1 Brave New World or Old Problems? Privacy, Security and Big Data: Beware of Unintended Consequences A nn C avouk ian, P h.d. E x ecut ive D ir ect or P r ivacy and B ig D at a Inst it ut e R yer son U niver sit y YRBiz Series Let s Talk Big Data: Big Ideas, Big Opportunities October 29, 2014
2 Privacy Secrecy Privacy is not about having something to hide
3 Privacy = Personal Control User control is critical Freedom of choice Informational self-determination Context is key!
4 Privacy is Essential to Freedom: A Necessary Condition for Societal Prosperity and Well-Being Innovation, creativity, and the resultant prosperity of a society requires freedom; Privacy is the essence of freedom: Without privacy, individual human rights, property rights and civil liberties the conceptual engines of innovation and creativity, could not exist in a meaningful manner; Surveillance is the antithesis of privacy: A negative consequence of surveillance is the usurpation of a person s limited cognitive bandwidth, away from innovation and creativity.
5 The Decade of Privacy by Design
6 Adoption of Privacy by Design as an International Standard Landmark Resolution Passed to Preserve the Future of Privacy By Anna Ohlden October 29th JERUSALEM, October 29, 2010 A landmark Resolution by Ontario's Information and Privacy Commissioner, Dr. Ann Cavoukian, was approved by international Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners in Jerusalem today at their annual conference. The resolution recognizes Commissioner Cavoukian's concept of Privacy by Design - which ensures that privacy is embedded into new technologies and business practices, right from the outset - as an essential component of fundamental privacy protection. Full Article:
7 1. English 2. French 3. German 4. Spanish 5. Italian 6. Czech 7. Dutch 8. Estonian 9. Hebrew 10.Hindi 11.Chinese 12.Japanese Privacy by Design: Proactive in 37 Languages! 13. Arabic 14. Armenian 15. Ukrainian 16. Korean 17. Russian 18. Romanian 19. Portuguese 20. Maltese 21. Greek 22. Macedonian 23. Bulgarian 24. Croatian 25. Polish 26. Turkish 27. Malaysian 28. Indonesian 29. Danish 30. Hungarian 31. Norwegian 32. Serbian 33. Lithuanian 34. Farsi 35. Finnish 36. Albanian 37. Catalan
8 Privacy by Design s Greatest Strength Positive-Sum: The Power of And Change the paradigm from the dated zero-sum (win/win) to a positive-sum model: Create a win/win scenario, not an either/or (vs.) involving unnecessary trade-offs and false dichotomies replace vs. with and
9 Letter from JIPDEC May 28, 2014 Privacy by Design is considered one of the most important concepts by members of the Japanese Information Processing Development Center We have heard from Japan s private sector companies that we need to insist on the principle of Positive-Sum, not Zero-Sum and become enlightened with Privacy by Design. Tamotsu Nomura, Japan Information Processing Development Center, May 28, 2014
10 Privacy by Design: The 7 Foundational Principles 1. Proactive not Reactive: Preventative, not Remedial; 2. Privacy as the Default setting; 3. Privacy Embedded into Design; 4. Full Functionality: Positive-Sum, not Zero-Sum; 5. End-to-End Security: Full Lifecycle Protection; 6. Visibility and Transparency: Keep it Open; 7. Respect for User Privacy: Keep it User-Centric.
11 Operationalizing Privacy by Design 9 PbD Application Areas CCTV/Surveillance cameras in mass transit systems; Biometrics used in casinos and gaming facilities; Smart Meters and the Smart Grid; Mobile Communications; Near Field Communications; RFIDs and sensor technologies; Redesigning IP Geolocation; Remote Home Health Care; Big Data and Data Analytics.
12 Big Data
13 Big Data 90% of all data was created within the last 2 years; Big Data analysis and data analytics promise new opportunities to gain valuable insights and benefits new predictive modes of analysis; But, it will also enable expanded surveillance, increasing the risk of unauthorized use and disclosure, on a scale previously unimaginable.
