Fluid Flow in Pipes The DarcyWeisbach Equation and the FluidFlow Calc v1.0 Tool for Engineers


 Joella Leonard
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Fluid Flow in Pipes The DarcyWeisbach Equation and the FluidFlow Calc v1.0 Tool for Engineers by Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E.
2 Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 2 of 36
3 A. Introduction This course is intended for mechanical and civil engineers who want to learn more about Sizing Piping Systems with the DarcyWeisbach equation. Design issues covered include, understanding the equations, purpose and history, sizing residential, commercial and industrial piping systems. This course qualifies for four (4) hours Professional Engineering CEU credits. Upon completion of this course, you will have a thorough understanding of the design aspects related to Sizing Piping Systems with the Darcy Weisbach equation and others relating to its application. B. General Because of the great variety of fluids handled in modern industrial processes (heating and air conditioning, piping systems, etc.) a single equation used for any flow in piping systems would obviously have an advantage over other equations. Such an equation is the DarcyWeisbach equation for liquids only in this course. The equation can be derived rationally by means of dimensional analysis; however, one variable in the equation, the friction factor, must be determined experimentally. Today with the invention of the calculator, computers and software and spreadsheets, etc. this is not a problem. This equation has a wide application in the field of fluid mechanics. The Fluid Flow Calc tool was developed using the DarcyWeisbach and other equations and utilizes the following variables: = Density of the fluid, lb/ cu ft = Viscosity of the fluid, cp Q = Quantity of flow, gpm, gph, cfs and B V = Velocity of flow, mean velocity of the flow in the pipe, fps D = Pipe inside diameter, in and ft L = Fitting total K coeff s = Fitting total L/D values = Length of pipe, ft P = Pressure drop, feet of fluid and psi in fluid R = Roughness factor,, ft The input looks at the data and tracts it to determine proper input. Five types of calculations can be performed as follows: 1. Sizing pipe for Pressure Drop, requires,, Q, D, L and R 2. Sizing pipe for Maximum Velocity for Flow, requires,, V, D, L and R Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 3 of 36
4 3. Sizing pipe for Maximum Velocity for Pipe Diameter, requires,, Q, V, L and R 4. Sizing pipe for Maximum Pressure Drop, requires,, Q, L, P and R 5. Sizing pipe for Maximum Flow, requires,, D, L and R The input tracks and displays one of the following messages: 1. Too Much Data 2. Default Used 3. Need to Check Your Input If the data input is entered correctly, one of the following messages will be displayed. 1. Sizing pipe for Pressure Drop 2. Sizing pipe for Maximum Velocity for Flow 3. Sizing pipe for Maximum Velocity for Pipe Diameter 4. Sizing pipe for Maximum Pressure Drop 5. Sizing pipe for Maximum Flow There are three buttons on the screen, one for Default Density data, one for Viscosity, and one for the Roughness factor. Density is lb/cu ft. Viscosity is 1.1 at 60 o F and Roughness factor Note: The Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet has three (3) Macros for the three Default Buttons and the following security screen will appear. The Enable Macros button should be pressed to operate correctly if the Security Level is Set above (Low). C. Units The following units will be used during this course: gpm to cfs = gpm / gph to gpm = gph / 60 cfs to gpm = cfs x gpm to B/h = gpm x Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 4 of 36
5 gph to B/h = gph x 42 D. Physical Properties of Fluids The solution to any fluid problem requires an understanding and knowledge of the physical properties of the fluid under consideration. Therefore, an accurate value for the properties affecting the fluid is essential to problem solving. Numerous publications have tables and charts for this purpose. The following is the fluid physical properties that we will be using throughout this course: 1. Viscosity, cp 2. Weight density, lb/cu ft Viscosity: Viscosity expresses the readiness with which a fluid flows when it is acted upon by an external force. The coefficient of absolute viscosity or, simply, the absolute viscosity of a fluid, is a measure of its resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress. In everyday terms (and for fluids only), viscosity is thickness or internal friction. Thus, water is thin, having a lower viscosity, while honey is thick, having higher viscosity. Put simply, the less viscous the fluid is, the greater its ease of movement. Although most fluids are predictable in their viscosity, in some, the viscosity depends upon the previous working of the fluid. Wood pulp slurries and ketchup are examples of fluids possessing such thixotropic properties of viscosity. Note: Thixotropic is the property of certain gels or fluids that are thick (viscous) under normal conditions, but flow (become thin, less viscous) over time when shaken, agitated, or otherwise stressed. Considerable confusion exists concerning the units used to express viscosity; therefore, proper units must be employed whenever substituting values of viscosity into formulas. In the CGS or cgs (centimetergramsecond) or metric system (proposal made in 1832 by the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss), the unit of absolute viscosity is the poise (it is named after Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille) and is often used with the (metric prefix centi) which is equal to 100 centipoises. The centipoise is properly abbreviated cp, but the alternative abbreviations cps, cp and cps are also commonly seen. The poise has the dimensions of dyne seconds per square centimeter or of grams per centimeter second. It is believed that less confusion concerning units will prevail if the centipoises is used exclusively as the unit of viscosity. For this reason and since most handbooks and tables follow the same procedure, all viscosity data in this course is expressed in centipoises. Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 5 of 36
6 The English units most commonly employed are slug per foot second or pound force second per square foot ; however, pound mass per feet second or poundal second per square foot may also be encountered. The viscosity of water at a temperature of 68 o F is: = 1 centipoises = 0.01 poise = 0.01 gram per cm second = 0.01 dyne second per sq cm e = pound mass per foot second poundal second per square foot ' e = slug per foot second pound force second per square ft See Table 3, in Appendix A for some viscosity of liquid s. Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of the absolute viscosity to the mass density. In the metric system the unit of kinematic viscosity is the stoke. The stoke has dimensions of square centimeters per second and is equivalent to 100 centistokes centistoke s = = ' S Specific gravity: the specific gravity S, in the foregoing formula is based upon water at a temperature of 39.2 o F (4 o C), whereas specific gravity used throughout this course is based upon water at 60 o F. In the English system, kinematic viscosity has dimensions of square feet per second. Weight density, specific volume, and specific gravity: The weight density or specific weight of a substance is its weight per unit volume. In the English system of units, this is expressed in pounds per cubic foot and the symbol designation used in the course is (Rho). In the metric system, the unit is grams per cubic centimeter and the symbol designation used is centimeter and the symbol designation used is (Rho prime). The specific volume V, being the reciprocal of the weight density, is expressed in the English system as the number of cubic feet of space occupied by one pound of the substance, this is: Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 6 of 36
7 V 1 Computation in the metric system is not commonly referred to in terms of specific volume; however, the number of cubic centimeters per gram of a substance can readily be expressed as the reciprocal of the weight density, that is: V 1 ' The variations in weight density as well as other properties of water with changes in temperature are shown in Table 1, in Appendix A. The weight densities of other common liquids are shown in Table 2, in Appendix A. Unless very high temperatures are considered, the effect of pressure on the weight of liquids is of no practical importance in flow problems. Specific gravity is a relative measure of weight density. Since pressure has an insignificant effect upon the weight density of liquids, temperature is the only condition that must be considered in designating the basis for specific gravity. The specific gravity of a liquid is its weight density at 60 o F (unless otherwise specified) to that of water at standard temperature of 60 o F. S p2 p1 Where p1 = any liquid at 60 o F unless otherwise specified p2 = water at 60 o F The specific gravity is measured with the hydrometer and there are three scales used commonly in this country. The API scale which is used for oil. The Baume (Be) scales, one for liquids heavier than water and one for liquids lighter than water. The relationship between the scales and specific gravity are: For oils: Degrees API = (141.5 / G) G = / ( Degrees API) Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 7 of 36
