# Pacific Pump and Power

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1 Pacific Pump and Power Nukuawa Street Kapolei, Hawaii Phone: (808) or (800) Fax: (866) Web: Pumps and Generators Rentals * Sales * Service * Operations (808) Table of Contents Friction Loss in Pipe.. 1 Head Loss per 100 Feet of Pipe due to Friction Loss. 2 Friction Loss in Pipe Fittings 3 Friction Loss Estimates based on Pipe Lengths. 4 Resistance of Fittings to Flow of Fluids in Equivalent Length of Pipe... 5 Disclaimer i Pacific Pump and Power Inc. accepts no responsibility for any losses or damage or other matters arising from the use of this information. The use of information and advice contained is used solely at the risk of the user.

2 Friction Loss in Pipe Losses Due to Friction As water moves through the pumping system, pressure losses occur due to water contact with pipes, valves, and fittings. The four factors that determine friction losses in pipe are: 1. The velocity of the water: Water velocity is measured in feet per second. As velocity increases, pressure losses increase. Velocity is directly related to flow rate. An increase or decrease in flow rate will result in a corresponding increase or decrease in velocity. 2. The size (inside diameter) of the pipe: Smaller pipe causes a greater proportion of the water to be in contact with the pipe, which creates friction. Pipe size also affects velocity. Given a constant flow rate, decreasing pipe size increases the water s velocity, which increases friction. 3. The roughness of the inside of the pipe: Pipe inside wall roughness is rated by a C factor, which is provided by the manufacturer. The lower the C value, the rougher the inside and the more pressure loss due to friction. 4. The length of the pipe: The friction losses are cumulative as the water travels through the length of pipe. The greater the distance, the greater the friction losses will be. Losses Due to Elevation Change Water pressure can be expressed as either psi (pounds of pressure per square inch) or feet of head. A column of water 1 foot high exerts psi at the bottom and therefore 1 psi is equivalent to 2.31 feet of head. This means that for every foot of elevation change from the pump to the discharge point, the corresponding change in pressure will be psi. Fresh Water Salt Water 1 foot of head = psi 1 foot of head = psi 1.0 psi = 2.31 feet of head 1.0 psi = 2.25 feet of head Page 1

3 Friction Loss Table Head Loss / 100 Feet Pipe Due to Friction (C = 150) C = 150 for High Density Polyethylene Pipe (HDPE) Flow (GPM) Pipe Diameter (Inch) ½" ¾" 1" 1-¼" 1-½" 2" 2-½" 3" 4" 5" 6" 8" 10" 12" Notes: 1. Values shown above are used in the Hazen-Williams Equation for flow in pipes. Feet of head loss values shown in the tables were developed using the Hazen-Williams equation. 2. Feet of head loss values are subject to the following conditions: a) Pipes carrying clear water at approximately 60 F (15.6 C). b) Pipes are flowing full. c) Velocities of water are generally less than 10 feet per second. Note: HDPE is commonly sized by outside diameter. If in doubt, use the next smaller pipe size. Page 2

4 Friction Loss in Pipe Fittings Steel/Copper Equivalent feet of pipe caused by diam. Inch Fitting ½ ¾ 1 1-¼ 1-½ 2 2-½ 90 Std Elbow Long Elbow Street Elbow Std Elbow Street Elbow Square Elbow Std T Flow Run Std T Flow Branch Gate Valve - Open Plastic Equivalent feet of pipe caused by diam. Inch Fitting ½ ¾ 1 1-¼ 1-½ 2 2-½ 90 Std Elbow Std T Flow Run Std T Flow Branch Page 3

5 Friction Loss Estimates based on Pipe Lengths Note: Determine total run of hose/pipe in pumping system and calculate friction loss at a given flow rate. Add Friction Loss in head feet to vertical elevation from suction point to discharge point to determine total dynamic head. Flow Hose Size Velocity 100' 500' 1000' 1500' 2000' 100 4" 2.5' / sec 0.8' 4' 8' 12' 16' 200 4" 5.0' / sec 2.9' 14.5' 29' 43.5' 58' 300 4" 7.6' / sec 6.1' 30.5' 61' 91.5' 122' 400 4" 10.1' / sec 10.4' 52' 104' 156' 208' 400 6" 4.4' / sec 1.4' 14' 21' 28' 500 6" 56' 5.6 / sec 22' ' 22' 33' 44' 600 6" 6.7' / sec 3.1' 15.5' 31' 46.5' 62' 700 6" 7.8' / sec 4.1' 20.5' 41' 61.5' 82' 800 6" 8.9' / sec 5.2' 26' 52' 78' 104' 800 8" 5.1' / sec 1.3' 26' 900 6" 10.0' / sec 6.6' 33' 66' 99' 132' 900 8" 5.8' / sec 1.6' 32' " 11.1' 1' / sec 7.8' 39' 78' 117' 156' " 6.4' / sec 2.0' 30' 40' " 7.0' / sec 2.3' 11.5' 23' 34.5' 46' " 7.7' / sec 2.7' 13.5' 27' 40.5' 54' " 8.3' / sec 3.1' 15.5' 31' 46.5' 62' " 9.0' / sec 3.6' 18' 36' 54' 72' " 9.6' / sec 4.1' 20.5' 41' 61.5' 82' " 10.3' / sec 4.7' 23.5' 47' 70.5' 94' " 11.5' / sec 5.6' 28' 56' 84' 112' " 5.1' / sec 0.8' 16' " 12.8' / sec 7.0' 35' 70' 105' 140' " 5.7' / sec 0.9' 13.5' 18' " 7.1' / sec 1.5' 7.5' 15' 22.5' 30' " 8.5' / sec 2.1' 10.5' 21' 31.5' 42' " 9.9' / sec 2.7' 13.5' 27' 40.5' 54' " 11.4' / sec 3.5' 17.5' 35' 52.5' 70' Note: Numbers in bold and italics represent dynamic head levels that exceed pump pump capabilities at that flow. Page 4

6 Page 5

### Pacific Pump and Power

Pacific Pump and Power 91-503 Nukuawa Street Kapolei, Hawaii 96707 Phone: (808) 672-8198 or (800) 975-5112 Fax: (866) 424-0953 Email: sales@pacificpumpandpower.com Web: www.pacificpumpandpower.com Table

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