Revision problem. Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612. Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Revision problem. Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612. Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away."

Transcription

1 Revision problem Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612 Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away. 1

2 Optical Instruments Thin lens equation Refractive power Cameras The human eye Combining lenses Resolution 2

3 Optical Instruments - continued Optical imaging and color in medicine Integral part of diagnosis 3

4 Thin lens equation Instead of using ray tracing, we can use similar triangles to find the relationship between f, s and s 4

5 Thin lens equation Magnification triangles: m h h s s 5

6 Thin lens equation Focusing triangles: h s f h f 6

7 Thin lens equation Combining h s f s h f s 1 s f 1 1 s sf f s 7

8 Thin lens equation Focal length, f Distance from object to lens, s Distance from image to lens, s 1 f 1 s 1 s 8

9 Object distance, s Sign conventions is always positive for this course. Focal length, f is positive for converging lens, or concave mirror Is negative for diverging lens or convex mirror Magnification, M, and image height, h are positive when image is upright are negative when image is inverted 9

10 Image distance s Sign conventions Is positive for real images Is negative for virtual images 10

11 Sign Conventions for Lenses and Mirrors 11 Slide 19-11

12 Magnification Now use a sign convention, to indicate whether image is upright (positive) or inverted (negative) M h h s s 12

13 Refractive power A thicker lens will refract light at a larger angle and have a shorter focal length, f. We define the refractive power, P, as P 1 f Measured in diopters, 1D=1m -1 13

14 Refractive power of lenses in contact If two lenses are touching (or at least, very close), their refractive powers add. Useful for lenses which are close together such as corrective eye lenses P total P P 1 2 Measured in diopters, 1D=1m -1 14

15 Camera Simple single lens camera. Image is focused by a convex lens Shutter used to allow the light into the camera Recorded on CCD (used to be photosensitive paper, 35mm in width) 15

16 Camera CCD (Charge Coupled Device) is a 2D array of 1to >20 million pixels each of which is a photosensitive semiconductor with color filter 16

17 Focusing achieved by moving the lens towards or away from the image. Camera Exposure is controlled by changing the diameter of an iris behind the lens and the shutter time 17

18 Camera exposure Exposure is related to the amount of light which is recorded. Controlled by shutter speed and iris size Shutter speed is the time the shutter is open. Needs to be shorter for fast moving images 18

19 Shutter speed is the time the shutter is open. Camera exposure Needs to be shorter for fast moving images Expressed as fractions of a second 1/500s to 1/30s 19

20 Camera exposure Iris size controls the effective diameter of the lens Measured as the f-number, the ratio of the diameter of the lens, d, and the focal length f number Focal length, f is fixed, and light intensity goes as area, (d 2 ), or 1/(f-number) 2 Labeled as f-stops on a camera f d 20

21 Human Eye Focusing by the fixed cornea, and the variable lens Exposure controlled by the iris Recorded by the retina which contains photosensitive cells 21

22 Human Eye Focusing The cornea acts as a fixed lens. Corrections to the focusing applied by stretching the ciliary muscles to curve the lens, called accommodation 22

23 Human Eye Focusing Far point lens muscles relaxed longest focal length Near point lens muscles fully contracted, shortest focal length 23

24 Corrective lenses Two common types of conditions require corrective lenses Myopia or near sightedness rays converge in front of the retina when the lens muscles are relaxed Hyperopia or far sightedness rays converge behind the retina when the lens muscles are relaxed 24

25 Add a concave lens to diverge the light rays (negative focal length) This increases the far point Correcting Myopia 25

26 Add a convex lens Correcting Hyperopia Occurs when the eye is about 50 years old, and the lens becomes less elastic, and cannot curve. 26

27 Simple Magnifying lens Increases the apparent size of an object. Angular size for the magnified object is now h tan f 27

28 Simple Magnifying lens Increases the apparent size of an object. Compare the angular size at near point and for the magnified object Magnifies up to 20 M magnified near h f h 25cm magnified near 25cm f 28

29 Compound Microscope Simplest form contains two lenses Objective lens to create real image Eyepiece lens to magnify real image 29

30 Microscope Magnification from the objective lens M obj s s f L obj 30

31 Microscope Magnification from the eyepiece lens M eye 25cm f eye 31

32 Microscope Total magnification is the product of the two M total M obj M eye f L obj 25cm f eye 32

33 Telescope Two stage magnification, but with weaker objective lens 33

34 Telescope We want the angular magnification M eye obj 34

35 Objective lens angle Telescope obj f h obj 35

36 Eyepiece lens angle Telescope eye f h eye 36

37 Telescope magnification Total magnification M eye obj f f obj eye 37

38 Reflecting Telescope Need large aperture to capture more light large objective lens. Easier to make a mirror than a lens, Newton invented a reflecting telescope. 38

