Automatic and Objective Measurement of Residual Stress and Cord in Glass

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1 Automatic and Objective Measurement of Residual Stress and Cord in Glass GlassTrend - ICG TC15/21 Seminar SENSORS AND PROCESS CONTROL October 2015, Eindhoven Henning Katte, ilis gmbh copyright ilis gmbh Konrad-Zuse-Str. 22 D Erlangen +49 (9131)

2 2 ilis gmbh Products and services for the glass and optics industry Founded 1998, based in Erlangen, Germany Main activities and products: Imaging measurement of stress birefringence: StrainMatic imaging polarimeter systems StrainScope realtime polarimeter systems Optical spectrum analysis and color measurement: Chroma software package Batch calculation and glass property prediction: BatchMaker software package

3 3 Outline Motivation Fundamentals of photoelasticity Conventional stress measurement Automatic stress measurement Measurement of residual stress Measurement of cord stress

4 4 Motivation The strength of glass and plastic products and their ability to be processed is influenced strongly by mechanical stresses. Even minor residual stresses can negatively influence the function of optical materials and components. If at all residual stresses are often still determined using ordinary polariscopes or polarimeters: Imprecise and subjective method No documentation of results Whereas modern imaging methods allow an automatic and fast measurement with high resolution.

5 5 Fundamentals of Photoelasticity Refractive index? Birefringence? Polarized light? Optical isotropic? Temper number? Polarimeter? Polariscope? Quarter-wave plate? Optical retardation? Polarization angle?

6 6 Light and Refractive Index Light is an electromagnetic wave that activates the oscillation of atom electron shells in a material; this in turn produces light. wavelength zero crossing The velocity of light in a material depends on the particle density. The refractive index is the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuum to that in the material: n = c/v Ordinary glass: n ~ 1.5

7 7 Stress Birefringence Mechanical stress leads to deformation of the material structure and therefore changes the distance between the particles. If the velocity of light (and therefore the refractive index) differs in different directions the material is called birefringent. Glass normally is optically isotropic but becomes birefringent when put under mechanical load stress birefringence

8 8 Linear Polarization of Light If the electric field of the light oscillates only within one plane the light is called linearly polarized. A (linear) polarizer only lets the light waves pass that are orientated parallel to its optical axis and thus creates linearly polarized light.

9 9 Circular and Elliptical Polarization In a birefringent material the light waves spread with different speeds in the horizontal and vertical direction which results in optical retardation. Linearly polarized light leaves a birefringent material as a superposition of two light waves at right angles to one another with different phases. If the optical retardation is exactly a quarter of the wavelength the light is called circularly polarized. In general, the departing light is elliptically polarized. The grade of ellipticity is a measure of the optical birefringence.

10 10 Polarization States Relationship between ellipticity and optical retardation

11 11 Conventional Measurement Polariscopes visualize stresses by interference colors (neutral areas appear in magenta, areas with stress in blue and yellow), enabling a quick assessment of the stress level, but no exact measurement. Polarimeters allow to measure the stress at a specific point using the Sénarmont compensation method.

12 12 Polariscope Setup Detector Polarizer (crossed) Full Wave Plate Specimen Polarizer Light source

13 13 Polariscope Function Principle Polariscopes with two crossed polarizers show colored images under white illumination when placing a birefringent material in between. Stress birefringence creates elliptically polarized light which passes the second polarizer partly. The grade of extinction depends on the birefringence and on the wavelength. If a color is filtered out of the spectrum then the remaining light has the complementary color. This kind of interference color can be converted to retardations with the help of color tables. 0 nm nm

14 14 Full Wave Plate For small retardations (< 300 nm) the image is not colored; differences in retardation appear in different shades of gray. By adding a full wave plate the retardation is shifted into a colored region that can be evaluated easier, normally by 550 nm. Negative retardations then appear in yellow and positive retardations in blue. Neutral areas are magenta nm nm

15 15 Polarimeter Setup Detector Analyzer Specimen Retarder (Quarter Wave Plate) Polarizer Light source

16 16 Quarter Wave Plate (QWP) If we could determine the ellipticity of the light wave, we can directly derive the optical retardation, which is a measure of the birefringence and therefore the stress. But: Measuring the ellipticity directly is not a simple task. It would be much easier to deal with linearly polarized light. A quarter-wave plate consists of birefringent material and creates a retardation of one quarter of the wavelength. A QWP converts linearly polarized light to circularly polarized light and vice versa. Elliptically polarized light is basically transformed to linearly polarized light, too, but with a different polarization angle, which can be measured more easily.

