Knowledge Management. Training Manual. Corporate Training Materials

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1 Knwledge Management Training Manual Crprate Training Materials

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Mdule One: Getting Started... 4 Wrkshp Objectives... 4 Mdule Tw: Understanding Knwledge Management... 6 What is Knwledge... 6 What is Knwledge Management... 7 A Brief Histry... 7 Applicatins in the Wrkplace... 8 Mdule Three: Ds and Dn ts... 9 Data, Infrmatin, and Knwledge... 9 The Tacit Mde The Explicit Mde Identifying Cnversin Categries Mdule Fur: The Knwledge Management Life Cycle Understanding Episdes Acquisitin Knwledge Integratin Mdule Five: The New Knwledge Management Paradigm Paradigms f the Past The New Paradigm Implicatins and Applicatins The Knwledge Management Endgame Mdule Six: Knwledge Management Mdels... 20

3 The Nnaka and Takeuchi Mdel (SECI) Wiig Mdel Kakabadse Mdel Bist Mdel Mdule Seven: Building a Knwledge Management Ratinale Why Ratinale is Necessary Building a Business Case Finding Success Stries The Cmmditizatin /Custmizatin Mdel Mdule Eight: Custmizing Knwledge Management Definitins Cmpnents f a Knwledge Management Definitin Custmizing the Cmpnents Sample Definitins Creating a KMBOK Mdule Nine: Implementing Knwledge Management in Yur Organizatin Gathering Supprt Identifying Opprtunities fr Revenue Streams Key Knwledge Management Techniques A Map fr Success The N Budget Scenari Mdule Ten: Tips fr Success Abut the Chief Knwledge Officer Knwledge Management Skill Checklist The Knwledge Management Imperative The Hype Curve Barriers and Helpers t Success... 41

4 Mdule Eleven: Advance Tpics The Knwledge Management Maturity Mdel Absrptive Capacity Rustiness Prcess Mdel Types Mdule Twelve: Wrapping Up Wrds frm the Wise... 46

5 I hear, I frget. I see, I remember. I d, I understand. Cnfucius Mdule One: Getting Started Welcme t the Knwledge Management wrkshp. Tday s culture thrives n knwledge. It is evident in the items we buy r activities we invest time managing. Pssessing knwledge gives advantages in making the right decisin r strategy t implement. The Internet distributes knwledge at split secnd rates. Laptps and smart phnes bring knwledge t ur fingertips. As the ld adage says, knwledge is pwer. Organizatins have a wealth f knwledge accessible thrugh the peple they tuch internally, like emplyees, and externally, like custmers. Organizatins that allw knwledge t g unmanaged may be giving their cmpetitrs the upper hand in the market. The rganizatin that is able t capture, stre, and retrieve knwledge effectively is then capable f learning as an rganizatin. A learning rganizatin is ne where emplyees are empwered t change and develp new methds, thughts, and strategies that will advance the missin f their rganizatin. Knwledge Management is the establishment f a system that captures knwledge purpsefully fr incrprating int business strategies, plicies, and practices at all levels f the cmpany. This curse will teach the learner hw t initiate a knwledge management prgram at wrk. When it cmes t knwledge management, any rganizatin is able t implement a strategy. Wherever there are humans wrking tgether fr ne gal, there is knwledge t be harvested, stred, and dispensed as needed. Wrkshp Objectives Research has cnsistently demnstrated that when clear gals are assciated with learning, it ccurs mre easily and rapidly. This wrkshp is designed t help yu in the fllwing ways: Understand the basic cncept f knwledge management (KM) Identify the d s and dn ts f KM Identify the KM live cycle Identify the new KM paradigm Page 4

6 Identify the KM mdels Understand hw t build a KM ratinal fr yur cmpany Understand hw t custmize KM definitins Identify the steps t implementing KM in yur rganizatin Identify tips fr success Understand the advance tpics in KM Page 5