39 Resolution of optical instruments Imperfections in the lens are called aberrations Two main types Spherical aberration poor focusing Chromatic aberration color dispersion n(λ) 39

40 Correcting aberrations Spherical aberration remove the edges of the lens, using a smaller iris, but reduces image intensity Chromatic aberration use 2 lenses 40

41 Resolution from the wave model Telescopes, microscopes and lenses all have dimensions >> λ Images do not, however, when the instruments are used at their limits of resolution 41

42 Resolution from the wave model To separate two circular images, we would get 2 circular diffraction patterns Airy disk with ring fringes. The central disk has a radius D 42

43 Telescope Resolution Called Rayleigh s criterion, relates the angular resolution α, wavelength, λ, and object lens diameter D 43

44 Resolution of a Microscope At the object end of a microscope, the angular separation, θ min, and minimum resolvable distance, d min will be min 1.22 D d min f min 1.22f D 44

45 Resolution of a Microscope We replace D with 2f tanφ, which is nearly 2f sinφ. d min 0.61 sin 45

46 Resolution of a Microscope Some microscopes use a transparent oil which decreases the λ, and decreases the minimum resolution d min 0.61 n sin o 46

47 d Resolving power of a Microscope The resolving power of a microscope is defined by min RP 0.61 o NA Where NA is the numerical aperture NA nsin 47

48 Resolving power of a Microscope Values of the numerical aperture are around 1 for an immersion microscope, so the resolving power of a microscope can be as small as 0.5λ, half the wavelength of light. Smaller wavelengths can be obtained by using electron microscopes, where the object is irradiated with beams of electrons, to get from 2000x magnification to x1,000,000x 48

49 Thin lens equation Refractive power Cameras The human eye Combining lenses Resolution Summary 49

2) A convex lens is known as a diverging lens and a concave lens is known as a converging lens. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Var: 1 Page Ref: Sec.

2) A convex lens is known as a diverging lens and a concave lens is known as a converging lens. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Var: 1 Page Ref: Sec. Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 4e (Giancoli) Chapter 33 Lenses and Optical Instruments 33.1 Conceptual Questions 1) State how to draw the three rays for finding the image position due to a thin

More information

Lecture 17. Image formation Ray tracing Calculation. Lenses Convex Concave. Mirrors Convex Concave. Optical instruments

Lecture 17. Image formation Ray tracing Calculation. Lenses Convex Concave. Mirrors Convex Concave. Optical instruments Lecture 17. Image formation Ray tracing Calculation Lenses Convex Concave Mirrors Convex Concave Optical instruments Image formation Laws of refraction and reflection can be used to explain how lenses

More information

Solution Derivations for Capa #14

Solution Derivations for Capa #14 Solution Derivations for Capa #4 ) An image of the moon is focused onto a screen using a converging lens of focal length (f = 34.8 cm). The diameter of the moon is 3.48 0 6 m, and its mean distance from

More information

Light and its effects

Light and its effects Light and its effects Light and the speed of light Shadows Shadow films Pinhole camera (1) Pinhole camera (2) Reflection of light Image in a plane mirror An image in a plane mirror is: (i) the same size

More information

Chapter 27 Optical Instruments. 27.1 The Human Eye and the Camera 27.2 Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics 27.3 The Magnifying Glass

Chapter 27 Optical Instruments. 27.1 The Human Eye and the Camera 27.2 Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics 27.3 The Magnifying Glass Chapter 27 Optical Instruments 27.1 The Human Eye and the Camera 27.2 Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics 27.3 The Magnifying Glass Figure 27 1 Basic elements of the human eye! Light enters the

More information

1. You stand two feet away from a plane mirror. How far is it from you to your image? a. 2.0 ft c. 4.0 ft b. 3.0 ft d. 5.0 ft

1. You stand two feet away from a plane mirror. How far is it from you to your image? a. 2.0 ft c. 4.0 ft b. 3.0 ft d. 5.0 ft Lenses and Mirrors 1. You stand two feet away from a plane mirror. How far is it from you to your image? a. 2.0 ft c. 4.0 ft b. 3.0 ft d. 5.0 ft 2. Which of the following best describes the image from

More information

Light and Sound. Pupil Booklet

Light and Sound. Pupil Booklet Duncanrig Secondary School East Kilbride S2 Physics Elective Light and Sound Name: Pupil Booklet Class: SCN 3-11a - By exploring the refraction of light when passed through different materials, lenses

More information

waves rays Consider rays of light from an object being reflected by a plane mirror (the rays are diverging): mirror object

waves rays Consider rays of light from an object being reflected by a plane mirror (the rays are diverging): mirror object PHYS1000 Optics 1 Optics Light and its interaction with lenses and mirrors. We assume that we can ignore the wave properties of light. waves rays We represent the light as rays, and ignore diffraction.