8 For liquids lighter than water: Specific Gravities at 60 o F = 140 / (160 Deg. Be) 60 o F For liquids heavier than water: Specific Gravities at 60 o F = 145 / (145 Deg. Be) 60 o F E. DarcyWeisbach Equation The DarcyWeisbach equation is named after Henry Darcy of France and further refined into the form used today by Julius Weisbach of Saxony in Historically this equation arose as a variant on the Prony equation (Gaspard Clair Francois Marie Riche de Prony, ). Initially, data on the variation of f with velocity was lacking, so the DarcyWeisbach equation was out performed at first by the empirical Prony equation in many cases. Although in the later years it was eschewed in many special case situations in favor of a variety of empirical equations valid only for certain flow regimes. Notably the HazenWilliams equation named after (Allen Hazen and Gardner Stewart Williams) or the Manning equation (GaucklerManning formula) named after (Philippe Gauckler in 1867 and Robert Manning in 1890) most of which were significantly easier to use in calculation. The name of the equation through time is also curious and may be tracked in hydraulic and fluid mechanics textbooks. Early texts generally do not name the equation. Starting in the mid 20th century some authors including at least one German named it "Darcy's Equation", an obvious confusion point with "Darcy's Law". Rouse in 1946 appears to be the first to call it "DarcyWeisbach", but that naming did not become universal until the late 1980's. It is a good enough name, but as pointed out previously, it leaves out many important contributions. From a practical standpoint, the DarcyWeisbach equation has only become popular since the advent of the electronic calculator, computer and software like the spreadsheet. It requires a lot of number crunching compared to empirical relationships, such as the HazenWilliams equation, which are valid over narrow ranges. However, because of its general accuracy and complete range of application, the DarcyWeisbach equation should be considered the standard and the others should be left for the historians. A recent interesting discussion on the topic was presented by Liou (1998), Christensen (2000), Locher (2000) and Swamee (2000). Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 8 of 36
9 The DarcyWeisbach equation is considered the best empirical relation for pipeflow resistance. In terms of head units it is: Pipe Friction 2 L v h f f D 2 g where h f = friction resistance in feet of fluid f = friction factor, dimensionless L = length of pipe, (in feet) D = internal diameter of pipe, (in feet) v = average velocity in feet per second, (in fps) g = acceleration due to gravity in feet per second per second, feet/second/second The DarcyWeisbach equation can be written in terms of pressure loss: L v2 h p f D 2g where Velocity = fluid density at mean temperature, (in lb/cu ft) The following are equations used to calculate mean velocity of flow in several units: v = A q q = d Q = d where B v = d A = cross section area of pipe in square feet B = rate of flow in barrels (42 gallon) per hour (B) Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 9 of 36
10 Q = rate of flow in gallons per minute (gpm) q = rate of flow in cubic feet per second (cfs) v = mean velocity of flow, in feet per second (fps) V = specific volume of fluid, in cubic feet per pound d = inside diameter of pipe, (in inches) Relative Pipe Roughness Factor /d = /d where = absolute roughness of pipe surfaces d = inside diameter of pipe, (in inches) The relative pipe roughness is the ratio of the pipe surface roughness, to its diameter, d, or /d. See Table 4, in Appendix A for some common pipe relative roughness factors. Reynolds Number dv Re where d = inside diameter of pipe, (in inches) v = average velocity in feet per second, (in fps) = fluid density at mean temperature, (in lb/cu ft) = viscosity, (in cp) Friction Factor The DarcyWeisbach formula can be rationally derived by dimensional analysis, with the exception of the friction factor f, which must be determined experimentally. The friction factor for laminar flow condition (Re < 2000) is a function of Reynolds number only: whereas, for turbulent flow (Re > 4000), is also a function of the character of pipe walls. A region known as the "critical zone" occurs between Reynolds number of approximately 2000 and In this region, the flow may be either laminar or turbulent depending upon several factors; these include changes in section or direction of flow and obstructions, such as valves in the upstream piping. The friction factor in the region is Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 10 of 36
11 indeterminate and has lower limits on laminar flow and upper limits based on turbulent flow conditions. At Reynolds numbers above approximately 4000, flow conditions become more stable and a definite friction factor can be established. This is important because it enables the spreadsheet to determine the flow characteristics of any fluid flowing in a pipe providing the viscosity and weight density at flowing conditions are known. If the flow is laminar (Re < 2000); the friction factor may be determined from the following: f 64 Re When the flow is turbulent (Re > 4000), the friction factor depends not only upon the Reynolds number but also upon the relative roughness, /D the roughness of the pipe wall, as compared to the diameter of the pipe D. For very smooth pipes such as drawn brass tubing, the friction factor decreases more rapidly with increasing Reynolds number than for pipe with comparatively rough walls. Since the character of the internal surface of commercial pipe is practically independent of the diameter, the roughness of the walls has a greater effect on the friction factor in the small sizes. Consequently, pipe of small diameters will approach the very rough conditions and, in general, will have higher friction factors than large pipes of the same material The most useful and widely accepted data of friction factors for use with the Darcy Weisbach equation was presented by L. F. Moody. Professor Moody improved upon the well established Piggott and Kemler friction factor diagram by incorporating more recent investigations and developments of many outstanding scientists. See the Moody Friction Factors Diagram in Appendix A. For turbulent flow smooth pipe with the Blasius equation f for Re up to Re for 105 < Re < 3 X 106 at least Re = For Fully Rough Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 11 of 36
12 1 / f = log( D / ) Transition between this case and smoothwall friction factor is represented by Colebrook s natural function: 1 / f = log (D/ ) 2 log Re / D f E. Associated Items Which Have Pressure Losses Valves and Fitting The pressure drop through valves and fittings are usually handled by finding the length of straight pipe of the same diameter that would have the same pressure drop as the appropriate fitting at the same flow rate. This length is referred to as the equivalent length and is added to the actual pipe length in using the DarcyWeisbach equation. Socalled minor losses occurring at the entrance to pipe, change in pipe diameter or other changes in shape are usually expressed by the following: 2 v h f K 2g therefore L K f for turbulent flow D where h f = frictional resistance in feet of fluid v = average velocity in feet/second in a pipe of corresponding diameter g = feet/second/second K = resistance coefficient for valve or fitting L/D = is the equivalent length in pipe diameters of straight pipe which will cause the same pressure drop as the valve or fitting under the same flow conditions Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 12 of 36
