Automatic and Objective Measurement of Residual Stress and Cord in Glass

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Automatic and Objective Measurement of Residual Stress and Cord in Glass"

Transcription

1 Automatic and Objective Measurement of Residual Stress and Cord in Glass GlassTrend - ICG TC15/21 Seminar SENSORS AND PROCESS CONTROL October 2015, Eindhoven Henning Katte, ilis gmbh copyright ilis gmbh Konrad-Zuse-Str. 22 D Erlangen +49 (9131)

2 2 ilis gmbh Products and services for the glass and optics industry Founded 1998, based in Erlangen, Germany Main activities and products: Imaging measurement of stress birefringence: StrainMatic imaging polarimeter systems StrainScope realtime polarimeter systems Optical spectrum analysis and color measurement: Chroma software package Batch calculation and glass property prediction: BatchMaker software package

3 3 Outline Motivation Fundamentals of photoelasticity Conventional stress measurement Automatic stress measurement Measurement of residual stress Measurement of cord stress

4 4 Motivation The strength of glass and plastic products and their ability to be processed is influenced strongly by mechanical stresses. Even minor residual stresses can negatively influence the function of optical materials and components. If at all residual stresses are often still determined using ordinary polariscopes or polarimeters: Imprecise and subjective method No documentation of results Whereas modern imaging methods allow an automatic and fast measurement with high resolution.

5 5 Fundamentals of Photoelasticity Refractive index? Birefringence? Polarized light? Optical isotropic? Temper number? Polarimeter? Polariscope? Quarter-wave plate? Optical retardation? Polarization angle?

6 6 Light and Refractive Index Light is an electromagnetic wave that activates the oscillation of atom electron shells in a material; this in turn produces light. wavelength zero crossing The velocity of light in a material depends on the particle density. The refractive index is the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuum to that in the material: n = c/v Ordinary glass: n ~ 1.5

7 7 Stress Birefringence Mechanical stress leads to deformation of the material structure and therefore changes the distance between the particles. If the velocity of light (and therefore the refractive index) differs in different directions the material is called birefringent. Glass normally is optically isotropic but becomes birefringent when put under mechanical load stress birefringence

8 8 Linear Polarization of Light If the electric field of the light oscillates only within one plane the light is called linearly polarized. A (linear) polarizer only lets the light waves pass that are orientated parallel to its optical axis and thus creates linearly polarized light.

9 9 Circular and Elliptical Polarization In a birefringent material the light waves spread with different speeds in the horizontal and vertical direction which results in optical retardation. Linearly polarized light leaves a birefringent material as a superposition of two light waves at right angles to one another with different phases. If the optical retardation is exactly a quarter of the wavelength the light is called circularly polarized. In general, the departing light is elliptically polarized. The grade of ellipticity is a measure of the optical birefringence.

10 10 Polarization States Relationship between ellipticity and optical retardation

11 11 Conventional Measurement Polariscopes visualize stresses by interference colors (neutral areas appear in magenta, areas with stress in blue and yellow), enabling a quick assessment of the stress level, but no exact measurement. Polarimeters allow to measure the stress at a specific point using the Sénarmont compensation method.

12 12 Polariscope Setup Detector Polarizer (crossed) Full Wave Plate Specimen Polarizer Light source

13 13 Polariscope Function Principle Polariscopes with two crossed polarizers show colored images under white illumination when placing a birefringent material in between. Stress birefringence creates elliptically polarized light which passes the second polarizer partly. The grade of extinction depends on the birefringence and on the wavelength. If a color is filtered out of the spectrum then the remaining light has the complementary color. This kind of interference color can be converted to retardations with the help of color tables. 0 nm nm

14 14 Full Wave Plate For small retardations (< 300 nm) the image is not colored; differences in retardation appear in different shades of gray. By adding a full wave plate the retardation is shifted into a colored region that can be evaluated easier, normally by 550 nm. Negative retardations then appear in yellow and positive retardations in blue. Neutral areas are magenta nm nm

15 15 Polarimeter Setup Detector Analyzer Specimen Retarder (Quarter Wave Plate) Polarizer Light source

16 16 Quarter Wave Plate (QWP) If we could determine the ellipticity of the light wave, we can directly derive the optical retardation, which is a measure of the birefringence and therefore the stress. But: Measuring the ellipticity directly is not a simple task. It would be much easier to deal with linearly polarized light. A quarter-wave plate consists of birefringent material and creates a retardation of one quarter of the wavelength. A QWP converts linearly polarized light to circularly polarized light and vice versa. Elliptically polarized light is basically transformed to linearly polarized light, too, but with a different polarization angle, which can be measured more easily.