More information

Physics 116. Nov 4, 2011. Session 22 Review: ray optics. R. J. Wilkes Email: ph116@u.washington.edu

Physics 116. Nov 4, 2011. Session 22 Review: ray optics. R. J. Wilkes Email: ph116@u.washington.edu Physics 116 Session 22 Review: ray optics Nov 4, 2011 R. J. Wilkes Email: ph116@u.washington.edu ! Exam 2 is Monday!! All multiple choice, similar to HW problems, same format as Exam 1!!! Announcements

More information

First let us consider microscopes. Human eyes are sensitive to radiation having wavelengths between

First let us consider microscopes. Human eyes are sensitive to radiation having wavelengths between Optical Differences Between Telescopes and Microscopes Robert R. Pavlis, Girard, Kansas USA icroscopes and telescopes are optical instruments that are designed to permit observation of objects and details

More information

Science In Action 8 Unit C - Light and Optical Systems. 1.1 The Challenge of light

Science In Action 8 Unit C - Light and Optical Systems. 1.1 The Challenge of light 1.1 The Challenge of light 1. Pythagoras' thoughts about light were proven wrong because it was impossible to see A. the light beams B. dark objects C. in the dark D. shiny objects 2. Sir Isaac Newton

More information

Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 )

Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) 1 of 13 2/17/2016 5:28 PM Signed in as Weida Wu, Instructor Help Sign Out Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) My Courses Course Settings University Physics with Modern Physics,

More information

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

More information

Thin Lenses Drawing Ray Diagrams

Thin Lenses Drawing Ray Diagrams Drawing Ray Diagrams Fig. 1a Fig. 1b In this activity we explore how light refracts as it passes through a thin lens. Eyeglasses have been in use since the 13 th century. In 1610 Galileo used two lenses

More information

Convex Mirrors. Ray Diagram for Convex Mirror

Convex Mirrors. Ray Diagram for Convex Mirror Convex Mirrors Center of curvature and focal point both located behind mirror The image for a convex mirror is always virtual and upright compared to the object A convex mirror will reflect a set of parallel

More information

Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation

Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation 1. When light enters a medium with a higher index of refraction it is A. absorbed. B. bent away from the normal. C. bent towards from the normal. D. continues in the

More information

C) D) As object AB is moved from its present position toward the left, the size of the image produced A) decreases B) increases C) remains the same

C) D) As object AB is moved from its present position toward the left, the size of the image produced A) decreases B) increases C) remains the same 1. For a plane mirror, compared to the object distance, the image distance is always A) less B) greater C) the same 2. Which graph best represents the relationship between image distance (di) and object

More information

RAY OPTICS II 7.1 INTRODUCTION

RAY OPTICS II 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7 RAY OPTICS II 7.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents a discussion of more complicated issues in ray optics that builds on and extends the ideas presented in the last chapter (which you must read first!)

More information

How to make a Galileian Telescope

How to make a Galileian Telescope How to make a Galileian Telescope I. THE BASICS THE PRINCIPLES OF OPTICS A Galileian telescope uses just two lenses. The objective lens is convergent (plano-convex), the ocular lens is divergent (plano-concave).

More information

Physics 202 Problems - Week 8 Worked Problems Chapter 25: 7, 23, 36, 62, 72

Physics 202 Problems - Week 8 Worked Problems Chapter 25: 7, 23, 36, 62, 72 Physics 202 Problems - Week 8 Worked Problems Chapter 25: 7, 23, 36, 62, 72 Problem 25.7) A light beam traveling in the negative z direction has a magnetic field B = (2.32 10 9 T )ˆx + ( 4.02 10 9 T )ŷ

More information

7.2. Focusing devices: Unit 7.2. context. Lenses and curved mirrors. Lenses. The language of optics

7.2. Focusing devices: Unit 7.2. context. Lenses and curved mirrors. Lenses. The language of optics context 7.2 Unit 7.2 ocusing devices: Lenses and curved mirrors Light rays often need to be controlled and ed to produce s in optical instruments such as microscopes, cameras and binoculars, and to change

More information

Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV

Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV Objective Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV In this set of lab exercises, the basic properties geometric optics concerning converging lenses and mirrors will be explored. The

More information

EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS

EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS EXPERIMENT 6 OPTICS: FOCAL LENGTH OF A LENS The following website should be accessed before coming to class. Text reference: pp189-196 Optics Bench a) For convenience of discussion we assume that the light

More information

Lecture 12: Cameras and Geometry. CAP 5415 Fall 2010

Lecture 12: Cameras and Geometry. CAP 5415 Fall 2010 Lecture 12: Cameras and Geometry CAP 5415 Fall 2010 The midterm What does the response of a derivative filter tell me about whether there is an edge or not? Things aren't working Did you look at the filters?