13 The K is a factor that varies for each case. Values of K are available in fluid mechanics texts as well as in handbooks as monographs that allow determination of equivalent length of pipe and fittings. The K resistance coefficient for a given line of valves or fittings, tend to vary with the size as does the friction factor f for straight pipe, and that the equivalent length L/D tend toward a constant for the various sizes of a given line of valves or fittings. L/D Values for Fitting and Valves The L/D values are available in fluid mechanics texts as well as in handbooks in Table form based on a particular fitting type. In the flow range of complete turbulence as defined by the friction factor chart, the K coefficient for a given size and the L/D is constant and that K varies in the same manner as the friction factor. However, since the tendency is in this direction, it is believed to provide more accurate solutions than would the assumption that K is constant for all Reynolds numbers. Therefore, within this course we will be using the fittings and valves L/D values. See Table 9 in Appendix A for typical valves and fittings L/D values and Table 8 in Appendix A for Typical Pipe Entrance and Exits K Coefficients. When we have a fitting or valve with a K coefficient the L/D would be: K L / D for turbulent flow f where f = friction factor, dimensionless K = resistance coefficient for valve or fitting L/D = is the equivalent length in pipe diameters of straight pipe which will cause the same pressure drop as the valve or fitting under the same flow conditions L D s Re 1000 L D t for laminar flow Re < 1000 where f = friction factor, dimensionless K = resistance coefficient for valve or fitting Re = Reynolds number Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 13 of 36
14 (L/D) s = (L/D) t = subscript (s) refers to the equivalent length in pipe diameters of straight pipe under laminar flow conditions where Reynolds number is less than subscript (t) refers to the equivalent length in pipe diameters determined from tests in the turbulent flow range. In some branches of the valve industry, particularly in connection with the control valves, express the capacity of a valve and the terms of flow coefficient Cv. The Cv of a valve is defined as the flow of water at 60 o F, in gallons per minute at a pressure drop of one pound per square inch d Cv = L f D 29.9d 2 K Strainer Pressure Drop Strainer pressure drop should be obtained from the manufacturer data sheets to determine proper value to use. The pressure drop depends on the type of strainer, size, flow rate, service, filtration (screen loss factor for the mesh used) and viscosity of the fluid. Increase in Friction Loss Due to Aging of Pipe The deterioration of pipes with age depends upon the chemical properties of the liquid flowing and the characteristics of the material from which the pipe is made. In general, the flow carrying capacity of a pipe line decreases with age due to roughening of the interior surface caused by corrosive products, tubercules and the like or an actual reduction in area caused by chemical deposits. The effect corresponds to a variation in friction factor due to increasing relative roughness. A wide variation in waters over the country makes it impossible for any precise estimation of this aging effect. No reputable authority will go on record to endorse friction factors for other than new pipe. This fact, however, does not eliminate the deterioration of friction factor and some means of estimation is required. Whenever records are available on the aging effects of local or similar waters it is recommended they be studied and applied as a correction to the computation of friction loss for new pipe from the DarcyWeisbach equation or any other. This is a sound and logical approach for a specific problem. In many instances, either the economics of the project does not warrant the expense of this detailed investigation or there are no available records on local or similar waters. For Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 14 of 36
15 those occasions, Table 7 in Appendix A may be used with caution and discretion. It is based upon the best available data. It will be obvious there is no sudden increase in aging effect between 10 inch and 12inch pipe as indicated from Table  7. The values shown are composites of many tests grouped by the experimenter. A reasonable amount of interpretation and logic must be used in selecting and applying a multiplier for each specific problem. It must also be borne in mind that some test data on aging of pipe may vary up to fifty percent from the averages as shown in Table  7. Therefore, based upon the abovementioned aging information it is recommended that 15 percent be added to pipe friction loss. Recommended Water Maximum Velocities The velocities recommended for water piping depend on two conditions: 1. The service for which the pipe is to be used. 2. The effects of erosion. Table  5 in Appendix A, lists recommended velocity ranges for different services. The design of the water piping system is limited by the maximum permissible flow velocity. The maximum values listed in Table 6 is based on established permissible sound levels of moving water and entrained air, and on the effects of erosion. Erosion in water piping systems is the impingement on the inside surface of the tube or pipe of rapidly moving water containing air bubbles, sand or other solid matter. In some cases, this may mean complete deterioration of the tube or pipe walls, particularly on the bottom surface and at the elbows. Since erosion is a function of time, water velocity, and suspended materials in the water, the selection of design water velocity is a matter of judgment. The maximum water velocities presented in Table 6 is based on many years of experience and they ensure the attainment of optimum equipment life under normal conditions. Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 15 of 36
16 Sample Problem  1 Fluid Flow in Pipe The DarcyWeisbach Equation The Kentucky Water Processing Plant is going to build a new two tank atmospheric system for storing water at 70 of in a Tank designated as A and then have 0.56 cfs of water pumped to the second floor to another Tank designated as B. The piping system will have Schedule S40 pipe with a roughness factor of ,ft and the pipe is 100 feet long and is 3 inches with a inside diameter of inches. The system has a squareedged entry from Tank A, 390 deg elbows, 2 gate valves, and 1 check valve in the piping, and free discharge at Tank B. See Figure 1 below for the geometry of the piping system. Calculate the pump head in feet. Figure 1 The engineer for the project, used a density of lb/cu ft, 1.0 cp and L/D of 135 for the check valve, L/D of 13 for each of the gate valves, L/D of 20 for the 390 deg elbows which totaled 221 L/D and a K of 0.5 for the squareedged entry. He used the Fluid Flow Calc v1.0 tool to calculate the velocity, total equivalent length, pressure drop, relative roughness, Reynolds number and the friction factor. Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 16 of 36
17 Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool Density of flow = lb/cu ft Viscosity = 1.0 cp Quantity of flow = cfs Pipe Diameter = inches Fitting Total K Coeff s = 0.50 Fitting Total L/D values = 221 Length of Pipe = 100 ft Roughness Factor = , ft Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool Velocity = fps Total equivalent length = ft Pressure drop = feet of fluid Relative roughness = /D Reynolds number = 258,324 Re Friction factor = f Total Static head hs = ( ) = 65 Total Head Loss Th = hs + h f Th = Th = Feet of fluid Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 17 of 36
18 Sample Problem  2 Fluid Flow in Pipe The DarcyWeisbach Equation The Kentucky Water Processing Plant is going to pump 600 Barrels/hr of oil through a straight horizontal steel pipeline 450 feet long to an open tank. The tank is 20 feet above the pump discharge with a free discharge into the tank. The velocity shall be 7 fps maximum and with a check valve, 1 gate valve, and 390 deg elbows in the piping system. See Figure 2 below for the geometry of the piping system. Fluid properties are as follows: Density = 42 lb/cu ft Viscosity = 30 cp Figure 2 Determine the pipe size, pump total head with the fittings: The engineer for the project, used a schedule 40 steel pipe with, ft of , L/D of 135 for the check valve, L/D of 13 for the gate valves and L/D of 20 for the 390 deg elbows, which totals 208 L/D. He used the Fluid Flow Calc v.1.0 tool to calculate the maximum pipe size for the 7 fps mean velocity, Pressure drop, Relative roughness, Reynolds number and Friction factor for the above conditions. Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 18 of 36
19 Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool Density = 42 lb/cu ft Viscosity = 30 cp Quantity of flow = 600 Barrels/hr Velocity of flow = 7.00 fps Fitting Total L/D values = 208 Length of Pipe = 450 Roughness Factor = , ft Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool Pipe inside diameter = inches Total equivalent length = ft Pressure drop = feet of fluid Relative roughness = /D Reynolds number = 6,010 Re Friction factor = f Fluid Flow in Pipe The DarcyWeisbach Equation The system requires a pipe larger than inches. Therefore, the engineer selected a 5inch pipe to meet the velocity requirements. Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool New Conditions inches in the Pipe inside diameter Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool Velocity of flow = 6.73 fps Total equivalent length = ft Pressure drop = feet of fluid Relative roughness = /D Reynolds number = 5,896 Re Friction factor = f Total Static head hs = 20 Total Head Loss Th = hs + h f Th = Th = Feet of fluid Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 19 of 36