7 Knwledge is pwer. Sir Frances Bacn Mdule Tw: Understanding Knwledge Management The wrds knwledge and management are tw very brad cncepts when separated. When the tw wrds cme tgether, it speaks f a cncept that strives t rganize infrmatin in a way that prduces an advantage fr an rganizatin. While anyne wuld think that harnessing the knwledge f an rganizatin is a psitive thing t d, there are many wh d nt see the value f knwledge management. They may see this as a waste f time. This is true f many ther disciplines like prject management. Many see planning and assessing risk as time cnsuming. Therefre, they d nt supprt initiatives that bring this change. In all hnesty, change is the real issue. This curse will give yu the tls t present knwledge management t yur rganizatin in the mst psitive way in rder t gain the right supprt fr it t thrive in yur rganizatin. The mre infrmatin yu can share with yur rganizatin abut knwledge management the mre apt they are in accepting it. This mdule explains the principles, histry, and applicatin f knwledge management in the wrkplace. This will be the base n which we will build upn thrughut the entire wrkshp. What is Knwledge The wrd knwledge is ften cnfused fr infrmatin r data. The nline versin f the Merriam Webster dictinary defines knwledge as the fllwing: Fact r cnditin f knwing smething with familiarity gained thrugh experience r assciatin. Later in this wrkshp, there will be a discussin n what data and infrmatin is. Bth f these terms are a part f knwledge. Data is raw cntent, which by itself has n meaning r value. When data is gruped tgether, it becmes infrmatin. Fr example, getting a temperature reading f the climate utside n ne day is meaningless withut ther infrmatin t make a cmparisn. Once a database is created, it becmes infrmatin because cmparisns can be made. In terms f knwledge management, knwledge is infrmatin that is in cntext, prducing an actinable understanding. Page 6

8 Back t ur temperature scenari, when the temperature infrmatin is placed in cntext with say agriculture, then knwledge is created. Fr example, knwing that if temperatures fall belw a certain pint in January they tend t last fr abut a week. Orange farmers in Flrida must determine if they are ging t harvest early r take ther precautins like heating the rchard. The decisin will be based n hw lng ranges can withstand cld cnditins at a certain temperature. Organizatins and cmpanies hld and transfer data and infrmatin that can be placed int cntext allwing an actinable event r an understanding t ccur. What is Knwledge Management Knwledge management is a prgram r system designed t create, capture, share and leverage knwledge twards the success f the rganizatin. This is easier said than dne because instituting a knwledge management prgram requires many changes and supprt at all levels f the rganizatin. Furthermre, there are different frms f knwledge t cntend with and understand. Knwledge can be tacit r explicit, which requires different strategies t capture each type. Anther challenge is t distill the practice f knwledge management int ne neat cncept. This curse will prvide yu with the specific understanding yu need t take away a gd cnceptual framewrk f knwledge management. This way yu can cmmunicate and manage a knwledge management prject with the tls fr success. A Brief Histry The rigins f knwledge management can be traced back t the late 1970s. Everett Rgers and Thmas Allen s wrk in infrmatin transfer laid the fundatin t the cncept f hw knwledge is created, implemented, and integrated thrughut an rganizatin. In the 1980s, knwledge became a fcal pint t increasing the cmpetitive edge fr cmpanies. Peple like Senge and Sakaiya discussed the advantages f creating learning and knwledge based rganizatin. The primary bject during this time was imprving business in general. In the 1990s, knwledge management was intrduced int mainstream business management publicatins. Authrs like Tm Stewart, Ikujir Nnaka, and Hirtaka Takeuchi brught frmality t the managing f knwledge. In the mid 1990 s, the Internet became the channel where knwledge management expanded greatly. The histry f knwledge management has many prminent therists like Karl Wiig, Peter Drucker, and Paul Strassmann. Frm infrmatin technlgy t imprving hw an rganizatin learns, knwledge Page 7