More information

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics Physics 111.6 MIDTERM TEST #4 March 15, 2007 Time: 90 minutes NAME: (Last) Please Print (Given) STUDENT NO.: LECTURE SECTION (please

More information

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM 1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM Chapter 23 Homework Due: 8:00am on Monday, February 8, 2010 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

More information

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE RADIANT FLUX DENSITY AT THE FOCUS OF A CONVERGENCE BEAM

More information

Physics 1230: Light and Color

Physics 1230: Light and Color Physics 1230: Light and Color The Eye: Vision variants and Correction http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys1230 What does 20/20 vision mean? Visual acuity is usually measured with a Snellen chart Snellen

More information

Geometrical Optics - Grade 11

Geometrical Optics - Grade 11 OpenStax-CNX module: m32832 1 Geometrical Optics - Grade 11 Rory Adams Free High School Science Texts Project Mark Horner Heather Williams This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative

More information

Study Guide for Exam on Light

Study Guide for Exam on Light Name: Class: Date: Study Guide for Exam on Light Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used

More information

FIFTH GRADE TECHNOLOGY

FIFTH GRADE TECHNOLOGY FIFTH GRADE TECHNOLOGY 3 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SCIENCE AND MATH OVERVIEW OF FIFTH GRADE SCIENCE AND MATH WEEK 1. PRE: Interpreting data from a graph. LAB: Estimating data and comparing results

More information

Lesson 29: Lenses. Double Concave. Double Convex. Planoconcave. Planoconvex. Convex meniscus. Concave meniscus

Lesson 29: Lenses. Double Concave. Double Convex. Planoconcave. Planoconvex. Convex meniscus. Concave meniscus Lesson 29: Lenses Remembering the basics of mirrors puts you half ways towards fully understanding lenses as well. The same sort of rules apply, just with a few modifications. Keep in mind that for an

More information

Diffraction of a Circular Aperture

Diffraction of a Circular Aperture Diffraction of a Circular Aperture Diffraction can be understood by considering the wave nature of light. Huygen's principle, illustrated in the image below, states that each point on a propagating wavefront

More information

19 - RAY OPTICS Page 1 ( Answers at the end of all questions )

19 - RAY OPTICS Page 1 ( Answers at the end of all questions ) 19 - RAY OPTICS Page 1 1 ) A ish looking up through the water sees the outside world contained in a circular horizon. I the reractive index o water is 4 / 3 and the ish is 1 cm below the surace, the radius

More information

The light. Light (normally spreads out straight... ... and into all directions. Refraction of light

The light. Light (normally spreads out straight... ... and into all directions. Refraction of light The light Light (normally spreads out straight...... and into all directions. Refraction of light But when a light ray passes from air into glas or water (or another transparent medium), it gets refracted

More information

HOMEWORK 4 with Solutions

HOMEWORK 4 with Solutions Winter 996 HOMEWORK 4 with Solutions. ind the image of the object for the single concave mirror system shown in ig. (see next pages for worksheets) by: (a) measuring the radius R and calculating the focal

More information

9/16 Optics 1 /11 GEOMETRIC OPTICS

9/16 Optics 1 /11 GEOMETRIC OPTICS 9/6 Optics / GEOMETRIC OPTICS PURPOSE: To review the basics of geometric optics and to observe the function of some simple and compound optical devices. APPARATUS: Optical bench, lenses, mirror, target

More information

LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION QUESTION BANK IN SCIENCE CLASS-X (TERM-II) 10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION CONCEPTS To revise the laws of reflection at plane surface and the characteristics of image formed as well as the uses of reflection

More information

THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE

THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE In microbiology, the microscope plays an important role in allowing us to see tiny objects that are normally invisible to the naked eye. It is essential for students to learn how

More information

Physics 1230: Light and Color

Physics 1230: Light and Color Physics 1230: Light and Color Photography Photography F/number Shutter speeds Exposure Film http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys1230 Taking good photographs Lenses Digital cameras http://www.photonhead.com/beginners/

More information

Measuring the Point Spread Function of a Fluorescence Microscope

Measuring the Point Spread Function of a Fluorescence Microscope Frederick National Laboratory Measuring the Point Spread Function of a Fluorescence Microscope Stephen J Lockett, PhD Principal Scientist, Optical Microscopy and Analysis Laboratory Frederick National