20 Sample Problem  3 Fluid Flow in Pipe The DarcyWeisbach Equation The Kentucky Water Processing Plant is going to install a new chiller to supply two cooling coils. The chiller will have a flow of 175 gpm with a pressure drop of 20 feet of fluid. Coil  A will have a flow of 100 gpm with 12 feet of fluid pressure drop and Coil B will have a flow of 75 gpm with 12 feet of fluid pressure drop. Each coil will have a control valve to control the flow with a pressure drop at the flows of 3 feet of fluid each. The piping will be schedule S40 steel and will be designed with a maximum pressure drop of 4 feet of fluid per 100 feet. See Figure 3 below for the piping geometry and nodes. Node 0 1 from the Chiller will have 2 gate valves, 6 90 deg elbows, 1 check valve and 1 tee with flow through run and 300 feet of pipe. Node 1 2 for Coil A will have 2 gate valves, 1 control valve and 1 balancing valve, 2  tee with flow through branch, 8 90 deg elbows and 250 feet of pipe. Node 1 2 for Coil B will have 2 gate valves, 1 control valve and 1 balancing valve, 2  tee with flow through run, 6 90 deg elbows and 310 feet of pipe. Node 2 3 to the pump will have 2 gate valves, 1 strainer, 1  tee with flow through run, 6 90 deg elbows and 600 feet of pipe. Determine the piping sizes and pump total head. Figure  3 The engineer for the project, used a water density of lb/cu ft, viscosity of 1.00 cp,, ft of for the pipe, L/D of 13 for the gate valves, L/D of 18 for the balancing valves, 135 for the check valve, L/D of 20 for the 90 deg elbows, L/D of 20 for the tees with flow through run, L/D of 60 for the tees with flow through branch and 0.5 feet through the strainer. He used the Fluid Flow Calc v.1.0 tool to calculate the maximum pressure drop size for the 4 feet of fluid pressure drop for the above fourpipe section. Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 20 of 36
21 The project engineer then input the data into the Fluid Flow Calc tool for each of the Nodes to determine the pipe sizes. He entered this information into a spreadsheet as shown below. Node 0 1 Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool Density = lb/cu ft Viscosity = 1.00 cp Quantity of flow = 175 gpm Length of Pipe = 100 ft feet of fluid = 4.00 Roughness Factor = , ft Node 0 1 Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool Pipe inside diameter = inches Pressure drop = 4.00 feet of fluid The project engineer then input the flow quantities with each of the pipe sizes along with the fittings, L/D valves and length of pipe for each node section into the Fluid Flow Calc tool. After getting the results, he entered this data into his spreadsheet as shown below. As can be seen below, Coil A has the maximum pressure drop along with Nodes 0 1 and 2 3. The pump total head is feet of fluid. Node 0 1 Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool Density = lb/cu ft Viscosity = 1.0 cp Quantity of flow = 175 gpm Pipe Diameter = inches Fitting Total L/D values = 301 Length of Pipe = 300 ft Roughness Factor = , ft Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 21 of 36
22 Node 0 1 Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool Velocity = 4.41 fps Total equivalent length = ft Pressure drop = 6.98 feet of fluid Relative roughness = /D Reynolds number = 137,040 Re Friction factor = f Fluid Flow in Pipe The DarcyWeisbach Equation Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 22 of 36
23 Sample Problem 4 The Kentucky Water Processing Plant needed a new city water distribution system. The pipeline will be 1,500 feet in length to connect the plant to the city water main. The pipeline has 2 Gate valves, 490 deg elbows, 1 tee with flow through branch. The total water flow will be 400 gallons per minute (gpm) for the normal operation and the Fire Department required an additional capacity of 1,500 gallons per minute. The maximum total pressure drop from the main to the plant shall not be over 22 (psi) with a maximum flow of 3,900 gpm from a flow test. The engineer for the project selected asphalt coated cast iron pipe with a roughness factor of Water density of lb/cu.ft. and cp of For the fittings, he used an L/D of 13 for the two gate valves, L/D of 20 for the 490 degree elbows and L/D of 60 for the tee, which totals 166 L/D. He applied a safety factor of 15% to the fluid flow. He used the Fluid Flow Calc v1.0 tool to calculate the pipe size required for the project. Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool Density = lb/cu ft Viscosity = 1.00 cp Quantity of flow = 2,185 gpm Fitting Total L/D values = 166 Length of Pipe = 1,500 ft Pressure drop = 22 psi Roughness factor = , ft Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool Total equivalent length = 1,633.3 (ft) Pipe inside diameter = inch Relative roughness = /D Reynolds number = 715,912 Re Friction factor = f Pressure drop = psi of fluid With the above information the engineer selected a 10inch diameter pipe with an inside diameter of 10 inches. Again, he entered the new pipe size into the Fluid Flow Calc tool to determine the maximum flow with the limitations of 22 psi. Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 23 of 36
24 Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool inches in the Pipe inside diameter Column Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool Quantity of flow = 2,414 gpm Total equivalent length = 1,638.3 (ft) Relative roughness = /D Reynolds number = 761,916 Re Friction factor = f Pressure drop = psi of fluid The new flow of 2,414 gpm would allow for a plant growth capacity of only 229 gpm. Therefore, the engineer looked at a 12inch pipe to allow for plant growth and he used the Fluid Flow tool to determine the maximum pressure drop through this pipe size and maximum flow of 3,900 gpm. Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool Quantity of flow = 3,900 gpm Pipe inside diameter = 12.0 inches Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool Total equivalent length = 1,666.0 (ft) Relative roughness = /D Reynolds number = 1,025,778 Re Friction factor = f Pressure drop = psi of fluid The engineer reported that a 12inch pipe would be of adequate size to meet the current flow requirements and future growth of the plant to 1,715 gpm maximum. The project manager decided to accept the recommendations and install a 12inch pipe line. Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 24 of 36
25 Sample Problem  5 The Kentucky Water Processing Plant has new a sump pump with a capacity of 400 gpm with a total dynamic head of 95 feet that needs to be installed in a 12foot deep sump and pump the discharge to a gravity sewer located 1,200 feet from the top of the sump at elevation 0 feet. The discharge pipe will have 1 check valve, 1 gate valve, degree long radius elbows and a sharp edged exit discharged into the sewer. The pipe material will be schedule 40 PVC. The velocity shall not be under 2 fps minimum and the maximum shall not be over 8 fps. See Figure 4 below for the geometry of the piping system. Fluid properties are as follows: Density = lb/cu ft Viscosity = 1.00 cp Determine the pipe size for the above velocity restrictions and be within the total dynamic head of the pump. Figure  4 The engineer for the project used a roughness factor of 0.000,005, ft for the pipe, 135 L/D for the check valve, L/D of 13 for the gate valves and L/D of 20 for the degree elbows, which totals 348 L/D. He used a K of 1.0 for the sharp edged exit to the sewer. He applied a safety factor of 15% to the feet of fluid pressure drop. The total dynamic head less the 30 feet of static head witch equals feet of fluid pressure drop maximum (95 30) * 0.85 He used the Fluid Flow Calc v1.0 tool to calculate the required pipe size for the project velocity restrictions. Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 25 of 36
26 Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool Density = lb/cu ft Viscosity = 1.00 cp Quantity of flow = 400 gpm Fitting total K coeff s = 1.00 Fitting Total L/D values = 348 Length of Pipe = 1,200 ft Pressure drop = feet of fluid Roughness factor = 0.000,005, ft Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool Velocity = 8.03 fps Pipe inside diameter = inches Total equivalent length = 1,356.1 ft Pressure drop = feet of fluid Relative roughness = /D Reynolds number = 279,977 Re Friction factor = f Fluid Flow in Pipe The DarcyWeisbach Equation With the above information the engineer selected a 5inch diameter pipe with an inside diameter of inches. Again, he entered the new pipe size into the Fluid Flow Calc tool to determine the pressure drop. Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool New Conditions inches in the Pipe inside diameter Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool Velocity of flow = 6.49 fps Total equivalent length = 1,373.2 ft Pressure drop = feet of fluid Relative roughness = /D Reynolds number = 251,734 Re Friction factor = f Total Static head hs = 30 Total Pump Head Th = hs + h f Th = (32.40 *.15%) Th = Feet of fluid < 95 feet Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 26 of 36