9 management started in many areas f business. There is n ne surce f its histry. Nnetheless, knwledge management has a histry f prducing the kind f change businesses desire in terms f imprving the cmmunicatin f knwledge in rder t achieve successful utcmes. Tday, knwledge management has many applicatins and is useful in mst any discipline in an rganizatin. Applicatins in the Wrkplace Knwledge management can be applied t many areas f the rganizatin. Remember that knwledge management is nt nly string knwledge. The larger fcus is n sharing. With this in mind, applying knwledge management in the wrkplace is nearly unlimited. Areas that can benefit frm knwledge management are as fllws: Crprate gvernance Staff training Operatins Human resurces Marketing Infrmatin technlgy Research and develpment Applying knwledge management in any ne f these areas will lead t imprved cmmunicatin and respnsiveness t change. Here are sme ptential benefits t implementing knwledge management: Encurage innvatin by allwing ideas t flw thrughut the rganizatin Imprve custmer experience by becming mre efficient in service Increase prfits by capitalizing n pprtunities because f faster prduct t market time Increase retentin rate f emplyees because f recgnitin and reward fr their valuable knwledge input Reduce cst thrugh imprved internal efficiencies Page 8

10 The sft stuff is always harder than the hard stuff. Rger Enric Mdule Three: Ds and Dn ts There are many ways t implement knwledge management. The infrmatin available t yu may be verwhelming. Understanding the types f knwledge and places t acquire it will reduce errrs and increase efficiency in implementing yur knwledge management prject. In this mdule, yu will learn abut data, infrmatin, tacit and explicit mdes f knwledge, and categries where knwledge cnverges. Data, Infrmatin, and Knwledge Earlier when we discussed the definitin f knwledge, we learned that knwledge was cmpsed f data and infrmatin. Here is a brief summary f each cmpnent: Data is bits f cntent in either text r numerical frmat. By itself, data has n meaning. A finance cmpany culd cllect credit scres frm all their apprved applicatins. The individual credit scre des nt mean much by itself. Let see what infrmatin des. Infrmatin is data that is accumulated t allw cmparisn, gruping, and categrizing which enables the cntent viewer t determine what t d with the data grup. The credit scres cllected in the last example is accumulated and categrized int high, medium, and lw risk accrding t the credit scre number. Knwledge is taking the infrmatin and putting cntext arund it, making it actinable. If the finance cmpany is trying t meet a regulatin n hw many risky lans are permitted in the lan prtfli, they may calculate the percentage f high risk lan t the ttal lans n the bks. The results culd guide the cmpany n new strategies t reduce the number f risky lans r help them maximize the risk because the risky lans are mre prfitable. Page 9

11 Nw that yu have a basic idea f what data, infrmatin, and knwledge is, here is smething t avid. D nt try t categrize items int data, infrmatin, and knwledge. The cntext f the infrmatin is in the eye f the behlder. Trying t d this culd end yur prject early. Instead, fcus n the type f knwledge the cntent represents. The Tacit Mde Tacit knwledge is knwledge that is nt easily dcumented. It is transferred silently thrugh behavirs and experience. Here are sme examples f tacit knwledge: Knw hw Judgment Experience Insight Rules f thumb Skills Tacit knwledge is difficult t cmmunicate because it is very persnal and subjective. The knwledge resides deep within the persn wh hlds it. Tacit knwledge is influenced by beliefs, ideals, values, and mental mdes. This mde f knwledge is easily verlked because capturing it requires uncnventinal methds. These methds will be discussed in a later mdule. In the meantime, when planning yur knwledge management prject, remember that there is knwledge flating arund that is being transferred thrugh n the jb experience. The Explicit Mde Explicit knwledge is easier t recgnize and dcument. It is easily cmmunicated, written dwn, transferred, stred and retrieved. Explicit knwledge culd be the steps n hw t drive a car. The explicit knwledge is utlined in a manual and easily fllwed because f its structure. This is the mst cmmn frm f knwledge fund in mst rganizatins. Yu may find this infrmatin in the fllwing areas: Databases Manuals Page 10