17 17 Polarization Angle When examining a sample under two crossed polarizers, stresses appear as bright areas within the normally dark field of view. The polarization angle describes the ellipticity of the departing light and therefore is a measure of the birefringence and thus the stress in the material. The polarization angle can be measured by turning the second polarizer (named analyzer) until a bright spot becomes dark.

18 18 Visualization

19 19 Measuring Units The optical retardation R in nm can be calculated from the polarization angle using a simple formula: R = / 180 When the birefringence is homogeneous along the optical path, the optical retardation can be normalized to a standard thickness of 1 cm (for a given thickness d in mm): N = R (10 / d) ASTM C defines the unit of temper number, referring to the nominal retardation of a Strain Disk standard (which was originally used for visual comparison): ATN = R / 22.8 nm RTN = ATN (4.06 mm / d)

20 20 Automatic Measurement Automated measurement analogous to a polarimeter Rotating analyzer replaced by a special camera that analyzes different polarization states at the same time measuring head with special camera and lens sample light box with illumination and polarizer StrainScope imaging polarimeter Observation of the whole measuring area instead of individual measuring points by use of a matrix camera Computer for automatic analysis and documentation of the measuring results Objective and reproducible measurement

21 21 Principle of Measurement Determination of the polarization angle for each pixel Calculation of optical retardation (nm), normalized retardation (nm/cm), apparent or real temper number (ATN, RTN) Color-coded display of the measured values (e.g. 0 nm = blue, 32 nm = red) 10 (32 nm) 5 (16 nm) 0 (0 nm)

22 22 Result Presentation Real-time stress image Gray-scale image Measurement settings Result (max value)

23 23 Archive View Selected measurement List of all measurements Filter settings

24 24 Reproducibility (Gage R&R Analysis) Systematic analysis of the Repeatability & Reproducibility of a conventional polarimeter (manually operated) and a StrainScope. Measurement of 12 bottles (GDB 0.75l) and 8 food jars (0.5l). Each sample was measured three times by three trained operators (i.e. 12 x 3 x 3 = 108 and 8 x 3 x 3 = 72 individual measurements, respectively). Results (Total Gage R&R value): Gage Bottles Food jars Polarimeter 31.8% 60.9% StrainScope 10.9% 11.7% Gage R&R value <10%: excellent <20%: good <30%: sufficient >30%: inacceptable

25 25 Gage R&R Results (Manual Polarimeter)

26 26 Gage R&R Results (StrainScope)

27 27 Annealing Control & Optimization Each produced article has its own individual optimal cooling demand, based on production speed, article weight and wall thickness distribution. Residual stress level depends on the position in the annealing lehr. Often the annealing lehr settings are not optimal in respect to the energy usage, i.e. residual stresses are lower than acceptable Energy saving potential In order to find ideal settings, the annealing process has to be monitored with reliable measuring gages (no control without measuring). left side conveyor center right side

28 28 Measurement of Cord Stresses Inhomogeneities in the glass composition can lead to cord stresses, which can cause glass fracture. Cord stresses are often hardly visible in a polariscope or polarimeter normally used for checking annealing stress according to ASTM C-148. Instead, ring sections are cut from the cylindrical part of the container and analyzed using a polarizing microscope with a Berek compensator according to ASTM C-978. The manual measurement is time-consuming and the results are strongly dependent on the operator.

29 29 Automatic Cord Measurement The StrainMatic cord tester applies the same physical principles, but fully automates the measurement of cord stresses in bottles and jars. StrainMatic cord tester

30 30 Cord Stress Results good quality bad quality

31 31 Thank You for Your Attention! Questions?

Solutions for the Hollow and Float Glass Industry

Solutions for the Hollow and Float Glass Industry Solutions for the Hollow and Float Glass Industry > Residual Stress Measurement > Glass Color Measurement > Batch & Glass Property Calculation Overview Presentation, March 2015 copyright ilis gmbh, all

More information

How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer?

How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer? How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer? The axis of a linear polarizer determines the plane of polarization that the polarizer passes. There are two ways of finding the axis

More information

Stress Optics laboratory practice guide 2012

Stress Optics laboratory practice guide 2012 Stress Optics laboratory practice guide 2012 Transparent materials having internal mechanical stress are found to be birefringent, due to their anisotropic nature. That is, they demonstrate double refraction

More information

Measurements of Retardation in Polarized Light

Measurements of Retardation in Polarized Light Measurements of Retardation in Polarized Light NYMS Workshop May 2, 2012 Instructor, Mary McCann, McCann Imaging Interference Colors, a Key to Determining Retardation The sequence of colors produced in

More information

Crystal Optics of Visible Light

Crystal Optics of Visible Light Crystal Optics of Visible Light This can be a very helpful aspect of minerals in understanding the petrographic history of a rock. The manner by which light is transferred through a mineral is a means