27 Sample Problem 6 Fluid Flow in Pipe The DarcyWeisbach Equation The Kentucky Water Processing Plant has a new 8inch S.A.E 70 Lube Oil line that will supply 600 barrels per hour through 200 feet of Schedule 40 pipe 8inch pipe, in which an 8inch conventional globe valve is installed. Fluid properties are as follows: Density = 56.2 lb/cu ft Viscosity = 470 cp Determine the pressure loss through the pipe and valve. The engineer for the project used a pipe inside diameter of in, roughness factor of , ft and L/D of 340 for the globe valve and used the Fluid Flow Calc v1.0 tool to calculate the total equivalent length of pipe, relative roughness, Reynolds number, friction factor and pressure drop. Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool Density = 56.2 lb/cu ft Viscosity = 470 cp Quantity of flow = 600 (B) Pipe Diameter = (in) Fitting Total L/D values = 340 Length of Pipe = 200 ft Roughness Factor = , ft Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool Total equivalent length = (ft) Relative roughness = /D Reynolds number = 322 Re Friction factor = f Pressure drop = 9.69 feet of fluid Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 27 of 36
28 Sample Problem 7 Fluid Flow in Pipe The DarcyWeisbach Equation The Kentucky Water Processing Plant has a system that needs to pump 2.5 cfs of water at 50 o F from a reservoir with an elevation of 50 feet and needs to pump the water to a reservoir with an elevation of 150 feet. The suction pipe to the pump is 8 inches diameter with a length of 1,000 feet and the discharge pipe is 6 inches diameter and is 2,000 feet long. The suction pipe has 1  gate valve, sharp edged entrance and the discharge pipe has 1 gate valve, 1 check valve, decrees long radius elbows and sharp edged exit. The pipe material shall be clean cast iron pipe. See Figure 4 below for the geometry of the piping system. Fluid properties are as follows: Density = lb/cu ft Viscosity = 1.3 cp What is the maximum feet of fluid loss for the two pipes with and without the static head of the system? Figure  4 The engineer for the project selected a roughness factor of for the pipe. For the fittings, he used an L/D of 13 for the two gate valves, L/D of 20 for the degree elbows, L/D of 135 for the check valve and used a K of 0.50 for the sharp edged entrance and a K of 1.00 for the sharp edged exit. He used the Fluid Flow Calc v1.0 tool to calculate the pressure drop for the two pipes. The suction pipe total K is 0.50, L/D is 13 and pipe inside diameter is 8 inches. Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 28 of 36
29 Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool Density = lb/cu ft Viscosity = 1.30 cp Quantity of flow = 2.5 cfs Pipe Diameter = 8.00 (in) Fitting total K Coeff s = 0.50 Fitting Total L/D values = 13 Length of Pipe = 1,000 ft Roughness Factor = , ft Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool Total equivalent length = 1,024.1 (ft) Relative roughness = /D Reynolds number = 340,640 Re Friction factor = f Pressure drop = feet of fluid Fluid Flow in Pipe The DarcyWeisbach Equation The discharge pipe total K of 1.0, L/D of 388 and pipe inside diameter of 6 inches. Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool Density = lb/cu ft Viscosity = 1.30 cp Quantity of flow = 2.5 cfs Pipe Diameter = 6.00 (in) Fitting total K Coeff s = 1.00 Fitting Total L/D values = 388 Length of Pipe = 2,000 ft Roughness Factor = , ft Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool Total equivalent length = 2,215.8 (ft) Relative roughness = /D Reynolds number = 454,187 Re Friction factor = f Pressure drop = feet of fluid The total feet of fluid loss for the two pipes is = = ft The total feet of fluid loss with the static head of the system = (15050) or ft. Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 29 of 36
30 Conclusion The objective for this course has been to develop a better understanding of the use of Darcy Weisbach equation for flow of fluids in piping systems and to give attendees a new tool for salving problems and answering questions. With the use of calculators and computers along with software the DarcyWeisbach equation should be considered the standard predictor of flow in pipes and now the Fluid Flow Calc v1.0 Tool makes it easier to use the DarcyWeisbach equation along with the appropriate other equations in this course than ever before. A final word of caution: Never rely entirely on this or any software package to give you the final answers to engineering questions. Use it to optimize and explore nut than perform your own computations to verify and crosscheck results. As a professional engineer our profession exists to protect the safety, wellbeing and other interests of the general public. So your integrity is being viewed when performing computations and designed. Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 30 of 36
31 Temperature of Water Appendix A Note: Weight per gallon is based on 7.48 gallons per cubic feet Specific gravity of water at 60 of = 1.00 Liquid Physical Properties of Water Specific Weight Volume Density Cu lb/cu ft ft/pound Table 1 Physical Properties of Water Weight Pound per Gallon Weight Density and Specific Gravity of Liquids Temp Weight Deg. Density F lb/cu ft Specific Gravity Mile to Olive Oil SAE 10 Lube SAE 30 Lube SAE 70 Lube Table 2 Weight Density and Specific Gravity of Liquids Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 31 of 36
32 Viscosity of Liquids Liquid Centipoise cp Temp Deg. F Water Gasoline Kerosene Bunker C Fuel Fuel 5 (Max) or 6 (Min) SAE 10 Lube SAE 30 Lube SAE 70 Lube Table 3 Viscosity of Liquids Relative Roughness of Pipe Materials Material e, ft Glass, new commercial pipe surfaces, drawn typing 0.000,005 (brass, copper, lead) Asphalted cast iron Cast iron Commercial steel or wrought iron Concrete Drawn Tubing 0.000,005 Galvanized iron Riveter steel Schedule 40 PVC 0.000,005 Wood stave Table 4 Relative Roughness of Pipe Materials Recommended Water Velocity Service Velocity Range (fps) Pump discharge 8 12 Pump suction 4 7 Drain line 4 7 Header 4 15 Riser 3 10 General service 5 10 City water 3 7 Table 5 Recommended Water Velocity Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 32 of 36
33 Maximum Water Velocity To Minimize Erosion Normal Operation hr/year Water Velocity (fps) Table 6 Maximum Water Velocity To Minimize Erosion Increase In Friction Loss Due To Aging Of Pipe Age of Pipe in Years Small Pipes 4in to 10in Large Pipes 12in to 60in New Note: Multiplies for use with new pipe loss. Use this table with extreme care. Table 7 Increase in Friction Loss Due To Aging of Pipe Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 33 of 36
34 Resistance Due to Pipe Entrance and Exit Type Picture K Inward Projecting Pipe Entrance 0.78 Sharp Edged Entrance 0.50 Slightly Rounded Entrance 0.23 Well Rounded Entrance 0.04 Projecting Pipe Exit 1.00 Sharp Edged Exit 1.00 Rounded Exit 1.00 Table 8 Typical Pipe Entrance and Exits K Coefficients Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 34 of 36
35 Equivalent Length in Pipe Diameters (L/D) of Valves and Fittings Type Description L/D Angle valves with no obstruction in flat, bevel, or plug type seat 145 with wing or pin guided disc 200 Globe valves with no obstruction in flat, bevel, or plug type seat 340 with wing or pin guided disc 450 Gate valves Wedge, Disc, Double Disc, or Plug Disc Fully open 13 Threequarters open 35 Onehalf open 160 Onequarter open 900 Check valves Conventional Swing 135 Clearway Swing 50 Globe Lift or Stop; Stem Perpendicular to Run or YPattern Same as Globe Angle Lift or Stop Same as Globe InLine Ball 150 Foot Valves with With poppet lifttype disc 420 Strainer With leatherhinged disc 75 Butterfly Valve 8inch and larger 40 Cocks StraightThrough 44 ThreeWay 140 Fittings Elbows 90 Degree Standard Elbow Degree Standard Elbow Degree Long Radius Elbow Degree Street Elbow Degree Street Elbow 26 Square Corner Elbow 57 Fitting Standard With flow through run 20 Tee With flow through branch 60 Fitting Bands Close Pattern Return 50 Table 9 Typical Valves and Fitting L/D Values Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 35 of 36
36 Moody Friction Factors Diagram Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E. Page 36 of 36
Hydraulic losses in pipes
Hydraulic losses in pipes Henryk Kudela Contents 1 Viscous flows in pipes 1 1.1 Moody Chart.................................... 2 1.2 Types of Fluid Flow Problems........................... 5 1.3 Minor
More informationPipe FlowFriction Factor Calculations with Excel
Pipe FlowFriction Factor Calculations with Excel Course No: C03022 Credit: 3 PDH Harlan H. Bengtson, PhD, P.E. Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980
More informationPressure drop in pipes...