More information

Microscopy. MICROSCOPY Light Electron Tunnelling Atomic Force RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES

Microscopy. MICROSCOPY Light Electron Tunnelling Atomic Force RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 Microscopy Professor Marc C. Lavoie marc.lavoie@cavehill.uwi.edu MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES MAGNIFY RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST Microscopy 1. Eyepieces 2. Diopter adjustment

More information

Chapter 36 - Lenses. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University

Chapter 36 - Lenses. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University Chapter 36 - Lenses A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University 2007 Objectives: After completing this module, you should be able to: Determine

More information

Chapter 23. The Reflection of Light: Mirrors

Chapter 23. The Reflection of Light: Mirrors Chapter 23 The Reflection of Light: Mirrors Wave Fronts and Rays Defining wave fronts and rays. Consider a sound wave since it is easier to visualize. Shown is a hemispherical view of a sound wave emitted

More information

Experiment 3 Lenses and Images

Experiment 3 Lenses and Images Experiment 3 Lenses and Images Who shall teach thee, unless it be thine own eyes? Euripides (480?-406? BC) OBJECTIVES To examine the nature and location of images formed by es. THEORY Lenses are frequently

More information

Rodenstock Photo Optics

Rodenstock Photo Optics Rogonar Rogonar-S Rodagon Apo-Rodagon N Rodagon-WA Apo-Rodagon-D Accessories: Modular-Focus Lenses for Enlarging, CCD Photos and Video To reproduce analog photographs as pictures on paper requires two

More information

OPTICAL IMAGES DUE TO LENSES AND MIRRORS *

OPTICAL IMAGES DUE TO LENSES AND MIRRORS * 1 OPTICAL IMAGES DUE TO LENSES AND MIRRORS * Carl E. Mungan U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD ABSTRACT The properties of real and virtual images formed by lenses and mirrors are reviewed. Key ideas are

More information

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

More information

Endoscope Optics. Chapter 8. 8.1 Introduction

Endoscope Optics. Chapter 8. 8.1 Introduction Chapter 8 Endoscope Optics Endoscopes are used to observe otherwise inaccessible areas within the human body either noninvasively or minimally invasively. Endoscopes have unparalleled ability to visualize

More information

Teacher s Resource. 2. The student will see the images reversed left to right.

Teacher s Resource. 2. The student will see the images reversed left to right. Answer Booklet Reflection of Light With a Plane (Flat) Mirror Trace a Star Page 16 1. The individual students will complete the activity with varying degrees of difficulty. 2. The student will see the

More information

Optical Communications

Optical Communications Optical Communications Telecommunication Engineering School of Engineering University of Rome La Sapienza Rome, Italy 2005-2006 Lecture #2, May 2 2006 The Optical Communication System BLOCK DIAGRAM OF

More information

Magnification Devices

Magnification Devices LOW VISION AIDS Optical Characteristics of the Low Vision Patient The definition of visual loss includes two components and limited resolving power or acuity, a blur that can't be eliminated with a simple

More information

Microscope Lab Introduction to the Microscope Lab Activity

Microscope Lab Introduction to the Microscope Lab Activity Microscope Lab Introduction to the Microscope Lab Activity Wendy Kim 3B 24 Sep 2010 http://www.mainsgate.com/spacebio/modules/gs_resource/ CellDivisionMetaphase.jpeg 1 Introduction Microscope is a tool

More information

LIGHT SECTION 6-REFRACTION-BENDING LIGHT From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003.

LIGHT SECTION 6-REFRACTION-BENDING LIGHT From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003. LIGHT SECTION 6-REFRACTION-BENDING LIGHT From Hands on Science by Linda Poore, 2003. STANDARDS: Students know an object is seen when light traveling from an object enters our eye. Students will differentiate

More information

MICROSCOPY. To demonstrate skill in the proper utilization of a light microscope.