More information

linearly polarized with polarization axis parallel to the transmission axis of the polarizer.

linearly polarized with polarization axis parallel to the transmission axis of the polarizer. Polarization Light is a transverse wave: the electric and magnetic fields both oscillate along axes that are perpendicular to the direction of wave motion. The simplest kind of radiation is said to be

More information

Wavelength-Parallel Polarization Sensor for Multi-Wavelength Optical Networks

Wavelength-Parallel Polarization Sensor for Multi-Wavelength Optical Networks Wavelength-Parallel Polarization Sensor for Multi-Wavelength Optical Networks Xiang (Shawn) Wang wang7@ecn.purdue.edu Andrew M. Weiner amw@ecn.purdue.edu Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 This

More information

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

More information

Chapter 24. Wave Optics

Chapter 24. Wave Optics Chapter 24 Wave Optics Wave Optics The wave nature of light is needed to explain various phenomena. Interference Diffraction Polarization The particle nature of light was the basis for ray (geometric)

More information

University Physics (Prof. David Flory) Chapt_36 Monday, August 06, 2007

University Physics (Prof. David Flory) Chapt_36 Monday, August 06, 2007 Name: Date: 1. In an experiment to measure the wavelength of light using a double slit, it is found that the fringes are too close together to easily count them. To spread out the fringe pattern, one could:

More information

EM Waves Practice Problems

EM Waves Practice Problems EM Waves Practice Problems PSI AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following theories can explain the bending of waves behind obstacles into shadow region? (A) Particle theory of light (B)

More information

Generating contrast in light microscopy Orion Weiner Principles & Practice of Light Microscopy 2013

Generating contrast in light microscopy Orion Weiner Principles & Practice of Light Microscopy 2013 Generating contrast in light microscopy Orion Weiner Principles & Practice of Light Microscopy 2013 Absorption is not the only way samples interact with light. (polarization, phase shift) Brightfield Phase

More information

Polarized Light Microscopy Robert Bagnell 2012

Polarized Light Microscopy Robert Bagnell 2012 Polarized Light Microscopy Robert Bagnell 2012 I have included a chapter on polarized light in these notes primarily because polarized light is required for Differential Interference Contrast, so some

More information

An Overview of Optical Components

An Overview of Optical Components An Overview of Optical Components For over 40 years, Boston Piezo-Optics specialists have been selecting appropriate quality and cuts of crystal quartz and sapphire for a wide variety of applications.

More information

Optics and Image formation

Optics and Image formation Optics and Image formation Pascal Chartrand chercheur-agrégé Département de Biochimie email: p.chartrand@umontreal.ca The Light Microscope Four centuries of history Vibrant current development One of the

More information

The Appearance of Quench Marks in Heat Strengthened and Tempered Glass

The Appearance of Quench Marks in Heat Strengthened and Tempered Glass Technical Bulletin ATS-157 The Appearance of Quench Marks in Heat Strengthened and Tempered Glass Summary When viewed under particular lighting conditions, especially when viewed at an angle, faint shadowy

More information

ConcepTest Superposition. If waves A and B are superposed (that is, their amplitudes are added) the resultant wave is

ConcepTest Superposition. If waves A and B are superposed (that is, their amplitudes are added) the resultant wave is ConcepTest 24.1 Superposition If waves A and B are superposed (that is, their amplitudes are added) the resultant wave is 1) 2) 3) 4) ConcepTest 24.1 Superposition If waves A and B are superposed (that

More information

Ch 24 Wave Optics. concept questions #8, 11 problems #1, 3, 9, 15, 19, 31, 45, 48, 53

Ch 24 Wave Optics. concept questions #8, 11 problems #1, 3, 9, 15, 19, 31, 45, 48, 53 Ch 24 Wave Optics concept questions #8, 11 problems #1, 3, 9, 15, 19, 31, 45, 48, 53 Light is a wave so interference can occur. Interference effects for light are not easy to observe because of the short

More information

Lab 8: Polarization of Light

Lab 8: Polarization of Light Lab 8: Polarization of Light 1 Introduction Refer to Appendix D for photos of the apparatus Polarization is a fundamental property of light and a very important concept of physical optics. Not all sources

More information

Lab instrumentation. Polarized light microscopy

Lab instrumentation. Polarized light microscopy Polarized light microscopy Polarized light microscopy uses plane-polarized light to analyze structures that are birefringent; unisotropic structures that have two different refractive indices, and capable

More information

Christian Huygen Light is a wave, not merely a ray As waves propagate each point on the wavefront produces new wavelets. Wave Nature of Light