Pressure drop in pipes... PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS Pressure drop or head loss, occurs in all piping systems because of elevation changes, turbulence caused by abrupt changes in direction, and friction
More informationViscous Flow in Pipes
Viscous Flow in Pipes Excerpted from supplemental materials of Prof. KuangAn Chang, Dept. of Civil Engin., Texas A&M Univ., for his spring 2008 course CVEN 311, Fluid Dynamics. (See a related handout
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and
More informationhosetohose coupling pumptohose coupling
pipe_02 A homeowner plans to pump water from a stream in their backyard to water their lawn. A schematic of the pipe system is shown in the figure. 3 m 1 m inlet pipetopump coupling stream reentrant
More informationFLUID FLOW Introduction General Description
FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you
More informationPacific Pump and Power
Pacific Pump and Power 91503 Nukuawa Street Kapolei, Hawaii 96707 Phone: (808) 6728198 or (800) 9755112 Fax: (866) 4240953 Email: sales@pacificpumpandpower.com Web: www.pacificpumpandpower.com Table
More informationFluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems
Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems Welcome back to the video course on Fluid Mechanics. In today
More informationExperiment 3 Pipe Friction
EML 316L Experiment 3 Pipe Friction Laboratory Manual Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department College of Engineering FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Nomenclature Symbol Description Unit A crosssectional
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Robert L. Mott University of Dayton PEARSON Prentkv Pearson Education International CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 The Big Picture
More informationSYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA INTRODUCTION In the engineering of thermoplastic piping systems, it is necessary to have not only a working knowledge of piping design but also an awareness of a number of the
More information138.255 Section 4 Page 2. Flow in Pipes
Flow in Pipes 138.255 Section 4 Page 2 Flow in Pipes 1.0 INTRODUCTION In this module we are focusing on the fundamental principles of headloss and we learn how to use headloss charts to estimate the headloss
More informationHYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF PIPE LINED WITH MADISON S 100% SOLIDS STRUCTURAL POLYURETHANE COATINGS
HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF PIPE LINED WITH MADISON S 100% SOLIDS STRUCTURAL POLYURETHANE COATINGS Shiwei William Guan, Ph.D. Vice President, R&D and International Business Madison Chemical Industries Inc. 490
More informationUNIT CONVERSION  Inches of Water to PSF
PROPERTIES OF AIR/VELOCITY UNIT CONVERSION  Inches of Water to PSF PURPOSE: To Illustrate to the student the procedure for converting Inches Of Water to PSF and canceling units. 1) Often times in the
More informationSIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING
APPENDIX A (IFGS) SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING (This appendix is informative and is not part of the code.) A.1 General. To determine the size of piping used in a gas piping system, the following
More informationFor Water to Move a driving force is needed
RECALL FIRST CLASS: Q K Head Difference Area Distance between Heads Q 0.01 cm 0.19 m 6cm 0.75cm 1 liter 86400sec 1.17 liter ~ 1 liter sec 0.63 m 1000cm 3 day day day constant head 0.4 m 0.1 m FINE SAND
More informationME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts
ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Mechanical Engineering Department Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey csert@metu.edu.tr
More informationStrength and Durability for Life HYDRAULICS. Hydraulic Analysis of Ductile Iron Pipe
Strength and Durability for Life HYDRAULICS Hydraulic Analysis of Last Revised: August 2016 Head Loss Friction head loss or drop in pressure in a pipeline is an everyday concern for the water works engineer.
More informationSIZING OF WATER PIPING SYSTEM
SIZING OF WATER PIPING SYSTEM SECTION E101 GENERAL E101.1 Scope. E101.1.1 This appendix outlines two procedures for sizing a water piping system (see Sections E103.3 and E201.1). The design procedures
More informationFluid Dynamics Viscosity. Dave Foster Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rochester Email: dafoster@che
Fluid Dynamics Viscosity Dave Foster Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rochester Email: dafoster@che che.rochester.eduedu 1 Chemical Engineering What do Chemical Engineers Do? Manufacturing
More informationE 490 Fundamentals of Engineering Review. Fluid Mechanics. M. A. Boles, PhD. Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
E 490 Fundamentals of Engineering Review Fluid Mechanics By M. A. Boles, PhD Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering North Carolina State University Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy 1. A block
More informationThe Irrigation Innovators
FRICTION TABLES The Irrigation Innovators 0 0 0...0.... 0....0. 0... 0.....0... 0. 0.....0....... 0.....0.. 0. 0.....0.. 0..... 0....0..0 0. 0........00..0....0.0.0 0.... 0. 0.0 0..0....0..........0..
More informationpumping liquids JET PUMP TECHNICAL DATA
Section 000 Bulletin 00 Issued 5/87 Replaces /8 JET PUMP TECHNICAL DATA pumping liquids This technical bulletin includes general information about Penberthy Jet Pumps plus specific details for selecting
More informationChapter 8: Flow in Pipes
Objectives 1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow 2. Calculate the major and minor losses associated with pipe flow in piping networks
More informationDETERMINING TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD
DETERMINING TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD The total dynamic head of a water system must be considered when determining the size of pumping equipment to be installed. It determines the various head losses that the
More informationPUMPS STEAM TURBINES BUILDING & FIRE WASTEWATER SERVICE PUMP CLINIC 22 VISCOSITY
PUMP CLINIC 22 VISCOSITY The viscosity of a fluid is that property which tends to resist a shearing force. It can be thought of as the internal friction resulting when one layer of fluid is made to move
More informationFluid Mechanics Definitions
Definitions 91a1 Fluids Substances in either the liquid or gas phase Cannot support shear Density Mass per unit volume Specific Volume Specific Weight % " = lim g#m ( ' * = +g #V $0& #V ) Specific Gravity
More informationPipe Loss Experimental Apparatus
Pipe Loss Experimental Apparatus Kathleen Lifer, Ryan Oberst, Benjamin Wibberley Ohio Northern University Ada, OH 45810 Email: bwibberley@onu.edu Abstract The objective of this project was to develop
More informationPiping Hydraulic Line Design and Sizing Software KLM Technology Group
Piping Hydraulic Line Design and Sizing Software KLM Technology Group Practical Engineering Guidelines for Processing Plant Solutions #0312 Block Aronia, Jalan Sri Perkasa 2 Taman Tampoi Utama 81200 Johor
More informationFluid Mechanics Prof. T.I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture  22 Laminar and Turbulent flows
Fluid Mechanics Prof. T.I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture  22 Laminar and Turbulent flows Welcome back to the video course on fluid mechanics. So
More informationLECTURE 1: Review of pipe flow: DarcyWeisbach, Manning, HazenWilliams equations, Moody diagram
LECTURE 1: Review of pipe flow: DarcyWeisbach, Manning, HazenWilliams equations, Moody diagram 1.1. Important Definitions Pressure Pipe Flow: Refers to full water flow in closed conduits of circular
More informationPractice Problems on Pumps. Answer(s): Q 2 = 1850 gpm H 2 = 41.7 ft W = 24.1 hp. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 16 Last Updated: 2010 Oct 29
_02 A centrifugal with a 12 in. diameter impeller requires a power input of 60 hp when the flowrate is 3200 gpm against a 60 ft head. The impeller is changed to one with a 10 in. diameter. Determine the
More informationHEAVY OIL FLOW MEASUREMENT CHALLENGES
HEAVY OIL FLOW MEASUREMENT CHALLENGES 1 INTRODUCTION The vast majority of the world s remaining oil reserves are categorised as heavy / unconventional oils (high viscosity). Due to diminishing conventional
More informationFig. 1. The velocity distribution will be linear over the distance dx, and experiments show that the velocity
Viscosity The viscosity of a fluid is that property which tends to resist a shearing force. It can be thought of as the internal friction resulting when one layer of fluid is made to move in relation to
More informationThe Viscosity of Fluids
Experiment #11 The Viscosity of Fluids References: 1. Your first year physics textbook. 2. D. Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other States of Matter (Cambridge Press, 1991). 3. J.R. Van Wazer et
More informationSelecting a Centrifugal Pump to Handle a Viscous Liquid
Copyright 2002, 2005, 2008 Randall W. Whitesides, P.E. Introduction This course provides the student with an understanding of fluid viscosity and its effects on the performance of centrifugal pump operation.