12 Training cntent Hwever, having nly explicit knwledge is nt always desirable. Fr example, wuld yu feel cmfrtable with sme wh nly knew hw t drive a car by studying a manual as ppsed t smene wh has been driving fr 10 years? The chice is easy because there is value in the experience acquired in 10 years f driving experience. The experienced driver cannt explain all the details, but there is knwledge that the careful bserver may pick up. Understanding where these transfers f knwledge happen is essential t designing yur knwledge management system. Identifying Cnversin Categries Cnversin categries are areas where knwledge is cnverted r exchanged. The best way t think f these cnversin categries is using the tacit and explicit mdes fr bth the type f knwledge and the type f behavir. Here are sme examples: On the jb training allws peple t exchange tacit knwledge thrugh tacit behavirs because it is transferred frm ne individual t anther thrugh bservatin. In this situatin, nrms are reinfrced and new knwledge culd be created depending n the persn being trained. Anther categry is when smene expresses his r her ideas and thughts. This is still tacit knwledge but it is cupled with explicit behavir like talking abut it alud t thers. Explicit knwledge and explicit methds frm mre cmmn cnversin pints like databases, e mails, and manuals. Anther cnversin pint ccurs when smene takes explicit knwledge frm a database r manual and creates new knwledge that they internalize (tacit). Understanding cnversin categries enables yu t determine where these categries exist in yur rganizatin. Overlking cnversin categries culd lead t gaps in yur knwledge management system. Later, yu will learn hw t determine cnversin categries in mre detail by using a thrugh apprach invlving the end user. Page 11

13 A persn wh graduated yesterday and stps studying tday is uneducated tmrrw. Annymus Mdule Fur: The Knwledge Management Life Cycle Knwledge management is a cycle f identifying infrmatin that may r may nt be useful knwledge, frmatting it int usable knwledge, and integrating it int the rganizatin. This mdule will teach yu the basic phases in the knwledge management cycle. This infrmatin will help yu cmmunicate t thse in yur rganizatin the cmpnents f knwledge management in a way that makes sense, creating mre supprt fr yur prject. Understanding Episdes Episdes f knwledge transfer cme in many frms. Understanding that anytime a prblem is realized r a new venture n the hrizn, there is a gd pssibility that there is knwledge t capture. There are instances where episdes are planned. Here are sme examples: A new prduct is being develped and rlled ut Entering int a new market r territry Internal restructuring like a new divisin r enhancement f an existing department Implementing a new prgram like enterprise wide prject management prgram Building a new facility Mergers, new partnerships, and take ver f anther cmpany Change in leadership at the tp level like a new Chief Executive Officer Sme episdes may ccur unexpectedly. Fr example: A recall f a defective prduct Page 12

14 New gvernment regulatins Dramatic changes in the market Here are a few ideas yu can use t help deal with episdes whether planned r unplanned: What essential actins des the affected area have t take? What decisins peple in the affected area must make t cmplete their jb? What infrmatin is needed in rder t make thse decisins and cmplete their jb? Is it explicit? Maybe is stred in a database. Is it tacit? Des this infrmatin have t cme frm a persn? Acquisitin The acquiring stage seeks t btain infrmatin frm bth internal and external surces. It addresses tacit and explicit mdes f knwledge and invlves many techniques. Acquiring infrmatin r knwledge can be seen as tw categries: capturing and creating Capturing is acquiring infrmatin r knwledge that already exists and requires little adjustments t make it valuable t the rganizatin. It can be internal infrmatin that is flating arund the rganizatin r external infrmatin r knwledge frm utsides surces. Creatin is taking existing infrmatin r knwledge and cmbining it with ther internal knwledge r infrmatin t prduce new knwledge the rganizatin can deem actinable. There may be sme analyzing invlved t make the new knwledge actinable fr the rganizatin. Here is a brief list f tls and techniques that helps t acquire knwledge: Explicit infrmatin exists here and may be used in cmbinatin t frm new knwledge and may be internal r external Repsitries with dcument infrmatin Filing systems Tacit infrmatin exists between peple r experts and stred infrmatin and may be internal and external Experts sharing their ideas Databases with infrmatin Page 13