Christian Huygen Light is a wave, not merely a ray As waves propagate each point on the wavefront produces new wavelets. Wave Nature of Light Wave Nature of Light Christian Huygen Light is a wave, not merely a ray As waves propagate each point on the wavefront produces new wavelets Chapter 24 Wavelength Changes Wavelength of light changes in

More information

Introduction to ISO 10110

Introduction to ISO 10110 Introduction to ISO 10110 Preparation of drawings for optical elements and systems and a few words about other optical standards Parts of ISO 10110 1. General Differences between optical and mechanical

More information

Optical Storage Technology. Optical Disc Storage

Optical Storage Technology. Optical Disc Storage Optical Storage Technology Optical Disc Storage Introduction Since the early 1940s, magnetic recording has been the mainstay of electronic information storage worldwide. Magnetic tape has been used extensively

More information

Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light Polarization of Light Thursday, 11/09/2006 Physics 158 Peter Beyersdorf Document info 1 Class Outline Polarization of Light Polarization basis Jones Calculus 16. 2 Polarization The Electric field direction

More information

Polarization Dependence in X-ray Spectroscopy and Scattering. S P Collins et al Diamond Light Source UK

Polarization Dependence in X-ray Spectroscopy and Scattering. S P Collins et al Diamond Light Source UK Polarization Dependence in X-ray Spectroscopy and Scattering S P Collins et al Diamond Light Source UK Overview of talk 1. Experimental techniques at Diamond: why we care about x-ray polarization 2. How

More information

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

More information

PHYSICS 171 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II. Experiment 12. Physical Optics: Diffraction, Interference, and Polarization of Light

PHYSICS 171 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II. Experiment 12. Physical Optics: Diffraction, Interference, and Polarization of Light PHYSICS 171 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II Experiment 12 Physical Optics: Diffraction, Interference, and Polarization of Light Equipment: Supplies: Laser, photometer with optic probe, optical bench, and angular

More information

MODELING AND MEASURING THE POLARIZATION OF LIGHT:

MODELING AND MEASURING THE POLARIZATION OF LIGHT: MODELING AND MEASURING THE POLARIZATION OF LIGHT: FROM JONES MATRICES TO ELLIPSOMETRY OVERALL GOALS The Polarization of Light lab strongly emphasizes connecting mathematical formalism with measurable results.

More information

DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY

DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY Experiment 8 Name: S.N.: SECTION: PARTNER: DATE: DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY Objectives To introduce and calibrate a diffraction grating, and use it to examine several types of spectra. To learn

More information

Diffraction of Laser Light

Diffraction of Laser Light Diffraction of Laser Light No Prelab Introduction The laser is a unique light source because its light is coherent and monochromatic. Coherent light is made up of waves, which are all in phase. Monochromatic

More information

The Theory of Birefringence

The Theory of Birefringence Birefringence spectroscopy is the optical technique of measuring orientation in an optically anisotropic sample by measuring the retardation of polarized light passing through the sample. Birefringence

More information

How to Select a Waveplate

How to Select a Waveplate How to Select a Waveplate A wave retarder is a component that resolves a light wave into two orthogonal polarization components and produces a phase shift between them. The resulting difference in phase

More information

physics 112N interference and diffraction

physics 112N interference and diffraction physics 112N interference and diffraction the limits of ray optics shadow of the point of a pin physics 112N 2 the limits of ray optics physics 112N 3 the limits of ray optics physics 112N 4 this is how

More information

Physics 1653 Final Exam - Review Questions

Physics 1653 Final Exam - Review Questions Chapter 22 Reflection & Refraction Physics 1653 Final Exam - Review Questions 1. The photon energy for light of wavelength 500 nm is approximately A) 1.77 ev B) 3.10 ev C) 6.20 ev D) 2.48 ev E) 5.46 ev

More information

Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment

Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment 1a. Light waves are the only waves that can travel through. a. space b. solids 1b. Electromagnetic waves, such as light, are the only kind of

More information

Structural Integrity Analysis

Structural Integrity Analysis Structural Integrity Analysis 1. STRESS CONCENTRATION Igor Kokcharov 1.1 STRESSES AND CONCENTRATORS 1.1.1 Stress An applied external force F causes inner forces in the carrying structure. Inner forces

More information

Part 1: 2D/3D Geometry, Colour, Illumination

Part 1: 2D/3D Geometry, Colour, Illumination Part 1: 2D/3D Geometry, Colour, Illumination Colours Patrice Delmas and Georgy Gimel farb COMPSCI 373 Computer Graphics and Image Processing http://socks-studio.com/2013/... http://www.mutluduvar.com/...

More information

1051-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II. Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002

1051-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II. Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002 05-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002 Abstract: For designing the optics of an imaging system, one of the main types of tools used today is optical

More information

Choosing a digital camera for your microscope John C. Russ, Materials Science and Engineering Dept., North Carolina State Univ.

