I have also included the questions from the muscular system quiz 7AB and 8 AB in this practice set.

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1 1 Practice Questions for Exam 2 As you prepare for the exam you should review all of your lecture notes, study guides, key medical terms, blood test information, and previous quizzes. The following are a sample of the type of questions that could be asked on the upcoming exam. I do not provide a key as some of the questions will show up on the exam. If you are able to answer the following questions then you are doing well in your preparation. Note: The exam will have a number of questions not shown here so you need to learn all the information to do well. If you need help in understanding any of the concepts please do not hesitate to contact me either by or stop by my office. I have also included the questions from the muscular system quiz 7AB and 8 AB in this practice set. 1) Label the parts of the following histology slide 2) What does a triad consist of? 3) Name of the elastic protein that anchors a thick filament to both a Z disc and the M line.contributes to the elastic recoil of muscles in their return to resting length during relaxation. 4) Name of the enzyme located in the junctional folds, it degrades acetylcholine, thus ending the depolarizing signal to the muscle cell. 5) Describe the function of DHP receptors and ryanodine receptors 6) Label the parts of the following diagram of the neuromuscular junction. 7) Type of muscle fibers that do not contain a lot of myoglobin and best suited for short term, power activities such as throwing a ball or weight lifting. 8) The amount of oxygen used in the recovery period to restore normal pre-exertion conditions is referred to as: A. Oxygen dept B. Reduced load C. hypoxia D. Increased load 9) Select all of the following that gets smaller during a muscle contraction? A. A band B. H zone C. I band D. sarcomere E. M line

2 2 10) During rest and light exercise, most of the ATP used by skeletal muscle comes from the aerobic respiration of A. proteins B. fatty acids C. glucose D. glycogen 11) Name the connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fascicle. 12) A patient is brought into the ER and suspected to have had a heart attack. Name the specific enzyme will be checked for in a blood test to confirm a heart attack? Need to provide the full name and abbreviation in answer. 13) Of the following, which does not get smaller during a muscle contraction? A. A band B. H zone C. I band D. sarcomere 14) Detachment of the cross bridges is directly triggered by: A. calcium B. ATP hydrolysis C. T tubule repolarization D. acetylcholine 15) Muscles dominated by slow fibers are sometimes referred to as A. White muscle B. Red muscle D. Blue muscle D. Brown muscle 16) During a contraction, calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and binds to: A. myosin head B. troponin C. tropomyosin D. thick filaments 17) In order for the myosin to be fully activated in smooth muscle, the myosin head and the myosin light-chain has to be. A. bound to calmodulin B. bound to calcium C. bound to kinase D. phosphorylated 18) Contractions can be classified as two major types; name the type of contraction in which there is appreciable shortening of the muscle contraction results in muscle shortening. 19) A patient is brought into the ER and suspected to have had a stroke. Name the specific enzyme will be checked for in a blood test to confirm a stroke? Need to provide the full name and abbreviation in answer. 20) The oxygen-carrying pigment of muscle tissue that stores oxygen temporarily until the muscle needs it. 21) Within smooth muscle, calcium binds to what structure during a contraction? A. troponin B. calmodulin C. tropomyosin D. kinase E. sarcoplasmic 22) Name the disorder characterized by long-term, body-wide pain and tenderness in the joints, muscles, tendons, and other soft tissues. Cause is unknown but thought to amplify painful sensations resulting in a lower threshold for pain.

3 3 23) Type of muscle fibers that contain intercalated discs: 24) Explain how does BOTOX work to prevent muscle contraction? 25) Name the type of muscle that is striated with long cylinder-shaped cells that are multinucleated. 26) Name the autoimmune disease where antibodies attack the acetylcholine receptors on the neuromuscular junction. 27) Name the type of connective tissue that surrounds individual skeletal muscle cells. 28) Name the type of connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle. 29) Nerve gas works by causing spastic paralysis by inhibiting what specific enzyme? 30) The functional unit of a skeletal muscle is called the 31) Name the neurotransmitter that is released at the neuromuscular junction. 32) During a muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, calcium is released by the and binds to what specific structure? 33) Name the structure that blocks the myosin head from binding to the actin binding site. 34) Name the type of muscle fibers that have abundant capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin and function in endurance type activities. 35) Describe the difference between isometric and isotonic contractions. 36) Describe the two ways that muscle force is increased? 37) Muscles that control small precise movements have many or few motor units with many or few muscle fibers per motor unit. 38) Identify the following structures

4 4 39) During a muscle contraction which of the following bands and structures get smaller during a muscle contraction? I band, A band, sarcomere, thick filament, thin filament. 40) Name at least three factors that contribute to muscle fatigue 41) Define a motor unit? 42) Name the following parts of the graph 43) Why is it that you don t get a strong contraction when the muscle is stretched out or when it is compacted? Use the graph in your explanation. 44) What are the causes of muscle hypertrophy? Of those listed, what is the major cause of muscle hypertrophy 45) Name the substance that is used as a poison in blow darts by South American Indians to paralyze their prey. This compound is used during surgery to relax skeletal muscle by blocking acetylcholine receptors. What is the name of this compound (drug)? 46) The contractile unit of skeletal muscle that extends from Z line to Z line is the: 47) Explain what rigor mortis is. 48) The type of muscle that is non-striated and lines the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, blood vessels and intestines. 49) In order to detach the myosin head from actin and activate it (cock it back) requires what to energize it. 50) A motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers that the neuron innervates is called a Nervous System 51) Type of cell that can form tumors known as gliomas 52) Name the give the functions of the six type of neuroglial cells.