MICROSCOPY. To demonstrate skill in the proper utilization of a light microscope. MICROSCOPY I. OBJECTIVES To demonstrate skill in the proper utilization of a light microscope. To demonstrate skill in the use of ocular and stage micrometers for measurements of cell size. To recognize

More information

Bio 321 Lightmicroscopy Electronmicrosopy Image Processing

Bio 321 Lightmicroscopy Electronmicrosopy Image Processing Bio 321 Lightmicroscopy Electronmicrosopy Image Processing Urs Ziegler Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis Light microscopy (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) Light microscopy (Confocal Laser Scanning

More information

Lenses and Apertures of A TEM

Lenses and Apertures of A TEM Instructor: Dr. C.Wang EMA 6518 Course Presentation Lenses and Apertures of A TEM Group Member: Anup Kr. Keshri Srikanth Korla Sushma Amruthaluri Venkata Pasumarthi Xudong Chen Outline Electron Optics

More information

1051-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II. Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002

1051-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II. Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002 05-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002 Abstract: For designing the optics of an imaging system, one of the main types of tools used today is optical

More information

Study of the Human Eye Working Principle: An impressive high angular resolution system with simple array detectors

Study of the Human Eye Working Principle: An impressive high angular resolution system with simple array detectors Study of the Human Eye Working Principle: An impressive high angular resolution system with simple array detectors Diego Betancourt and Carlos del Río Antenna Group, Public University of Navarra, Campus

More information

- the. or may. scales on. Butterfly wing. magnified about 75 times.

- the. or may. scales on. Butterfly wing. magnified about 75 times. Lecture Notes (Applications of Diffraction) Intro: - the iridescent colors seen in many beetles is due to diffraction of light rays hitting the small groovess of its exoskeleton - these ridges are only

More information

PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY)

PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY) PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY) (Three hours) (Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

Lesson. Objectives. Compare how plane, convex, and concave. State the law of reflection.

Lesson. Objectives. Compare how plane, convex, and concave. State the law of reflection. KH_BD1_SEG5_U4C12L3_407-415.indd 407 Essential Question How Do Lenses and Mirrors Affect Light? What reflective surfaces do you see in your classroom? What are the different properties of these surfaces

More information

Chapter 6 Telescopes: Portals of Discovery. How does your eye form an image? Refraction. Example: Refraction at Sunset.

Chapter 6 Telescopes: Portals of Discovery. How does your eye form an image? Refraction. Example: Refraction at Sunset. Chapter 6 Telescopes: Portals of Discovery 6.1 Eyes and Cameras: Everyday Light Sensors Our goals for learning:! How does your eye form an image?! How do we record images? How does your eye form an image?

More information

Learning Optics using Vision

Learning Optics using Vision Learning Optics using Vision Anjul Maheshwari David R. Williams Biomedical Engineering Center for Visual Science University of Rochester Rochester, NY Center for Adaptive Optics Project #42 2 INTRODUCTION

More information

Section 13.3 Telescopes and Microscopes

Section 13.3 Telescopes and Microscopes Glass correcting plate Secondary Finder scope ive Diagonal prism Equatorial drive Equatorial mount Section 13.3 Telescopes and Microscopes Tripod Not everything that we wish to see is visible to the naked

More information

In this project, you will be observing at least three objects with a telescope or binoculars, and drawing what you see.

In this project, you will be observing at least three objects with a telescope or binoculars, and drawing what you see. Telescopic Observations Materials: Paper, pencil, camera, Telescope or Binoculars In this project, you will be observing at least three objects with a telescope or binoculars, and drawing what you see.

More information

Optical Design using Fresnel Lenses

Optical Design using Fresnel Lenses Optical Design using Fresnel Lenses Basic principles and some practical examples Arthur Davis and Frank Kühnlenz Reflexite Optical Solutions Business Abstract The fresnel lens can be used in a wide variety

More information

Diffraction of Laser Light

Diffraction of Laser Light Diffraction of Laser Light No Prelab Introduction The laser is a unique light source because its light is coherent and monochromatic. Coherent light is made up of waves, which are all in phase. Monochromatic

More information

Basic Optics System OS-8515C

Basic Optics System OS-8515C 40 50 30 60 20 70 10 80 0 90 80 10 20 70 T 30 60 40 50 50 40 60 30 C 70 20 80 10 90 90 0 80 10 70 20 60 50 40 30 Instruction Manual with Experiment Guide and Teachers Notes 012-09900B Basic Optics System

More information

Imaging techniques with refractive beam shaping optics

Imaging techniques with refractive beam shaping optics Imaging techniques with refractive beam shaping optics Alexander Laskin, Vadim Laskin AdlOptica GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29, 12489 Berlin, Germany ABSTRACT Applying of the refractive beam shapers in real

More information

3D Printing LESSON PLAN PHYSICS 8,11: OPTICS

3D Printing LESSON PLAN PHYSICS 8,11: OPTICS INVESTIGATE RATIONALE Optics is commonly taught through the use of commercial optics kits that usually include a basic set of 2-4 geometric lenses (such as double convex or double concave). These lenses

More information

Care and Use of the Compound Microscope

Care and Use of the Compound Microscope Revised Fall 2011 Care and Use of the Compound Microscope Objectives After completing this lab students should be able to 1. properly clean and carry a compound and dissecting microscope. 2. focus a specimen