More informationEquivalents & Conversion Factors 406 Capacity Formulas for Steam Loads 407 Formulas for Control Valve Sizing 408409
Engineering Data Table of Contents Page No. I II Formulas, Conversions & Guidelines Equivalents & Conversion Factors 406 Capacity Formulas for Steam Loads 407 Formulas for Control Sizing 408409 Steam
More informationFluid Mechanics: Static s Kinematics Dynamics Fluid
Fluid Mechanics: Fluid mechanics may be defined as that branch of engineering science that deals with the behavior of fluid under the condition of rest and motion Fluid mechanics may be divided into three
More informationTechnical Bulletin TB8102 Rupture Disc Sizing
Technical Bulletin TB8102 Rupture Disc Sizing The objective of this bulletin is to provide detailed guidance for sizing rupture discs using standard methodologies found in ASME Section VIII Div. 1, API
More informationGas Distribution and Transportation
Piping System Includes: Pipe Fittings (e.g. elbows, reducers, branch connections, etc.) Flanges, gaskets, bolting Valves Associations involved in generating Codes for piping Design Engineering: ASME ANSI
More informationPacific Pump and Power
Pacific Pump and Power 91503 Nukuawa Street Kapolei, Hawaii 96707 Phone: (808) 6728198 or (800) 9755112 Fax: (866) 4240953 Email: sales@pacificpumpandpower.com Web: www.pacificpumpandpower.com Pumps
More informationPiping Systems. General considerations
SRAC Publication No. 373 May 2013 Revision PR VI Piping Systems J. David Bankston, Jr. and Fred Eugene Baker 1 A piping system allows the controlled movement of water from one location to another. It consists
More informationEngineering Information For PDC Butterfly Valves
Engineering Information For PDC Butterfly Valves Valve Sizing: Cv sizing is the most widely used method for valve sizing, today. By using the Cv method, the proper valve size can be accurately determined
More informationPipe Flow Expert. Verification of Calculation Results
http://www.pipeflow.com Pipe Flow Expert Fluid Flow and Pressure Loss Calculations Software Verification of Calculation Results Table of Contents Results Data: Systems Solved by Pipe Flow Expert Introduction...
More informationFigure 1. Head losses in a pipe
53:071 Principles of Hydraulics Laboratory Experiment #1 ENERGY AND HYDRAULIC GRADE LINES IN WATER PIPE SYSTEMS Principle The energy of a real fluid decreases as it moves through a pipe. The energy budget
More informationHigher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department. Lectures of. Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Amir M. Mobasher
Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Lectures of Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher 1/14/2013 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir Mobasher Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering
More informationCHAPTER 2 HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS
CHAPTER 2 HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS SANITARY SEWERS The hydraulic design procedure for sewers requires: 1. Determination of Sewer System Type 2. Determination of Design Flow 3. Selection of Pipe Size 4. Determination
More informationCEE 370 Fall 2015. Laboratory #3 Open Channel Flow
CEE 70 Fall 015 Laboratory # Open Channel Flow Objective: The objective of this experiment is to measure the flow of fluid through open channels using a Vnotch weir and a hydraulic jump. Introduction:
More informationSelecting a Vertical Turbine Pump (Information required from client)
Selecting a Vertical Turbine Pump (Information required from client) 1. Liquid to be pumped: (Note: If liquid is not clear water, the following must also be ascertained). a. Foreign material present in
More informationFIGURE P8 50E FIGURE P8 62. Minor Losses
8 48 Glycerin at 40 C with r 1252 kg/m 3 and m 0.27 kg/m s is flowing through a 4cmdiameter horizontal smooth pipe with an average velocity of 3.5 m/s. Determine the pressure drop per 10 m of the pipe.
More informationAPPENDIX A RECOMMENDED RULES FOR SIZING THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
APPENDIX A RECOMMENDED RULES FOR SIZING THE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM Because of the variable conditions encountered, it is impractical to lay down definite detailed rules of procedure for determining the sizes
More informationXI / PHYSICS FLUIDS IN MOTION 11/PA
Viscosity It is the property of a liquid due to which it flows in the form of layers and each layer opposes the motion of its adjacent layer. Cause of viscosity Consider two neighboring liquid layers A
More informationADS, Inc. Drainage Handbook Hydraulics 31
ADS, Inc. Drainage Handbook Hydraulics 31 30 HYDRAULICS TABLE OF CONTENTS 31 Overview of Hydraulic Considerations... 32 32 Design Manning s Value... 32 33 Discharge Curves... 34 33 The Conveyance
More informationCHAPTER 8 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
CHAPTER 8 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS Distribution system is a network of pipelines that distribute water to the consumers. They are designed to adequately satisfy the water requirement for a combination
More informationModule 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide
Module 9: Basics of Pumps and Hydraulics Instructor Guide Activities for Unit 1 Basic Hydraulics Activity 1.1: Convert 45 psi to feet of head. 45 psis x 1 ft. = 103.8 ft 0.433 psi Activity 1.2: Determine
More informationValve Pressure Loss & Flow
Valve Pressure Loss & Flow The valve coefficient, Cv, is a number which represents the capability of a valve (or any flow component) to flow a fluid. The larger the Cv, the larger the flow at a given pressure
More informationApplication of the Orifice Meter for Accurate Gas Flow Measurement page 1. Application of the Orifice Meter for Accurate Gas Flow Measurement.
Application of the Orifice Meter for Accurate Gas Flow Measurement page 1 DANIEL MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL WHITE PAPER Application of the Orifice Meter for Accurate Gas Flow Measurement www.daniel.com Summary
More informationChapter 8 Fluid Flow
Chapter 8 Fluid Flow GOALS When you have mastered the contents of this chapter, you will be able to achieve the following goals: Definitions Define each of the following terms, and use it in an operational
More informationCHAPTER II UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS MODULE 1. This experiment was designed to observe the characteristics of uniform flow in
CHAPTER II UNIFORM FLOW AND ITS FORMULAS MODULE 1 2.1 Introduction and Objective This experiment was designed to observe the characteristics of uniform flow in the teaching flume and to utilize the common
More informationPipe Sizes For Water Distribution System Design
Appendix D Pipe Sizes For Water Distribution System Design D. This appendix contains information to help determine pipe sizes when designing a water distribution system. Use Table D and Tables D through
More informationCONTROL VALVE PRESSURE DROP AND SIZING
CONTENT Chapter Description Page I Purpose of Control Valve II Type and Main Components of Control Valve 3 III Power 5 IV. Pressure Drop Across Control Valve 7 V. Symbols and Units 10 VI. Unit Conversion
More informationExample Systems. PipeFlow is a trading name of Daxesoft Ltd.
Example Systems PipeFlow is a trading name of Daxesoft Ltd. http://www.pipeflow.com http://www.pipeflow.co.uk 2 Pipe Flow Expert Example Systems Copyright Notice 2012 All Rights Reserved Daxesoft Ltd.
More informationThe Viscosity of Fluids
Experiment #11 The Viscosity of Fluids References: 1. Your first year physics textbook. 2. D. Tabor, Gases, Liquids and Solids: and Other States of Matter (Cambridge Press, 1991). 3. J.R. Van Wazer et
More informationHayward Hydraulics and Pump Sizing For Existing Pools
Hayward Hydraulics and Pump Sizing For Existing Pools Copyright 2011 Hayward Industries Table of Contents Introduction Page 1 Hydraulic Terms & Definitions Pages 24 Hydraulic Example Page 5 How To Determine
More informationPractice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22
BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =
More informationPlumbing Engineering & Design Handbook of Tables
American Society of Plumbing Engineers Plumbing Engineering & Design Handbook of Tables American Society of Plumbing Engineers 8614 W. Catalpa Avenue, Suite 1007 Chicago, IL 606561116 Chapter 1 Manning
More informationSIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING (Not Adopted by the State of Oregon)
(IFGS) SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING (Not Adopted by the State of Oregon) (This appendix is informative and is not part of the code. This appendix is an excerpt from the 2006 International Fuel Gas
More informationSIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING
CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL CODE MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE APPENDIX A SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING (Matrix Adoption Tables are nonregulatory, intended only as an aid to the user. See Chapter 1 for state
More informationFire Pump Layout and Sizing. Victoria B. Valentine, P.E.
