# Method to Determine PERFORMANCE OF INDIRECT-FIRED WATER HEATERS March 2003 Edition

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1 Supplement to TESTING STANDARD Method to Determine PERFORMANCE OF INDIRECT-FIRED WATER HEATERS March 2003 Edition [NOTE: This supplement incorporates testing and calculations to determine heat source friction loss for indirect-fired water heaters.] 3.1 NOMENCLATURE dp eh dp h L in L out P iht P ihs P oht P ohs W hf Pressure drop of external heat source piping, ft w.c. Heat source friction loss, ft w.c. Length of external heat source piping between pressure gauge port and the inlet to the indirect-fired water heater, ft (minimum 6 inches) Length of external heat source piping between the indirect-fired water outlet and the gauge port, ft (minimum 25 pipe diameters) Pressure at heat source inlet with flow, ft w.c. Pressure at the heat source inlet with no flow, ft w.c. Pressure at the heat source outlet with flow, ft w.c. Pressure at the heat source outlet with no flow, ft w.c Heat source water flow during friction loss test, gallons per minute 4.3 PRESSURE Pressure gauges used to perform the Heat Source Friction Loss test shall have an error no greater than ± 2%. These gauges shall have minimum graduations of 0.5 ft w.c Pressure gauges used in the other tests shall be calibrated so that the error is not greater than ±1 pound per square inch.

2 5.0 APPARATUS The apparatus described below is used in conjunction with Indirect-Fired Water Heaters during the testing. 5.1 PIPING See Figure 1 for a conceptual piping arrangement. Provisions shall be made to assure constant supply water temperature and pressure to the unit. Figure 2 contains a conceptual piping arrangement for an Indirect-Fired Water Heater that uses a mixing valve as determined by 5.5. Figure 3 shows a piping arrangement for measuring the heat source friction loss. 6.0 TEST CONDITIONS 6.1 INSTALLATION HEAT SOURCE PIPING During conduct of the continuous draw test, the connecting pipe between the thermocouple and the Indirect-Fired Water Heater shall be metal pipe up to the thermocouple and the balance of the piping may be as specified by the testing laboratory (see Figure 1) For the heat source friction loss test, install pressure gauges on the heat source inlet and outlet connections as shown in Figure 3a. Each gauge shall be located in a tee in straight section of piping having the same nominal size as the indirect water connection and a minimum length of 25 diameters plus 6 inches. Maintain at least 25 diameters of straight pipe upstream of each gauge and at least 6 inches downstream of each gauge. As an alternate to installing two pressure gauges as requested above, a single pressure gauge may be installed the common port of a three way valve with the other two ports connected to the inlet and outlet of the heat source piping at the locations called out above. See alternate piping in Figure 3b. 6.2 AIR AND WATER WATER SUPPLY HEAT SOURCE WATER SUPPLY During all of the draw tests, the water supplied to the water heater s heat exchanger inlet, T, shall be 180 F ±2.5 F. During the heat source friction loss test, the water supplied to the heat source inlet connection shall be between 58 F and 80 F.