15 Internal tls fr knwledge creatin and capturing Interviewing emplyees Knwledge teams External tls fr infrmatin r knwledge capturing Data mining data warehuses External expert pinin (i.e. cnsultant) Once the knwledge is acquired, it must be rganized s it can be easily integrated int the rganizatin. Knwledge Remember that knwledge is infrmatin that is placed in cntext s that it becmes actinable. In rder fr this t happen, knwledge must be evaluated against the business gals and strategies. Knwledge that is deemed useful fr the rganizatin passes n thrugh t the next cycle and integrated. Evaluating infrmatin r knwledge requires cmparisn t the gals, visin, missin, and strategies f the rganizatin. Failing t align the knwledge t these business strategies culd render the knwledge management prgram ineffective. Here are sme areas t cnsider when evaluating knwledge: What is the nature f yur rganizatin Organizatin visin Organizatin gals Strategy t achieve gals Current business envirnment Industry Knwledge that is nt ready fr integratin may be stred fr later use. Here are sme ways t evaluate knwledge fr integratin: Knwledge cmmittees Knwledge frums Page 14

16 KM sftware Each f these tls wuld require representatin frm many areas f the rganizatin. The gal here is t deem acquired infrmatin r knwledge useful t the rganizatin. Nt all knwledge acquired must be integrated. If this were the gal, the knwledge management system wuld becme t burdensme and run the risk f nt being used. Integratin Integratin is making knwledge knwn. There are several general methds t getting knwledge ut thrughut the rganizatin. Here are several examples: Bradcasting: e mails, annuncements, newsletters, are sme examples f integrating knwledge by bradcasting Searching: databases, prtals, extranets, recrds, are examples f integrating knwledge by making it searchable Teaching: classrm, webinars, cmputer based training, are examples f hw training can help integrate knwledge thrughut the rganizatin Sharing: yellw page system, best practices system, cmmunity bards, are examples f hw sharing knwledge helps t integrate it thrughut yur rganizatin The exact designs and prcess will depend n hw yur culture s view f these tls and their place in the rganizatin. Other cnsideratins revlve n csts. Later in this wrkshp, we will get a chance t discuss mdest ways f implementing knwledge management in yur rganizatin. Nw that we have a better understanding f the knwledge management cycle, let us review past and present mdels. This will help yu determine if in fact, yu already have a knwledge management system in place, but it needs a little updating. Page 15

17 The single greatest challenge facing mangers in the develped cuntries f the wrld is t raise the prductivity f knwledge and service wrks. Peter F. Drucker Mdule Five: The New Knwledge Management Paradigm With the advent f infrmatin technlgy, knwledge management has evlved int a technlgical based prgram. Understanding what knwledge management is tday requires review f what it was in the past. What and hw it is applied is the verall gal f knwledge management. Understanding these cncepts will allw yu t understand the principles behind tday s knwledge management mdel. This in turn, will allw yu t be mre knwledgeable abut the prgram yu are abut t intrduce t yur rganizatin and recgnize if yu already have a knwledge management system in place but is utdated. Paradigms f the Past Knwledge management des have a past and there are mdels ut there that rely n knwledge cllectin and strage as the design fr a knwledge management system. What resulted frm this strategy is usually a query database that emplyees used t search fr knwledge. This apprach had drawbacks. Here are sme: High maintenance f knwledge, because all knwledge was put int the system Stred knwledge became utdated Emplyees did nt use the system because it was t vast It was a g t system It was a static system High cst in labr and hardware maintenance Knwledge usually inputted by ne persn r team Only gd fr explicit knwledge Page 16

