec (268 mph) fast pain fibers (sharp, pricking pain like stepping on a thorn) are conducted to the CNS quickly to help prevent further injury fast signals are also to skeletal muscles or from sensory organs for vision and balance
55 Saltatory Conduction in Myelinated Fibers Voltage-gated channels at Nodes of Ranvier fewer than 25 per m 2 in myelin-covered regions up to 12,000 per m 2 in nodes of Ranvier Fast Na + diffusion into axon occurs between nodes depolarizing the membrane and generating a local current flow that quickly spreads to the next node.
56 Saltatory Conduction in Myelinated Fiber The action potentials jump from node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier. (Saltator (L) a leaper, dancer)
59 Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Correlation Myelin sheaths formed by oligodendrocytes in the CNS deteriorate and are replaced by scar tissue. Deterioration may be caused by an immune disorder triggered by a virus in genetically susceptible individuals. Nerve conduction is disrupted. Specific symptoms depend upon the part of the CNS is involved. Symptoms can include double vision, blindness, speech defects, spontaneous muscle cramps, tremors, numbness.
60 Myelination and Brain Maturation Age 4 Age 8 Age 12 Age 16 Age 20 Few axons are covered with myelin at birth. More are insulated over time from the back of the cerebral cortex to the front. Basic functional areas such as vision (back) are completed before age 4, followed by language and last, self-control (forehead). Myelin is laid down until age 25 or so, one reason teenagers do not have adult decision- making abilities R. Douglas Fields Why White Matter Matters Scientific American, March 2008.
61 Synapses Between Neurons Neural Synapse: The specialized junction between the membranes of two neurons. 1st neuron is presynaptic neuron 2nd neuron is postsynaptic neuron First neuron affects the second neuron The first neuron releases a chemical called a neurotransmitter that will bind to a specific receptor on the second neuron. There are over 100 known neurotransmitters Synaptic delay = 0.5 milliseconds time for the signal to move from the presynaptic cell to the postsynaptic cell Synapse may be axodendritic, axosomatic or axoaxonic Number of synapses on postsynaptic cell is variable: 8,000 on spinal motor neuron 100,000 on some brain neurons like the Purkinje cell
66 Types of Neurotransmitters There are over 100 different neurotransmitters, and these are classified in 4 major categories: 1. Acetylcholine (ACh) 2. Amino Acid Neurotransmitters GABA, glycine, aspartic acid 3. Biogenic Amines (Monoamines) Catecholamines: epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine Indolamines: serotonin, histamine 4. Neuropeptides (see next slide)
67 Neuropeptides Neuropeptides: are chains of 2-40 amino acids. are stored in synaptic vesicles in the terminal boutton. are powerful even at low concentrations. have long lasting effects. may also function as hormones if they are released into the blood.
68 Synaptic Transmission Two examples of synapses with different modes of action: Excitatory Adrenergic Synapse Inhibitory GABA-ergic Synapse
69 Excitatory Adrenergic Synapse Action potential opens voltage-gated Ca ++ channels on presynaptic neuron. Ca ++ influx triggers release of Norepinephrine (NE) into the synapse. NE works through a Second Messenger System. NE binds to receptors on the postsynaptic cell that starts a chemical cascade resulting in production of a second messenger, camp that can have multiple effects including activating enzymes, activating genes, and activating ligand-gated ion channels. NE is taken back up by the presynaptic neuron and recycled.
70 Excitatory Adrenergic Synapse
72 Inhibitory GABA-ergic Synapse Pre-synaptic neuron releases GABA ( -aminobutyric acid) into the synapse. GABA binds to receptors on the postsynaptic cell and triggers the opening of Cl - channels producing a hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic cell. Postsynaptic neuron is inhibited because it is now further away from threshold.