Choosing a digital camera for your microscope John C. Russ, Materials Science and Engineering Dept., North Carolina State Univ. Choosing a digital camera for your microscope John C. Russ, Materials Science and Engineering Dept., North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC One vital step is to choose a transfer lens matched to your

More information

PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture Notes Section XIII

PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture Notes Section XIII PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture Notes Section XIII Dr. Donald G. Luttermoser East Tennessee State University Edition 4.0 Abstract These class notes are designed for use of the instructor and

More information

Rodenstock Photo Optics

Rodenstock Photo Optics Rogonar Rogonar-S Rodagon Apo-Rodagon N Rodagon-WA Apo-Rodagon-D Accessories: Modular-Focus Lenses for Enlarging, CCD Photos and Video To reproduce analog photographs as pictures on paper requires two

More information

Activity 9.1 The Diffraction Grating

Activity 9.1 The Diffraction Grating Group Number (number on Intro Optics Kit):. PHY385H1F Introductory Optics Practicals Day 9 Diffraction November 28, 2011 Facilitator Name:. Record-Keeper Name: Time-keeper:. Computer/Wiki-master:. NOTE:

More information

Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 24 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli

Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 24 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 24 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching

More information

POLARIZED LIGHT MICROSCOPE EXAMINATIONS OF ORIENTED POLYMER FILMS

POLARIZED LIGHT MICROSCOPE EXAMINATIONS OF ORIENTED POLYMER FILMS POLARIZED LIGHT MICROSCOPE EXAMINATIONS OF ORIENTED POLYMER FILMS Jenny M. Smith, Criminalist, Missouri State Highway Patrol Crime Lab, Jefferson City, MO Introduction: Much can be gained in the examination

More information

Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation

Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation 1. When light enters a medium with a higher index of refraction it is A. absorbed. B. bent away from the normal. C. bent towards from the normal. D. continues in the

More information

Chapter 37 - Interference and Diffraction. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University

Chapter 37 - Interference and Diffraction. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University Chapter 37 - Interference and Diffraction A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University 2007 Objectives: After completing this module, you should

More information

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy One of the most important areas in the field of analytical chemistry is that of spectroscopy. In general terms, spectroscopy deals with the interactions

More information

Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 )

Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) 1 of 14 2/22/2016 11:28 PM Signed in as Weida Wu, Instructor Help Sign Out Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) My Courses Course Settings University Physics with Modern Physics,

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Two radio antennas are 120 m apart on a north-south line. The two antennas radiate in

More information

LBS-300 Beam Sampler for C-mount Cameras. YAG Focal Spot Analysis Adapter. User Notes

LBS-300 Beam Sampler for C-mount Cameras. YAG Focal Spot Analysis Adapter. User Notes LBS-300 Beam Sampler for C-mount Cameras P/N SP90183, SP90184, SP90185 and SP90186 YAG Focal Spot Analysis Adapter P/N SP90187, SP90188, SP90189, SP90190, SP90191 User Notes Ophir-Spiricon Inc. 60 West

More information

CS488. Vision and Light. Luc RENAMBOT

CS488. Vision and Light. Luc RENAMBOT CS488 Vision and Light Luc RENAMBOT 1 Outline We talked about how to take 2D and 3D scenes and draw them on a 2D surface We will be discussing how to make these images more interesting Topics light, illumination,

More information

Unit 2 Particles and Waves

Unit 2 Particles and Waves North Berwick High School Department of Physics Higher Physics Unit 2 Particles and Waves Section 5 Interference and Diffraction Section 5 Interference and Diffraction Note Making Make a dictionary with

More information

How To Perform DIC Microscopy

How To Perform DIC Microscopy How To Perform DIC Microscopy Technical Support Note #T-3 Date Created: 12/5/03 Category:Techniques Date Modified: 00/00/00 Keywords: DIC, Differential Interference Contrast, Axiovert 200M Introduction

More information

The Design and Commissioning of a Novel Tomographic Polariscope

The Design and Commissioning of a Novel Tomographic Polariscope The Design and Commissioning of a Novel Tomographic Polariscope Rachel A Tomlinson*, Hui Yang*, David Szotten +, and William R B Lionheart + * Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield,

More information

Phase contrast and DIC imaging

Phase contrast and DIC imaging Phase contrast and DIC imaging - Phase contrast - Differential-interferencecontrast (DIC) - Relief-phase contrast Optical microscopy course 25.10.2012 Kirsi Rilla 1 Key terms Contrast = the difference