5 5 53) Type of neuroglia cells that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 54) Type of neuroglia cells that myelinate the neurons of the CNS. 55) Type of neuroglia cells that myelinate the neurons of the PNS 56) What membrane pump helps restore the resting membrane potential? Describe the action of this membrane pump. 57) Using the diagram, name the parts of an action potential and describe what is happening at each phase. Make sure you know what ions are moving in and out of the neuron. 58) Term used to describe the minimum stimulus that initiates an action potential is called 59) Term for the subdivision of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord. 60) Name the portion of the neuron that releases neurotransmitters 61) Which of the following contains unmyelinated neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and axons A. Nodes of Ranvier B. white matter C. cerebral cortex D. gray matter 62) The portion of the autonomic nervous system that causes the fight-or-flight response such as increased heart rate and breathing rate. 63) During an action potential, the depolarization of the axon membrane is the result of ions rapidly coming into the cell s axon while the repolarization is the result of ions rapidly leaving the cell axon. 64) How does nerve gas cause muscle paralysis? 65) Autoimmune disorder in which the body s immune system attacks the myelin sheath of oligodendrocytes forming hardened scars along the axon. 66) Explain how does BOTOX cause paralysis? 67) Local anesthetics such as Novocain work by blocking channels.

6 6 68) In class we went over the details of how a motor neuron conducts an action potential. You should be able to draw and label a motor neuron and describe how an action potential is conducted. 69) Describe the difference between continuous and salutatory conduction. 70) Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by microorganisms that produce what specific toxin? What does this toxin bind to? 71) How does heavy metal poisoning damage the nervous system? 72) Name the three types of membrane gated channels: 73) The minimum stimulus that initiates an action potential is called: 74) Name the two major inhibitory neurotransmitters found in the CNS. How do they cause IPSP? Name the major excitatory neurotransmitter found in the CNS? 75) Explain Absolute and Relative Refractory periods. In your explanation draw and label the action potential with the areas of the two refractory periods. 76) Explain how G protein membrane receptors function. Endocrine System 77) Explain the difference between and exocrine and endocrine glands 78) Explain the three chemical classes of hormones based on their chemical structure. 79) Hormones are derived from cholesterol are classified as: 80) Name the two hormones made in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. 81) The vascular link between the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary is called the: 82) Explain how thyroid hormones are produced. Explanation should include a description of MIT and DIT. 83) Cretinism is a type of dwarfism with mental retardation. What is its cause? 84) Describe the different types of diabetes discussed in class 85) Name and acronym of the hormone that stimulates sperm production in males.

7 7 86) Name and acronym of the hormone that stimulates the production of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) 87) Name and acronym of the hormone that induces ovulation 88) Name and acronym of the hormone that stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. 89) Name the three hormones produced by the thyroid gland and their function. 90) Name the hormone produced by the parathyroid glands and its function. 91) Aldosterone is produced by what specific organ/structure? 92) Aldosterone stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb what specific ion? 93) Name and acronym of the hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to release its hormones. What specific gland produces this hormone? 94) Name the three categories of corticosteroids released from the adrenal cortex and know the function of each. 95) Name the hormones produced by the adrenal medulla. 96) In females, Name the hormone causes uterine contractions during labor. 97) Name the hormone that raises blood calcium levels. 98) A goiter can be caused by insufficient amount of: A. vitamin A B. iodine C. NaCl D. K+ E. glycogen 99) The pituitary hormone that stimulates the development of the breasts and mammary glands during pregnancy promote milk production after birth of the baby: 100) Cretinism is results from insufficient amounts of what hormone? 101) Name the type of insulin resistant diabetes characterized by a decrease in insulin sensitivity and insulin production of the central nervous system. Largely confined to the brain.

8 8 102) You suspect that a person has diabetes mellitus II. In order to see what that person s average blood glucose level has been over the past 3 months you order which of the following tests? 103) The person shown in the picture comes into the clinic. To ensure the accuracy of your diagnosis you order a blood test and the results indicate the person has antibodies that mimic TSH. What condition does the patient have?. What is the term that describes the protruding eyes?. Would it be possible for the patient to also have a goiter with this condition? 104) Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies mimic the action of what specific hormone and causes hypersecretion of what hormones? 105) Name the hormone that is deficient in type I diabetes. 106) Name the disorder that causes most of the cases of hypothyroidism in the United States. 107) Cushing s syndrome results from hypersecretion of what hormone? 108) Explain what NSAIDS are and their mechanism of action. Give examples of commonly used NSAIDS 109) What is the disorder that goes by the acronym SAD and how does it occur and how is it treated? 110) Term used to describe the Drooping of the upper eyelid. May be seen in myasthenia gravis, botulism, or damage to cranial nerve III, which innervates the upper eyelid muscle. 111) Hypersecretion of growth hormone in an adult (epiphyseal plates are closed) results in the condition known as

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