More information

Size Of the Image Nature Of the Image At Infinity At the Focus Highly Diminished, Point Real and Inverted

Size Of the Image Nature Of the Image At Infinity At the Focus Highly Diminished, Point Real and Inverted CHAPTER-10 LIGHT REFLECTION AND REFRACTION Light rays; are; electromagnetic in nature, and do not need material medium for Propagation Speed of light in vacuum in 3*10 8 m/s When a light ray falls on a

More information

Chapter 13 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012

Chapter 13 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012 Chapter 13 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012 You are sitting at your microscope working at high magnification trying to sort out the three-dimensional compartmentalization

More information

EXPERIMENT #1: MICROSCOPY

EXPERIMENT #1: MICROSCOPY EXPERIMENT #1: MICROSCOPY Brightfield Compound Light Microscope The light microscope is an important tool in the study of microorganisms. The compound light microscope uses visible light to directly illuminate

More information

Lenses and Telescopes

Lenses and Telescopes A. Using single lenses to form images Lenses and Telescopes The simplest variety of telescope uses a single lens. The image is formed at the focus of the telescope, which is simply the focal plane of the

More information

Physics 25 Exam 3 November 3, 2009

Physics 25 Exam 3 November 3, 2009 1. A long, straight wire carries a current I. If the magnetic field at a distance d from the wire has magnitude B, what would be the the magnitude of the magnetic field at a distance d/3 from the wire,

More information

Physics, Chapter 38: Mirrors and Lenses

Physics, Chapter 38: Mirrors and Lenses University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Robert Katz Publications Research Papers in Physics and Astronomy 1-1-1958 Physics, Chapter 38: Mirrors and Lenses Henry

More information

Lecture Notes for Chapter 34: Images

Lecture Notes for Chapter 34: Images Lecture Notes for hapter 4: Images Disclaimer: These notes are not meant to replace the textbook. Please report any inaccuracies to the professor.. Spherical Reflecting Surfaces Bad News: This subject

More information

Flat-Field IR Mega-Pixel Lens

Flat-Field IR Mega-Pixel Lens Flat-Field Mega-Pixel Lens Series Flat-Field Mega-Pixel Lens Flat-Field Mega-Pixel Lens 20.ver.02 E Specifications and Lineup Full MP Image Model Imager Size Mount Focal Length Aperture Range Zoom Ratio

More information

PHYS 39a Lab 3: Microscope Optics

PHYS 39a Lab 3: Microscope Optics PHYS 39a Lab 3: Microscope Optics Trevor Kafka December 15, 2014 Abstract In this lab task, we sought to use critical illumination and Köhler illumination techniques to view the image of a 1000 lines-per-inch

More information

Chapter 1 Parts C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012

Chapter 1 Parts C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012 Chapter 1 Parts C. Robert Bagnell, Jr., Ph.D., 2012 Figure 1.1 illustrates the parts of an upright compound microscope and indicates the terminology that I use in these notes. Figure 1.1. Parts of a Compound

More information

Optics and Geometry. with Applications to Photography Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles November 15, 2004

Optics and Geometry. with Applications to Photography Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles November 15, 2004 Optics and Geometry with Applications to Photography Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles November 15, 2004 1 Useful approximations This paper can be classified as applied

More information

Rodenstock Photo Optics

Rodenstock Photo Optics Apo-Sironar-S Apo-Macro-Sironar Apo-Grandagon Grandagon-N Accessories: Center filters Accessories: Focus-Mount Lenses for Analog Professional Photography Even in the age of digital photography, the professional

More information

Introduction to Optics

Introduction to Optics Second Edition Introduction to Optics FRANK L. PEDROTTI, S.J. Marquette University Milwaukee, Wisconsin Vatican Radio, Rome LENO S. PEDROTTI Center for Occupational Research and Development Waco, Texas

More information

MT-30 & MT-90 Series. Advanced Academic Microscopes/ Advanced Academic Polarizing Microscope INSTRUCTION MANUAL

MT-30 & MT-90 Series. Advanced Academic Microscopes/ Advanced Academic Polarizing Microscope INSTRUCTION MANUAL Introduction With your purchase of an MT-30/MT-90 series type microscope you have chosen for a quality product. The MT-30/MT-90 series type microscopes are developed for use at schools and laboratories.