3 7.0 TEST PROCEDURE 7.5 HEAT SOURCE FRICTION LOSS TEST INDIRECT-FIRED STORAGE AND INSTANTANEOUS WATER HEATERS Set up the indirect water heater as shown in Figure 3 and with the pressure gauge connections described in Fill the test set-up with water and purge the system of air. Pressurize the system so that a readable amount of pressure is present on both gauges with no water flowing through the indirect water heater. Start the pump and adjust the throttling valve so that the heat source flow rate W hf, is within ± 0.25 GPM of the nominal value established in Record the pressure on the inlet pressure gauge, P int, and outlet pressure gauge, P oht. Shut down the pump and record the pressure gauge reading at the inlet and outlet with no heat source flow through the indirect water heater (P ihs and P ohs, respectively). If a single pressure gauge and three way valve is used then the pressure at the inlet and outlet with no flow does not need to be recorded DATA Record the following measurements: Length of the external heat source piping between the pressure gauge port and the inlet to the indirect-fired water heater in feet, L in Length of the external heat source piping between the indirect-fired water heater outlet and the pressure gauge port in feet, L out The Following readings shall be recorded during the test: Measured heat source water flow rate during friction loss test, W hf Pressure at heat source inlet with flow, P iht Pressure at heat source outlet with flow, P oht Pressure at heat source inlet with no flow, P ihs if two pressure gauges are used Pressure at heat source outlet with no flow, P ohs if two pressure gauges are used 8.0 DATA TO BE RECORDED Water volume determination values are to be recorded on form IWH-V-1 Standby heat loss data is to be recorded on form IWH-ST-1. Data logger output may be substituted if the required data and times as shown on form IWH-ST-1 are included in the printout. Continuous draw data is to be recorded on form IWH-CD-1. First draw data is to be recorded on form IWH-FD-1. The calculated values are to be recorded on the report form IWH-R-1. The summary information is to be included on form IWH-S-1 Heat source friction loss test data is to be recorded on form IWH-FL-1

4 9.0 CALCULATIONS 9.6 HEAT SOURCE FRICTION LOSS Determine the friction factor for the external heat source piping from Table 4 for the diameter of the piping at the nominal heat source water flow rate established in 7.3.1, P d in feet water column per foot of piping Calculate the pressure drop of the external heat source piping, dp eh in feet w.c. dp eh = (L in + L out ) x P d Where: L in = Length of external heat source piping between pressure gauge port and the inlet to the indirect-fired water heater, ft (minimum 6 inches) L out = Length of external heat source piping between the indirect water heater outlet and the pressure gauge port, ft (minimum 25 pipe diameters) P d = Friction factor as determined in Calculate the Heat Source Friction Loss, dp h, expressed in feet water column and defined as: When two pressure gauges are used. dp h = [(P iht P ihs ) (P oht P ohs )] x (W h /W hf ) 2 - dp eh When one pressure gauge and a three way valve is used dp h = (P iht P oht ) x (W h /W hf ) 2 - dp eh Where : W hf = Measured heat source water flow rate during friction loss test, GPM W h = Nominal heat source water flow rate established in 7.3.1, GPM P iht = Pressure at heat source inlet with flow, ft w.c. P oht = Pressure at heat source outlet with flow, ft w.c. P ihs = Pressure at heat source inlet with no flow, ft w.c. P ohs = Pressure at heat source outlet with no flow, ft w.c. dp eh = Pressure drop of external heat source piping, ft w.c. Note: If the data obtained yields a value for dp h of less than zero, the value of dp h shall be set at zero

5 Table 4a Steel Pressure Drop in Feet of Water Column per Foot of Pipe Length GPM 1/2' 3/ /4 1-1/ /

6 Table 4b Copper GPM 1/2 5/8 3/ /4 1-1/ /

7 Form IWH-FL-1 Rev. 1/04 Mfr.: Model No.: Date: Completed by: INDIRECT-FIRED WATER HEATER HEAT SOURCE FRICTION LOSS TEST LOG Nominal heat source water flow rate W h = gpm Measured heat source water flow rate W hf = gpm Pressure at tank heat source inlet with flow P iht = ft w.c. Pressure at tank heat source outlet with flow P oht = ft w.c. Pressure at tank heat source inlet with no flow * P ihs = ft w.c. Pressure at tank heat source outlet with no flow* P ohs = ft w.c. Length of inlet piping from gauge port to tank Length of outlet piping from tank to gauge port L in = ft L out = ft Calculate the pressure drop of the external heat source piping, dp eh in feet of w.c. dp eh = (L in + L out ) x P d dp eh = ( ft + ft ) x ft w.c. / foot = ft w.c. Calculate the Heat Source Friction Loss, dp h, expressed in feet water column and defined as: When two pressure gauges are used. dp h = [(P iht P ihs ) (P oht P ohs )] x (W h /W hf ) 2 - dp eh dp h = [( ft w.c. - ft w.c.) ( ft w.c. - ft w.c.)] X ( gpm / gpm) 2 - ft w.c. = ft w.c. When one pressure gauge and a three way valve is used dp h = (P iht P oht ) x (W h /W hf ) 2 - dp eh dp h = ( ft w.c. - ft w.c.) X ( gpm / gpm) 2 - ft w.c. = ft w.c. * If a single pressure gauge and a three way valve is used these values do not need to be recorded