The Nervous System Nervous system links sensory receptors and motor effectors Sensory (afferent) neurons carry impulses from receptors Motor (efferent) neurons carry impulses to effectors - muscles and
Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized (ie) Electrical charge on the outside of the membrane is positive while the electrical charge on the inside of the membrane is negative Changes
1. What does the word innervates mean? Refers to a nerve supplying a muscle or organ. For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous
12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue I. Introduction to the Nervous System General functions of the nervous system The nervous system has three basic functions: 1. Gather sensory input from the environment
Major Structures of the Nervous System Brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves, ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-1 Nervous System Divisions
NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY Multiple Choice: Read the entire question and all answers before choosing (circle the letter ) the one best answer. Each question is worth 2 point 1. Which of the following
Nerves and Nerve Impulse Terms Absolute refractory period: Period following stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked. Acetylcholine: Chemical transmitter substance released
Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet 1. Name the two major subdivisions of the nervous system Nervous System Nervous System 2. Name the two parts (organs) of the CNS 3. What are the three functions
FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. 2. Integration. The brain and spinal cord process sensory input and produce responses. 3. Homeostasis.
Chapter 7: The Nervous System Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdraw reflex Define
Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Multiple Choice 1. The nervous system A) monitors internal and external stimuli. B) transmits information in the form of action potentials. C) interprets
Biology 1 of 38 2 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System What are the functions of the nervous system? 3 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System 1. Nervous system: a. controls and coordinates functions throughout the body
1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for K+. b. Is much closer to the equilibrium for K+ than to the equilibrium potential for
13.01.2015 Nervous Tissue Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow Introduction Property of irritability and conductivity Respond to various types of stimuli Distributed
Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue Introduction The nervous system and the endocrine system are the body s major control and integrating centers. Neurology is the study of the normal functioning and disorders of
2 Neurophysiology 2.1 Equilibrium Potential An understanding of the concepts of electrical and chemical forces that act on ions, electrochemical equilibrium, and equilibrium potential is a powerful tool
Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz 1. The term central nervous system refers to the: A) autonomic and peripheral nervous systems B) brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves
Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Nervous System Introduction Chapter 11 Section A Sequence 4.1 DB Nervous system 1 Intro Presentations 4.2,
Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998 Forces and Membranes Now that we've considered the structure of the cells of the nervous system it is important to address their principal function, communication.
5.1. SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS One of the main functions of neurons is to communicate with other neurons. An individual neuron may receive information from many different sources.
AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes 1. General information: passage of information occurs in two ways: Nerves - process and send information fast (eg. stepping on a tack) Hormones - process and send information
Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: The Nervous System: Part 1 Textbook p216-225 41 In all exercises, quizzes and tests in this class, always answer in your own words. That is the only way that you can show that
Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory
page 1 INTRODUCTION A. Excitable Tissue: able to generate Action Potentials (APs) (e.g. neurons, muscle cells) B. Neurons (nerve cells) a. components 1) soma (cell body): metabolic center (vital, always
Graded Potentials Passive electrotonic conduction decays with distance 1. Cytoplasm resistance 2. Plasma membrane resistance 3. Charges leaks out Length constant ( ) is defined as the distance over which
Bi 360: Midterm Review Basic Neurobiology 1) Many axons are surrounded by a fatty insulating sheath called myelin, which is interrupted at regular intervals at the Nodes of Ranvier, where the action potential
Chapter 7: The Nervous System I. Organization of the Nervous System Objectives: List the general functions of the nervous system Explain the structural and functional classifications of the nervous system
3: Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses (Part 2) Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods Interval between stimuli Stimulus voltage (mv) Second action potential?
PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. dendrites B. nucleus
OpenStax-CNX module: m46526 1 The Action Potential OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 By the end of this section, you
The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc) ** If this is not printed in color, it is suggested you
Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Spring, 2006 Name * = correct answer Multiple Choice: 1. Axons and dendrites are two types of a) Neurites * b) Organelles c) Synapses d) Receptors e) Golgi cell components 2. The
REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date ACTIVITY 1 The Resting Membrane Potential 1. Explain why increasing extracellular K + reduces the net diffusion of K + out of
Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Silvia Helena Cardoso, PhD [ 1. Cell body] [2. Neuronal membrane] [3. Dendrites] [4. Axon] [5. Nerve ending] 1. Cell body The cell body (soma) is the factory
A. Introduction 1. Innovation in Cnidaria - Nerve net a. We need to talk more about nerves b. Cnidaria have simple nerve net - 2 way conduction c. Basis for more complex system in Vertebrates B. Vertebrate
NEURONS AND GLIA CELLS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Glia Insulates, supports, and nourishes neurons Neurons Process information Sense environmental changes Communicate changes to other neurons Command body response
The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 15 The subconscious involuntary nervous system Regulates activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & certain glands The Autonomic Nervous System 1 2 ANS vs. SNS Somatic
The Neuron and the Synapse The Neuron Functions of the neuron: Transmit information from one point in the body to another. Process the information in various ways (that is, compute). The neuron has a specialized
Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Nervous System Divisions of the nervous system The human nervous system consists of the central nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).