More information

The Analysis of Liquid Crystal Phases using Polarized Optical Microscopy

The Analysis of Liquid Crystal Phases using Polarized Optical Microscopy OpenStax-CNX module: m38343 1 The Analysis of Liquid Crystal Phases using Polarized Optical Microscopy Changsheng Xiang Andrew R. Barron This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative

More information

Studies of a Diffraction Grating, Spectral Lines of Hydrogen, and Solar Spectrum

Studies of a Diffraction Grating, Spectral Lines of Hydrogen, and Solar Spectrum Studies of a Diffraction Grating, Spectral Lines of Hydrogen, and Solar Spectrum Objectives: 1. To become familiar with capturing spectral lines using a CCD camera. 2. To study selected properties of a

More information

Diffraction Grating and Interference

Diffraction Grating and Interference Diffraction Grating and Interference APPARATUS 1. Spectrometer 2. Diffraction grating 3. Mercury arc lamp 4. Board for mounting glass plates 5. Two plane parallel plates of glass 6. Aluminum stand equipped

More information

PRACTICE Q6--Quiz 6, Ch15.1 &15.2 Interference & Diffraction

PRACTICE Q6--Quiz 6, Ch15.1 &15.2 Interference & Diffraction Name: Class: Date: ID: A PRACTICE Q6--Quiz 6, Ch5. &5. Interference & Diffraction Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.. The trough of the sine

More information

EXPERIMENT 8. To Determine the Wavelength of Sodium Light using Newton s Rings. Introduction. Background

EXPERIMENT 8. To Determine the Wavelength of Sodium Light using Newton s Rings. Introduction. Background EXPERIMENT 8 To Determine the Wavelength of Sodium Light using Newton s Rings Introduction Please read additional instructions on the bench for setting up the PC and camera for this experiment Newton s

More information

Polarizers. Polarizers

Polarizers. Polarizers Polarizers Polarizers Natural light and most light sources emit unpolarized light. Polarizers are an excellent solution in applications that require glare reduction due to reflected light. They are also

More information

Physics 133: tutorial week 6 Interference

Physics 133: tutorial week 6 Interference Physics 133: tutorial week 6 Interference 1. What is the angle of the sun above the horizon when light reflecte from a lake is completely plane polarize? Take the refractive inex of water as 1.33. (36

More information

Computer Vision: Machine Vision Filters. Computer Vision. Optical Filters. 25 August 2014

Computer Vision: Machine Vision Filters. Computer Vision. Optical Filters. 25 August 2014 Computer Vision Optical Filters 25 August 2014 Copyright 2001 2014 by NHL Hogeschool, Van de Loosdrecht Machine Vision BV and Klaas Dijkstra All rights reserved j.van.de.loosdrecht@nhl.nl, jaap@vdlmv.nl,

More information

Chapter Four: Interference

Chapter Four: Interference Chapter Four Interference CHAPTER OUTLINE 4.1 Superposition of Waves 4.2 Interference 4.2.1Theory of Interference 4.2.2Intensity Distribution 4.2.3Superposition of Incoherent Waves 4.2.4Superposition of

More information

PHYS General Physics II Lab Diffraction Grating

PHYS General Physics II Lab Diffraction Grating 1 PHYS 1040 - General Physics II Lab Diffraction Grating In this lab you will perform an experiment to understand the interference of light waves when they pass through a diffraction grating and to determine

More information

16 2. Glass and heat. 2. Glass and heat. 2.1 Viscosity. Viscosity is the resistance against flowing.

16 2. Glass and heat. 2. Glass and heat. 2.1 Viscosity. Viscosity is the resistance against flowing. 16 2. Glass and heat 2. Glass and heat 2.1 Viscosity Viscosity is the resistance against flowing. The higher the viscosity, the slower the substance flows. Knowing the viscosity of glass is particularly

More information

EP225 Note No. 7 Wave Interference and Di raction

EP225 Note No. 7 Wave Interference and Di raction EP5 Note No. 7 Wave Interference and Di raction 7.1 Superposition of Two Waves of Equal Wavelength When two waves of equal amplitude and wavelength, but with a phase di erence are superposed, E 0 sin(k!t)

More information

Application of Data Matrix Verification Standards

Application of Data Matrix Verification Standards Data Matrix symbol verification at its most basic level eliminates the subjective quality determination that causes discord between marking and reading suppliers, and replaces those subjective opinions

More information

Lecture 18: Multiple beam interference, Introduction to Fabry-Perot spectroscopy

Lecture 18: Multiple beam interference, Introduction to Fabry-Perot spectroscopy Lecture 18: Multiple beam interference, Introduction to Fabry-Perot spectroscopy Lecture aims to explain: 1. Interference from a plane parallel plate: multiple beam interference. Experimental set-up for

More information

Application Example: Material Testing. Material Properties: Determination of Process Limitations in Sheet Metal Forming - Forming Limit Diagram