Fire Pump Layout and Sizing Victoria B. Valentine, P.E. Learning Outcomes Identify the appropriate sections of NFPA 20 that apply to sizing and layout of fire pumps. Identify the components of a fire pump
More informationExperiment # 3: Pipe Flow
ME 05 Mechanical Engineering Lab Page ME 05 Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Spring Quarter 00 Experiment # 3: Pipe Flow Objectives: a) Calibrate a pressure transducer and two different flowmeters (paddlewheel
More informationSANITARY SEWER SPECIFICATIONS
SANITARY SEWER SPECIFICATIONS OCTOBER 2003 HARVESTMONROVIA WATER, SEWER, AND FIRE PROTECTION AUTHORITY SECTION 1.00 1.10 Purpose The purpose of this document is to assemble the sewer specifications, policies,
More informationTYPES OF FLUID FLOW. Laminar or streamline flow. Turbulent flow
FLUID DYNAMICS We will deal with Intrinsic properties of fluids Fluids behavior under various conditions Methods by which we can manipulate and utilize the fluids to produce desired results TYPES OF FLUID
More informationCalculating Horsepower Requirements and Sizing Irrigation Supply Pipelines
B6011 Calculating Horsepower Requirements and Sizing Irrigation Supply Pipelines Guy Fipps* Pumping costs are often one of the largest single expenses in irrigated agriculture. Table 1 shows typical fuel
More informationGeneral Engineering Data
CONTENTS STEAM PIPING........................................................... 3 WATER PIPING........................................................... 3 NATURAL GAS PIPING.....................................................
More informationLIVESTOCK WATER SYSTEM DESIGN #2. Selecting Small Diameter Pipe
Livestock Watering Order No. 590.3042 January 2006 LIVESTOCK WATER SYSTEM DESIGN #2 Selecting Small Diameter Pipe This Factsheet describes types of pipe, pressure rating systems used, and how to select
More informationExperiment (13): Flow channel
Introduction: An open channel is a duct in which the liquid flows with a free surface exposed to atmospheric pressure. Along the length of the duct, the pressure at the surface is therefore constant and
More informationMinor losses include head losses through/past hydrants, couplers, valves,
Lecture 10 Minor Losses & Pressure Requirements I. Minor Losses Minor (or fitting, or local ) hydraulic losses along pipes can often be estimated as a function of the velocity head of the water within
More informationCity of South Salt Lake Fire Marshal Regulations for Water Based Fire Protection and Water Supply Systems
City of South Salt Lake Fire Marshal Regulations for Water Based Fire Protection and Water Supply Systems Rev. Oct. 2012 1 Fire Flow 508.1 Required water supply. An approved water supply capable of supplying
More informationINTERNATIONAL FIRE TRAINING CENTRE
INTERNATIONAL FIRE TRAINING CENTRE FIREFIGHTER INITIAL HYDRAULICS Throughout this note he means he/she and his means his/hers. Areas In bold type are considered to be of prime importance. INTRODUCTION
More informationHead Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids
Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Dr. J. M. Meyers Dr. D. G. Fletcher Dr. Y. Dubief 1. Introduction Last lab you investigated flow loss in a pipe due to the roughness
More informationVogt Valves The Connection Bulletin for Forged Steel Flow Control Valves CB 15
The Connection Bulletin for Forged Steel Flow Control Valves CB 15 Flow Control Division Forged Steel Flow Control Valves GRADUATED DIAL AND INDICATOR FULLY GUIDED VPORT THROTTLING DISC AND INTEGRAL HARD
More informationTechnical Reference. Technical Reference. Table of Contents
Technical Reference Table of Contents Spray Performance Considerations Basic Nozzle Characteristics... A2 Capacity.... A4 Specific Gravity........................................... A4 Spray Angle and
More informationPump Formulas Imperial and SI Units
Pump Formulas Imperial and Pressure to Head H = head, ft P = pressure, psi H = head, m P = pressure, bar Mass Flow to Volumetric Flow ṁ = mass flow, lbm/h ρ = fluid density, lbm/ft 3 ṁ = mass flow, kg/h
More informationSharpCrested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement, Course #506. Presented by:
SharpCrested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement, Course #506 Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite.com A weir is basically an obstruction in an open channel
More informationAvoiding Pump Wear in Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Wear Avoiding Pump Wear in Centrifugal Pumps Introduction: In the moment of starting a new pump, that pump is headed for a day when it will need repair even if the design and operation is correct.
More informationThese slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers to the problems are given in the last slide.
Fluid Mechanics FE Review Carrie (CJ) McClelland, P.E. cmcclell@mines.edu Fluid Mechanics FE Review These slides contain some notes, thoughts about what to study, and some practice problems. The answers
More informationEDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA. PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS of FLUID MECHANICS UNIT 13 NQF LEVEL 3
EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS of FLUID MECHANICS UNIT 13 NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIOUR OF FLUIDS TUTORIAL 1  SURFACE TENSION
More informationCHE 253M Experiment No. 3 LIQUID FLOW MEASUREMENT
Rev 8/15 AW/GW CHE 253M Experiment No. 3 LIQUID FLOW MEASUREMENT The objective of this experiment is to familiarize the student with several types of flowmeasuring devices commonly used in the laboratory
More informationApplied Fluid Mechanics
Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 7. General Energy Equation
More informationWater hammering in fire fighting installation
Water hammering in fire fighting installation Forward One of major problems raised in the fire fighting network installed at Pioneer company for pharmaceutical industry /Sulaymania was the high water hammering
More informationSpecific Volume of Liquid (Column 7). The volume per unit of mass in cubic feet per pound.
Steam Tables What They Are How to Use Them The heat quantities and temperature/ pressure relationships referred to in this Handbook are taken from the Properties of Saturated Steam table. Definitions of
More informationCENTRIFUGAL PUMP OVERVIEW Presented by Matt Prosoli Of Pumps Plus Inc.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP OVERVIEW Presented by Matt Prosoli Of Pumps Plus Inc. 1 Centrifugal Pump Definition Centrifugal Pump can be defined as a mechanical device used to transfer liquid of various types. As
More informationDesign of PE Piping Systems
155 Introduction Design of a PE piping system is essentially no different than the design undertaken with any ductile and flexible piping material. The design equations and relationships are wellestablished
More informationBASIC PUMPING STANDARD OPERATING GUIDELINE
BASIC PUMPING STANDARD OPERATING GUIDELINE DATE APPROVED: March 2008 DATE REVISED: June 2014 I. Scope This standard establishes a guideline for pumping a fire apparatus. II. Definitions 1. Appliance A
More informationMEASUREMENT. Historical records indicate that the first units of length were based on people s hands, feet and arms. The measurements were:
MEASUREMENT Introduction: People created systems of measurement to address practical problems such as finding the distance between two places, finding the length, width or height of a building, finding
More informationOpen Channel Flow. M. Siavashi. School of Mechanical Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology
M. Siavashi School of Mechanical Engineering Iran University of Science and Technology W ebpage: webpages.iust.ac.ir/msiavashi Email: msiavashi@iust.ac.ir Landline: +98 21 77240391 Fall 2013 Introduction
More informationChapter 9: The Behavior of Fluids
Chapter 9: The Behavior of Fluids 1. Archimedes Principle states that A. the pressure in a fluid is directly related to the depth below the surface of the fluid. B. an object immersed in a fluid is buoyed
More informationSpecial Linings for unusual service conditions. Please contact ACIPCO.
Linings Linings Along with technical and metallurgical advancement in piping materials, research on lining requirements for pipe and fittings has resulted in the development of linings to meet many different
More information