Module 3 Brain s Building Blocks Structure of the Brain Genes chains of chemicals that are arranged like rungs on a twisting ladder there are about 100,000 genes that contain chemical instructions that
Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation Background Neurons (Fig 6.1) are cells in the nervous system that are used conduct signals at high speed from one part of the body to another. This enables rapid, precise
EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY David Myers The Biology of Mind Chapter 2 Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate How Neurotransmitters Influence Us The Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The
Muscle Tissue Muscle Physiology Chapter 12 Specially designed to contract Generates mechanical force Functions locomotion and external movements internal movement (circulation, digestion) heat generation
Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Name Fall, 2006 * = correct answer. 1. The Greek philosopher Aristotle hypothesized that the brain was a) A radiator for cooling the blood.* b) The seat of the soul. c) The organ
CHAPTER XV PDL 101 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Ms. K. GOWRI. M.Pharm., Lecturer. Types of Muscle Tissue Classified by location, appearance, and by the type of nervous system control or innervation. Skeletal
U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue
NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: ANATOMY OF A NEURON NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: MICROSCOPIC VIEW OF NEURONS A photograph taken through a light microscope (500x) of neurons in the spinal cord. NEURON
The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture Review basic nervous system anatomy before you begin this lecture. The lecture touches on a few of the major characteristics, but you are expected to have already been
Resting potential, action potential and electrical excitibility. Measurement of membrane potential. Tibor G. Szántó Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen Department of Biophysics and
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Somatic efferent and ANS Somatic Efferent Control is over skeletal muscles. External environment This division of the PNS responds to some change in the external environment. single
Origin of Electrical Membrane Potential parti This book is about the physiological characteristics of nerve and muscle cells. As we shall see, the ability of these cells to generate and conduct electricity
Intro: Brain is made up of numerous, complex parts Frontal lobes by forehead are the brain s executive center Parietal lobes wave sensory information together (maps feeling on body) Temporal lobes interpret
I. General Info Integration and Coordination of the Human Body A. Both the and system are responsible for maintaining 1. Homeostasis is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions despite changes
Name Date Hour Nerve Histology Microscope Lab PRE-LAB: Answer the following questions using your reading and class notes before starting the microscope lab. 1. What is the difference between the functions
Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction The structure of neurons reflects their function.
page 1 INTRODUCTION A. Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System 1. Somatic nervous system (voluntary) a. tissues innervated: skeletal muscle b. action: always excitatory (cause muscle contraction) c.
Slide 1: [Film Clip: The Brain #2- Phineas Gage] Integrated Bodily Communications Within Brain (Hemispheres and structures) The remaining Nervous System Endocrine System (Hormonal communication) Our bodies-
C H A P T E R 3 The Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission, and Maintenance of Nerve Function Cynthia J. Forehand, Ph.D. CHAPTER OUTLINE PASSIVE MEMBRANE PROPERTIES, THE ACTION POTENTIAL, AND ELECTRICAL
Page 1. Introduction The structure of neurons reflects their function. One part of the cell receives incoming signals. Another part generates outgoing signals. Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission
Exercise 5 Nervous Tissue Objectives After completing the laboratory exercise for nervous tissue you should be able to: Introduction Identify a "typical" multipolar neuron in the light microscope. Identify
1. The diagram below is of a nerve cell or neuron. i. Add the following labels to the diagram. Axon; Myelin sheath; Cell body; Dendrites; Muscle fibres; ii. Now indicate the direction that the nerve impulse
THE SPINAL CORD AND THE INFLUENCE OF ITS DAMAGE ON THE HUMAN BODY THE SPINAL CORD. A part of the Central Nervous System The nervous system is a vast network of cells, which carry information in the form
11 Introduction to the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue You can t turn on the television or radio, much less go online, without seeing something to remind you of the nervous system. From advertisements
Laboratory 3 Electrical Properties of Biological Systems All cells are capable of maintaining a charge separation, or POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, across their membranes. This is due to the diffusion of sodium
7.013 Problem Set 6-2013 Question 1 a) Our immune system is comprised of different cell types. Complete the table below by selecting all correct cell types from the choices provided. Cells types that Participate
Chapter 15 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Visceral Reflexes general properties Anatomy Autonomic effects on target organs Central control of autonomic function 15-1 Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies,
2006 7.012 Problem Set 6 KEY ** Due before 5 PM on WEDNESDAY, November 22, 2006. ** Turn answers in to the box outside of 68-120. PLEASE WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON THIS PRINTOUT. 1. You create an artificial
Name: Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Directions: The following questions are taken from previous IB Final Papers on Topics 6.4 (Gas Exchange) and 6.5 (Nerves, hormones and homeostasis).