Application Example: Material Testing. Material Properties: Determination of Process Limitations in Sheet Metal Forming - Forming Limit Diagram Application Example: Material Testing Material Properties: Determination of Process Limitations in Sheet Metal Forming - Forming Limit Diagram Measuring Systems: ARAMIS Keywords: Forming Limit Curve (FLC),

More information

Ultrasonic Wave Propagation Review

Ultrasonic Wave Propagation Review Ultrasonic Wave Propagation Review Presented by: Sami El-Ali 1 1. Introduction Ultrasonic refers to any study or application of sound waves that are higher frequency than the human audible range. Ultrasonic

More information

Chapter 24 Wave Optics. Diffraction Grating Interference by Thin Films Polarization. sinθ=mλ/d or dsinθ=mλ

Chapter 24 Wave Optics. Diffraction Grating Interference by Thin Films Polarization. sinθ=mλ/d or dsinθ=mλ Chapter 24 Wave Optics Diffraction Grating Interference by Thin Films Polarization d Θ Θ Extra distance mλ sinθ=mλ/d or dsinθ=mλ m=0,1,2,3,... Constructive inference m=1/2,3/2,5/2,... Destructive inference

More information

not to be republished NCERT WAVE OPTICS Chapter Ten MCQ I

not to be republished NCERT WAVE OPTICS Chapter Ten MCQ I Chapter Ten WAVE OTICS MCQ I 10.1 Consider a light beam incident from air to a glass slab at Brewster s angle as shown in Fig. 10.1. A polaroid is placed in the path of the emergent ray at point and rotated

More information

and that for the minima is min ( m 1 2). Divide the second equation by the first and solve for the order of the maximum, m.

and that for the minima is min ( m 1 2). Divide the second equation by the first and solve for the order of the maximum, m. USEFUL FORMULAE AND DATA 1. Wien s Law: pt = 2.90 10-3 m K 2. v=c/n, is the speed of light in a material with an index of refraction n 3. Snell s Law: n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2, where subscripts 1 stands for

More information

Purpose of the experiment

Purpose of the experiment Modern Physics Lab Spectroscopy Purpose of the experiment Familiarize you with advanced experimental techniques and equipment. Learn how to identify various elements by their emission spectrum. Background

More information

Analytical Technologies in Biotechnology Dr. Ashwani K. Sharma Department of Biotechnology Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee

Analytical Technologies in Biotechnology Dr. Ashwani K. Sharma Department of Biotechnology Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Analytical Technologies in Biotechnology Dr. Ashwani K. Sharma Department of Biotechnology Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Module 1 Microscopy Lecture - 2 Basic concepts in microscopy 2 In this

More information

CH 35. Interference. A. Interference of light waves, applied in many branches of science.

CH 35. Interference. A. Interference of light waves, applied in many branches of science. CH 35 Interference [SHIVOK SP212] March 17, 2016 I. Optical Interference: A. Interference of light waves, applied in many branches of science. B. The blue of the top surface of a Morpho butterfly wing

More information

Bronx High School of Science Regents Physics

Bronx High School of Science Regents Physics Bronx High School of Science Regents Physics 1. Orange light has a frequency of 5.0 10 14 hertz in a vacuum. What is the wavelength of this light? (A) 1.5 10 23 m (C) 6.0 10 7 m (B) 1.7 10 6 m (D) 2.0

More information

2. The graph shows how the displacement varies with time for an object undergoing simple harmonic motion.

2. The graph shows how the displacement varies with time for an object undergoing simple harmonic motion. Practice Test: 29 marks (37 minutes) Additional Problem: 31 marks (45 minutes) 1. A transverse wave travels from left to right. The diagram on the right shows how, at a particular instant of time, the

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A single slit forms a diffraction pattern, with the first minimum at an angle of 40 from

More information

Wave Optics. b. the crest from one wave overlaps with the d. darkness cannot occur as the two waves are coherent.

Wave Optics. b. the crest from one wave overlaps with the d. darkness cannot occur as the two waves are coherent. Wave Optics 1. Two beams of coherent light are shining on the same piece of white paper. With respect to the crests and troughs of such waves, darkness will occur on the paper where: a. the crest from

More information

Improving circularly polarized displays with new Advisol circular polarizers Technical note. Advisol Ltd.

Improving circularly polarized displays with new Advisol circular polarizers Technical note. Advisol Ltd. Improving circularly polarized displays with new Advisol circular polarizers Technical note Advisol Ltd. June 10, 2009 The Advisol circularly polarizing filters will be made from now in 90º/90º configuration.