8 Indirect-Fired Water Heater Report Sheet IWH-R-1 Rev 2/04 Company Name Indirect-Fired Water Heater Model Number Nominal Size Potable Water in Tank or Coil, Indirect Fired Storage Heater, Instantaneous Indirect Fired Heater Other (e.g. materal, insulation) Heat Source Manufacturer Model No. Btuh Output Btuh Input General Specifications & Description General Test Number Water Volume Standby Loss Continuous Draw First Draw Test Date Heater Dry Weight (W t ) Weight of Heater Filled with Potable Water (W p ) Weight of Heater Filled with Potable and Heat Source Water (W ph ) Water Temperature Used to Fill Heater (T c ) ºF Water Density (ρ), (see table 3) Potable Water Volume (V p ) Heat Source Water Volume (V h ) Uncorrected decay rate (DR u ) Average Water Temperature (T c ) Mean Tank Water Temperature Decay Rate (DR) Heat Loss (Q) Heat Source Water Flow Rate (w h,avg ) Average Outlet Water Temperature to Heat Source (T oh,avg ) lbs lbs lbs lbs/gal gal gal ºF/Hr º F ºF/Hr Btuh Gpm Average Inlet Water Temperature from Heat Source (T ih,avg ) ºF Heat Source Input (Q h ) Average Potable Water Inlet Temperature (T i ) º F Btuh Potable Water Outlet Temperature (T o ) ºF Potable start weight or volumetric meter reading Potable final weight or volumetric meter reading Volume or Weight of Potable Water Drawn (V c or W c ) Density of Water at Average Water Temperature (ρ) Continuous Draw Rating (V cd ) º F lbs or gal lbs or gal gal or lbs lbs/gal gal/hr Maximum value of the mean tank temperature (T s ) ºF Potable outlet water maximum temperature (T o(max) ) ºF Potable outlet water stop temperature (T omax 25F or 65F or 110F) ºF Potable start weight or volumetric meter reading (WT t or V t ) lbs or gal Potable final weight or volumetric meter reading (WT (end) or V (end) ) lbs or gal Net weight divided by ρ or gallons of water drawn (W d or V d ) First Hour Rating First Hour Rating (V f ) gal/hr Heat Source Friction Loss Laboratory Location Heat Source Water Flow Rate (W hf ) Friction Loss (dp h ) Test Conducted by gal gal/min feet water column

9 AIR VENT PUMP P iht, Pihs 6 min. FILL WATER SOURCE FILL VALVE EXPANSION TANK 25 dia min. HEAT SOURCE INLET P oht, Pohs INDIRECT WATER HEATER 6 min. 25 dia min. FLOW METER THROTTLING VALVE HEAT SOURCE OUTLET FIGURE 3a: EXAMPLE OF HEAT SOURCE FRICTION LOSS TEST SETUP (2 GAUGES)

10 AIR VENT PUMP HEAT SOURCE INLET 6 min. 25 dia min. FILL WATER SOURCE FILL VALVE EXPANSION TANK 3-WAY DIVERTING VALVE COMMON PORT P iht, Poht INDIRECT WATER HEATER 6 min. 25 dia min. FLOW METER THROTTLING VALVE HEAT SOURCE OUTLET FIGURE 3b: EXAMPLE OF HEAT SOURCE FRICTION LOSS TEST SETUP (1 GAUGE + 3-WAY VALVE)

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