1 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Chapter 15 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 2 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) regulates the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and certain
NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue D. movement of food
NAME Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html On the left side, click on Explore, then click on The Neuron, then click on Millions
Please read chapter 15,, complete this study guide, and study this material BEFORE coming to the first class. I. Introduction to the autonomic nervous system: Briefly describe the autonomic nervous system.
Chapter 9 - Nervous System 9.1 Introduction (p. 215; Fig. 9.1) A. The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. 1. Neurons transmit nerve impulses along nerve fibers to other neurons. 2. Nerves
Ion Channels Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) ** There are a number of ion channels introducted in this topic which you
CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS. 6.1. CONNECTIONS AMONG NEURONS Neurons are interconnected with one another to form circuits, much as electronic components are wired together to form a functional
CHAPTER - 19 NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION 1. Action potential: A sudden change in the electrical charges in the plasma membrane of a nerve fibre. 2. Aqueous humour: The thin watery fluid that occupy
Slide 1 Properties of the nerve, axon, cell body and dendrite affect the distance and speed of membrane potential Passive conduction properties = cable properties Signal becomes reduced over distance depending
The action potential and nervous conduction CH Fry and RI Jabr Postgraduate Medical School, Division of Clinical Medicine, University of Surrey, UK CH Fry, PhD, DSc Professor of Physiology, Division of
CHAPTER 21 NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION One mark Questions: 1. Name the structural and functional unit of nervous system? A. Neuron. 2. What does central Nervous System consists of? A. Brain and spinal
The nervous system consists of three parts: the Brain, the Central Nervous System, and the Peripheral Nervous System. The Brain is the command center, the Central Nervous System is the brain and the spinal
*Definition: The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) The autonomic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that is responsible for regulating involuntary body functions. *Organization of the Nervous
Name Class Date 31.1 The Neuron Lesson Objectives Identify the functions of the nervous system. Describe the function of neurons. Describe how a nerve impulse is transmitted. BUILD Vocabulary A. The chart
Name EXCITABLE TISSUES LECTURE MANUAL (BY2202) 2011/2012 SF (2 nd yr) Biology Students Professor Kumlesh K. Dev Department of Physiology This Manual is produced in conformity with College s policy on accessibility
Chapter 13 The Nature of Somatic Reflexes Nature of Reflexes (1 of 3) A reflex is an involuntary responses initiated by a sensory input resulting in a change in a gland or muscle tissue occur without our
Grade: 10,11, and 12 Subject: Anatomy and Physiology First Marking Period Define anatomy and physiology, and describe various subspecialties of each discipline. Describe the five basic functions of living
Chapter 1 This chapter presents elements of neurobiology that form the necessary preparation for a student of computational neuroscience. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 1 describes the biology
Nervous System The nervous system is divided into two major parts, (1) the central nervous system (CNS) and (2) the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook,
Chapter 4: Body Tissues and Membranes 1. Which tissue covers surfaces and lines cavities? A) connective B) epithelial C) muscle D) connective and muscle 2. Epithelial tissue A) prevents drying. B) secretes
Human Neuroanatomy Grades 9-12 Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today? Objectives: Students will be able to Describe the basic parts and