More information

Microlenses immersed in nematic liquid crystal with electrically. controllable focal length

Microlenses immersed in nematic liquid crystal with electrically. controllable focal length Microlenses immersed in nematic liquid crystal with electrically controllable focal length L.G.Commander, S.E. Day, C.H. Chia and D.R.Selviah Dept of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College

More information

26 VISION AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS

26 VISION AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS CHAPTER 26 VISION AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 929 26 VISION AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS Figure 26.1 A scientist examines minute details on the surface of a disk drive at a magnification of 100,000 times. The image

More information

How does my eye compare to the telescope?

How does my eye compare to the telescope? EXPLORATION 1: EYE AND TELESCOPE How does my eye compare to the telescope? The challenge T he telescope you are about to control is a powerful instrument. So is your own eye. In this challenge, you'll

More information

Untangling the megapixel lens myth! Which is the best lens to buy? And how to make that decision!

Untangling the megapixel lens myth! Which is the best lens to buy? And how to make that decision! Untangling the megapixel lens myth! Which is the best lens to buy? And how to make that decision! 1 In this presentation We are going to go over lens basics Explain figures of merit of lenses Show how

More information

Understanding astigmatism Spring 2003

Understanding astigmatism Spring 2003 MAS450/854 Understanding astigmatism Spring 2003 March 9th 2003 Introduction Spherical lens with no astigmatism Crossed cylindrical lenses with astigmatism Horizontal focus Vertical focus Plane of sharpest

More information

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TUTORIAL

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TUTORIAL CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TUTORIAL Robert Bagnell 2006 This tutorial covers the following CLSM topics: 1) What is the optical principal behind CLSM? 2) What is the spatial resolution in X, Y,

More information

Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment

Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment 1. The speed of light found by a Michelson experiment was found to be 2.90 x 10 8 m/s. If the two hills were 20.0 km apart, what was the frequency of the

More information

Applications in Dermatology, Dentistry and LASIK Eye Surgery using LASERs

Applications in Dermatology, Dentistry and LASIK Eye Surgery using LASERs Applications in Dermatology, Dentistry and LASIK Eye Surgery using LASERs http://www.medispainstitute.com/menu_laser_tattoo.html http://www.life123.com/bm.pix/bigstockphoto_close_up_of_eye_surgery_catar_2264267.s600x600.jpg

More information

Microimaging. Abstract. 1 A view into the invisible world. 2 Rays and lenses. Imaging bees, polen and atoms March 23, 2006, Thomas Wendler

Microimaging. Abstract. 1 A view into the invisible world. 2 Rays and lenses. Imaging bees, polen and atoms March 23, 2006, Thomas Wendler Microimaging Imaging bees, polen and atoms March 23, 2006, Abstract Microimaging refers to a group of imaging modalities that go beyond the limits of spatial resolution of the human eye into the microscopic

More information

Holographically corrected microscope with a large working distance (as appears in Applied Optics, Vol. 37, No. 10, 1849-1853, 1 April 1998)

Holographically corrected microscope with a large working distance (as appears in Applied Optics, Vol. 37, No. 10, 1849-1853, 1 April 1998) Holographically corrected microscope with a large working distance (as appears in Applied Optics, Vol. 37, No. 10, 1849-1853, 1 April 1998) Geoff Andersen and R. J. Knize Laser and Optics Research Center

More information

Optical Metrology. Third Edition. Kjell J. Gasvik Spectra Vision AS, Trondheim, Norway JOHN WILEY & SONS, LTD

Optical Metrology. Third Edition. Kjell J. Gasvik Spectra Vision AS, Trondheim, Norway JOHN WILEY & SONS, LTD 2008 AGI-Information Management Consultants May be used for personal purporses only or by libraries associated to dandelon.com network. Optical Metrology Third Edition Kjell J. Gasvik Spectra Vision AS,

More information

Procedure: Geometrical Optics. Theory Refer to your Lab Manual, pages 291 294. Equipment Needed

Procedure: Geometrical Optics. Theory Refer to your Lab Manual, pages 291 294. Equipment Needed Theory Refer to your Lab Manual, pages 291 294. Geometrical Optics Equipment Needed Light Source Ray Table and Base Three-surface Mirror Convex Lens Ruler Optics Bench Cylindrical Lens Concave Lens Rhombus

More information

Near-field scanning optical microscopy (SNOM)

Near-field scanning optical microscopy (SNOM) Adviser: dr. Maja Remškar Institut Jožef Stefan January 2010 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fluorescence Raman and surface enhanced Raman 7 Conventional optical microscopy-limited resolution Two broad classes of techniques

More information

Chapter 4. Microscopy, Staining, and Classification. Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell North Carolina State University

Chapter 4. Microscopy, Staining, and Classification. Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell North Carolina State University Chapter 4 Microscopy, Staining, and Classification 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell North Carolina State University Microscopy and Staining 2012 Pearson Education Inc.

More information