17 17 Polarization Angle When examining a sample under two crossed polarizers, stresses appear as bright areas within the normally dark field of view. The polarization angle describes the ellipticity of the departing light and therefore is a measure of the birefringence and thus the stress in the material. The polarization angle can be measured by turning the second polarizer (named analyzer) until a bright spot becomes dark.

18 18 Visualization

19 19 Measuring Units The optical retardation R in nm can be calculated from the polarization angle using a simple formula: R = / 180 When the birefringence is homogeneous along the optical path, the optical retardation can be normalized to a standard thickness of 1 cm (for a given thickness d in mm): N = R (10 / d) ASTM C defines the unit of temper number, referring to the nominal retardation of a Strain Disk standard (which was originally used for visual comparison): ATN = R / 22.8 nm RTN = ATN (4.06 mm / d)

20 20 Automatic Measurement Automated measurement analogous to a polarimeter Rotating analyzer replaced by a special camera that analyzes different polarization states at the same time measuring head with special camera and lens sample light box with illumination and polarizer StrainScope imaging polarimeter Observation of the whole measuring area instead of individual measuring points by use of a matrix camera Computer for automatic analysis and documentation of the measuring results Objective and reproducible measurement

21 21 Principle of Measurement Determination of the polarization angle for each pixel Calculation of optical retardation (nm), normalized retardation (nm/cm), apparent or real temper number (ATN, RTN) Color-coded display of the measured values (e.g. 0 nm = blue, 32 nm = red) 10 (32 nm) 5 (16 nm) 0 (0 nm)

22 22 Result Presentation Real-time stress image Gray-scale image Measurement settings Result (max value)

23 23 Archive View Selected measurement List of all measurements Filter settings

24 24 Reproducibility (Gage R&R Analysis) Systematic analysis of the Repeatability & Reproducibility of a conventional polarimeter (manually operated) and a StrainScope. Measurement of 12 bottles (GDB 0.75l) and 8 food jars (0.5l). Each sample was measured three times by three trained operators (i.e. 12 x 3 x 3 = 108 and 8 x 3 x 3 = 72 individual measurements, respectively). Results (Total Gage R&R value): Gage Bottles Food jars Polarimeter 31.8% 60.9% StrainScope 10.9% 11.7% Gage R&R value <10%: excellent <20%: good <30%: sufficient >30%: inacceptable

25 25 Gage R&R Results (Manual Polarimeter)

26 26 Gage R&R Results (StrainScope)

27 27 Annealing Control & Optimization Each produced article has its own individual optimal cooling demand, based on production speed, article weight and wall thickness distribution. Residual stress level depends on the position in the annealing lehr. Often the annealing lehr settings are not optimal in respect to the energy usage, i.e. residual stresses are lower than acceptable Energy saving potential In order to find ideal settings, the annealing process has to be monitored with reliable measuring gages (no control without measuring). left side conveyor center right side

28 28 Measurement of Cord Stresses Inhomogeneities in the glass composition can lead to cord stresses, which can cause glass fracture. Cord stresses are often hardly visible in a polariscope or polarimeter normally used for checking annealing stress according to ASTM C-148. Instead, ring sections are cut from the cylindrical part of the container and analyzed using a polarizing microscope with a Berek compensator according to ASTM C-978. The manual measurement is time-consuming and the results are strongly dependent on the operator.

29 29 Automatic Cord Measurement The StrainMatic cord tester applies the same physical principles, but fully automates the measurement of cord stresses in bottles and jars. StrainMatic cord tester

30 30 Cord Stress Results good quality bad quality

31 31 Thank You for Your Attention! Questions?

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