More information

Imaging Methods: Breath Patterns

Imaging Methods: Breath Patterns Imaging Methods: Breath Patterns Breath / condensation pattern: By cooling a substrate below the condensation temperature H 2 O will condense in different rates on the substrate with the nucleation rate

More information

104 Practice Exam 2-3/21/02

104 Practice Exam 2-3/21/02 104 Practice Exam 2-3/21/02 1. Two electrons are located in a region of space where the magnetic field is zero. Electron A is at rest; and electron B is moving westward with a constant velocity. A non-zero

More information

Aerial Films CHAPTER AERIAL FILMS

Aerial Films CHAPTER AERIAL FILMS CHAPTER 3 Aerial Films 3.1 AERIAL FILMS Aerial film is similar in construction to the film popularly used in handheld 35-mm cameras. It comes in rolls that are 10 in. wide and range in length from 200

More information

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TUTORIAL

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TUTORIAL CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TUTORIAL Robert Bagnell 2006 This tutorial covers the following CLSM topics: 1) What is the optical principal behind CLSM? 2) What is the spatial resolution in X, Y,

More information

Dust and dirt do not stand a chance free view due to camera filters

Dust and dirt do not stand a chance free view due to camera filters Dust and dirt do not stand a chance free view due to camera filters To achieve optimum image quality the sensor needs to be kept free of dust. As pixels today are the same size as dust particles or even

More information

UNIT 28: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND POLARIZATION Approximate Time Three 100-minute Sessions

UNIT 28: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND POLARIZATION Approximate Time Three 100-minute Sessions Name St.No. - Date(YY/MM/DD) / / Section Group # UNIT 28: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND POLARIZATION Approximate Time Three 100-minute Sessions Hey diddle diddle, what kind of riddle Is this nature of light?

More information

Tutorial 6: Solutions

Tutorial 6: Solutions Tutorial 6: Solutions 1. A stationary radiating system consists of a linear chain of parallel oscillators separated by a distance d. The phase of the oscillators varies linearly along the chain, Find the

More information

Laboratory 15: Spectroscopy

Laboratory 15: Spectroscopy Spectroscopy 1 aboratory 15: Spectroscopy A transmission diffraction grating consists of a large number of closely spaced parallel lines ruled on some transparent material such as glass. The ruled lines

More information

Optical Versus Video Magnification Primer

Optical Versus Video Magnification Primer Optical Versus Video Magnification Primer Customers have requested additional clarification of true magnifications for inspection needs and quality procedures. This is certainly a valid requirement as

More information

PSS 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge

PSS 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge Chapter 27 Solutions PSS 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge Description: Knight Problem-Solving Strategy 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge is illustrated.

More information

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab EXPERIMENT O-6 Michelson Interferometer Abstract A Michelson interferometer, constructed by the student, is used to measure the wavelength of He-Ne laser light and the index of refraction of a flat transparent

More information

Verdet Constant Measurement of Olive Oil for Magnetic Field Sensor

Verdet Constant Measurement of Olive Oil for Magnetic Field Sensor International Journal of Advances in Electrical and Electronics Engineering 362 Available online at www.ijaeee.com& www.sestindia.org/volume-ijaeee ISSN: 2319-1112 Verdet Constant Measurement of Olive

More information

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE RADIANT FLUX DENSITY AT THE FOCUS OF A CONVERGENCE BEAM

More information

Experiment 1: Grating Spectroscope

Experiment 1: Grating Spectroscope SPECTRA White light is a mixture of all wavelengths. When white light is sent through a prism or a diffraction grating it is broken up into a continuous distribution of colors called a spectrum. The relation

More information

Chapter 17 Light and Image Formation

Chapter 17 Light and Image Formation Chapter 7 Light and Image Formation Reflection and Refraction How is an image in a mirror produced? Reflection and Image Formation In chapter 6 we studied physical optics, which involve wave aspects of

More information

190 Degree Field Of View Fisheye Lens For 1/3 Format Cameras Specifications:

190 Degree Field Of View Fisheye Lens For 1/3 Format Cameras Specifications: ORIFL190-3 190 Degree Field Of View Fisheye Lens For 1/3 Format Cameras Specifications: Field of View: 190 degrees Focal Plane Field Diameter: 3.4 mm Focal length: 1.24 mm F/number: 2.8 Focus range: 0.5

More information

Ray Optics Minicourse COMSOL Tokyo Conference 2014

Ray Optics Minicourse COMSOL Tokyo Conference 2014 Ray Optics Minicourse COMSOL Tokyo Conference 2014 What is the Ray Optics Module? Add-on to COMSOL Multiphysics Can be combined with any other COMSOL Multiphysics Module Includes one physics interface,

More information

Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves wave may be defined as a periodic disturbance in a medium that carries energy from one point to another. ll waves require a source and a medium of propagation.

More information