18 After a while, rganizatins did nt see value in these types f knwledge management systems. Research an ld style knwledge management system that was previusly used. Get lessns learned frm thse wh were invlved and incrprate this infrmatin in yur newer knwledge management system prpsal. The New Paradigm The new paradigm fr knwledge management is vastly different frm the past. Instead f fcusing n data strage and retrieval, the fcus is n cnnectins and netwrks invlving emplyees. There is strage, but this wuld be mre fr sharing dcuments and reference materials. Strage wuld nt be the end all beall system fr knwledge management. management: Here are sme characteristics invlving the new mdel f knwledge Fcus n netwrking technlgy Learning envirnment fstered Knwledge pushed ut instead f stred Infrmatin is evaluated befre integrating Gd fr bth explicit and tacit knwledge Emplyees can cntribute t the knwledge management system Ntice the emphasis n cnnectins being made instead f a hub fr knwledge. This system des have its benefits. Here are sme: Real time knwledge available Mre tacit knwledge captured Emplyees are cnstantly learning Organizatinal culture mre pen Knwledge is free flwing and dynamic The new paradigm takes advantage f new technlgies like sharing prgrams, prtals, intranets, etc. Of curse, n system is perfect and the next lessn will discuss the implicatins f establishing a knwledge management system. Page 17

19 Implicatins and Applicatins As yu cntemplate the intrductin f knwledge management t yur rganizatin, yu shuld cnsider the implicatins that applying knwledge management brings. If yur rganizatin is nt used t sharing infrmatin and learning, this culd becme an bstacle t yur knwledge management prject. Here are sme questins t think abut when dealing with yur culture: What value des yur culture places n cmmunicatin? What sils exist in yur culture that culd be a ptential radblck t yur KM prject? What level f supprt des upper management give t this initiative? What value des yur rganizatin place n knwledge? Hw well des yur rganizatin respnd t change? What value des yur rganizatin place n learning? Cnsidering these questins will help yu determine hw pen yur rganizatinal culture is t implementing a knwledge management prgram. Anther cnsideratin is the effect f technlgy n the rganizatin. The new prgrams and cmmunicatin tls present sme issues t address in yur prject plan. It is nt wise t make yur knwledge management prject a technlgy prject. Finally, yu als have t cnsider wh will be the agents fr champining and managing the knwledge management prgram as it develps within yur rganizatin. Wh will d what? Chsing the wrng peple culd dm yur prject because f assciatin with the wrng peple. Think glbally. If yu are nt a prject manager, yu shuld cnsider having ne n yur prject. They are trained t watch fr these types f risks. The Knwledge Management Endgame Page 18 The mst imprtant message yu shuld cnvey abut knwledge management is what it will d fr the rganizatin. Simply suggesting knwledge management n its wn merits will nt gain the supprt yu need. Yu must remember that knwledge management invlves the entire rganizatin and the benefits shuld span the entire rganizatin. Therefre, yu shuld clearly cmmunicate the knwledge management end game. Yur knwledge management prject shuld address ne r mre f the fllwing areas t help grund it t a mre cmmn business strategy:

20 Change management Best practices Risk management Benchmarking Increasing efficiency Increased quality Placing knwledge management mre n the back burner then the frnt will take the fcus ff the knwledge management prject itself and place it n the business strategies that get the interest f managers, creating mre supprt fr yur prject. The gal f knwledge management is t cnnect emplyees t ne anther in an effrt t facilitate knwledge in a way that prmtes learning and new knwledge that will help the rganizatin gain a cmpetitive advantage thrugh increased efficiency, quality, and innvatin. Clearly cmmunicating this t yur stakehlders will create a slid fundatin fr supprt and grwth f yur knwledge management prject. In the next mdule, yu will get sme mre backgrund knwledge n the varius types f knwledge management principles, which will increase yur vcabulary and credibility in this discipline. Page 19

21 Imaginatin is mre imprtant than knwledge. Albert Einstein Mdule Six: Knwledge Management Mdels knwledge and ability t share it. We are delving int the rigins and cre principles f knwledge management in this mdule. There are mdels that have influenced knwledge management greatly ver the years and these are wrth understanding. Again, by having mre backgrund infrmatin n the principles f knwledge management, yu will be able t influence thse in yur rganizatin that may nt knw f the rigins and the extent f the histry in this discipline. Many times, prjects are dmed when the stakehlders d nt understand the prduct. Lack f infrmatin when attempting t create change will typically create resistance t the change. Let us increase yur The Nnaka and Takeuchi Mdel (SECI) Ikujir Nnaka and Hirtaka Takeuchi mdel f knwledge creatin describes a spiraling prcess f tacit knwledge and explicit knwledge. They give an illustratin f hw knwledge is cnverted thrugh fur patterns. Here are the fur patterns: 1. Scializatin: tacit knwledge transfers thrugh individual interactin (tacit). The interactin des nt have t invlve language. It can be bserved. Capturing this type f knwledge invlves direct interactin with emplyees. 2. Externalizatin: the first part f this pattern, invlves tacit knwledge, which is made explicit because f the expressin f the knwledge thrugh ideas, images, wrds, cncepts, and visuals t thers. The secnd part is the translatin f the knwledge int understandable frmats. 3. Cmbinatin: takes explicit knwledge and is cmmunicated systematically (explicit). There are three basic phases t this pattern: Capturing knwledge frm inside and utside the rganizatin and internalizing it Disseminating the explicit knwledge thrugh netwrks and systems Prcessing the explicit knwledge int a mre usable frmat like dcuments, plans, and reprts Page 20

22 4. Internalizatin: is the individual taking explicit knwledge and internalizing it t becme tacit knwledge nce again. The SECI mdel basically takes individual tacit knwledge and evlves it int explicit knwledge thrugh the fur patterns until it then finally reaches the individual again, changing the explicit knwledge back t tacit when the individual learns frm it. Wiig Mdel Karl Wiig fcused n six strategies t rganizatinal knwledge management prcess. 1. Knwledge management as a business strategy: this places knwledge management as a strategy that spans the entire rganizatin 2. Managing intellectual assets strategy: this is a fcus n the existing knwledge that is present within the rganizatin and utilizing them r enhancing them fully 3. Persnal knwledge asset respnsibility strategy: this is a strategy that supprt emplyees t develp their skills and knwledge, sharing it with thers 4. Knwledge creatin strategy: fcuses n creating new knwledge thrugh research and develpment fr shaping the future f the rganizatin 5. Knwledge transfer strategy: this is sharing and transferring best practices in supprt f imprving quality and efficiency thrughut the rganizatin 6. Custmer fcused knwledge strategy: this strategy fcuses n understanding custmer needs and prvide prducts and services that address thse needs The Wiig mdel is highly favred because it des address the rganizatin as a whle and includes business areas that are cmmnly fund in mst rganizatins. Page 21

23 Kakabadse Mdel Kakabadse identified five mdels fr knwledge management. 1. Philsphy based mdel: fcuses n the rganizatin s view r philsphy f knwledge. A cmpany that fcuses n the imprtance f knwledge shuld ask the fllwing questins. What d we nt knw that we knw? What d we knw that we dn t knw? 2. Cgnitive mdel: makes knwledge an asset and it shuld be managed and accunted as a part f nrmal business. 3. Netwrk mdel: here knwledge is seen as requiring cllabratin thrugh netwrks, allwing teams t use the knwledge fr the betterment f the rganizatin. 4. Cmmunity f practice mdel: takes knwledge and cmmunicates it in a mre relaxed and cmmunal envirnment utilizing strytelling r metaphrs as the channel. It is meant t breakdwn cmplex knwledge int a simple frmat. 5. Quantum mdel: it psitins knwledge as scenari driven instead f fact driven. This mdel makes knwledge dynamic and adjustable t the scenari instead f referring t the knwledge as a static fact, leaving little rm fr innvatin. Bist Mdel Bist describes a knwledge management mdel that is three dimensinal. His Infrmatin Space r I Space philsphy describes three axes. 1. Uncdified t cdified 2. Cncrete t abstract 3. Undiffused t diffused Bist then describes a Scial Learning Cycle that wrks within the I Space mdel. This prcess flws thrugh six phases: 1. Scanning invlves knwledge btained frm the envirnment, which is uncdified. 2. Cdificatin knwledge is given structure thrugh prblems being slved with that knwledge. 3. Abstractin is when new and cdified knwledge is applied t a wide range f scenaris, making this knwledge mre abstract in nature. Page 22

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