14 Big Data Market Expected to Explode Big Data markets will be worth roughly $28.3 Billion by times faster than the growth of the entire IT market. IDC Research, September, 2014
15 First, Comes the Honeymoon
16 The Honeymoon Phase: Big Data will rule the world! Everything else (including privacy) must step aside; Forget causality; correlation is enough.
17 Then, the Honeymoon Ends
18 Big Data Technology is Not Foolproof Despite rampant interest from enterprise leaders and often sizeable investments in Big Data technologies, many programs still sputter or fail completely. Evanta Leadership Network, May 29, 2014.
19 Big Data is moving from its inflated expectations phase to a trough of disillusionment. Gartner Hype Cycle, April, 2014
20 Forget Big Data what is needed is Good Data Barrie McKenna, The serious economic cost of Canada's data deficit, Globe and Mail, May 12, 2014
21 Context is Key Performing data analytics on context-free data will only yield correlations (which at times, will be spurious); By adding context as a feature in the analytics, we may be able to impute causality which has the potential to be invaluable in our analyses.
22 Privacy Does NOT Stifle Innovation It Drives It! The argument that privacy stifles innovation reflects a dated, zero-sum mindset; The notion that privacy must be sacrificed for innovation is a false win/lose dichotomy, consisting of unnecessary trade-offs; The opposite is true privacy drives innovation it forces innovators to think creatively to find solutions that will serve multiple functionalities; We need to abandon zero-sum thinking and adopt a positive-sum paradigm where both innovation and privacy may be achieved we need a new playbook!
23 Privacy by Design and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) The concept of Privacy by Design has gotten a lot of attention over the past few years and within the IETF we have tried to investigate how we can consider privacy in the design of protocols and architectural designs in a more systematic way. Privacy Considerations for Internet Protocols, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF),
24 OASIS Technical Committee Privacy by Design for Software Engineers Commissioner Cavoukian and Professor Jutla are the Co-Chairs of a new technical committee (TC) of OASIS PbD-SE (software engineers) TC; The purpose of PbD-SE is to provide PbD governance and documentation for software engineers; and The PbD standards developed will pave the way for software engineers to code for Privacy, by Design.
25 OASIS and Privacy by Design June 2014 the OASIS PbD-SE Technical Committee (TC) approved the Privacy by Design Documentation for Software Engineers Version 1.0 as a Committee Specification Draft (CSD), and the Annex Guide to Privacy by Design Documentation for Software Engineers Version 1.0 as a Committee Note Draft (CND); This vote represents a milestone for the PbD-SE TC, acknowledging the substantial progress that has been made over the last year; The PbD-SE TC will undertake another review cycle before submitting the CSD and CND to public review.
26 It s all about Design Rather than a policy, develop technology that will work according to how it s designed. -Scott Shipman, CPO, Seneity Systems
28 Privacy is just as Big as Big Data. The tools exist to systemically protect personal information and bring about the benefits of Big Data. Together we can ensure that Big Data and Big Privacy can both be accomplished to enable win-win scenario. Commissioner Cavoukian
29 Big Data at Intel Intel believes that privacy is foundational for the use of Big Data. -David Hoffman Director of Security Policy, Intel
30 The Bottom Line Privacy should be viewed as a business issue, not a compliance issue Think strategically and transform privacy into a competitive business advantage
31 Trends and Challenges: An Epidemic of Breaches? From 2005 to 2013, there were 4,167 reported breaches involving 663,587,386 individual records; 30% of those whose records are breached will become victims of identity theft. Privacy Rights Clearinghouse The average cost of breach per record/individual in 2013: $201 Ponemon Data breaches are a fact of life in the United States. Mallory Duncan, Vice President, National Retail Federation
32 Data Breaches Continue Target Home Depot Neiman Marcus J.P. Morgan Chase Dairy Queen Kmart Dropbox
33 Trends and Challenges: Poor Information Management A central challenge facing businesses today when it comes to privacy is poor information management; While customers may inadvertently contribute to privacy breaches, their ability to prevent them is minimal; It is a sad fact that the majority of privacy breaches occur largely because of poor information management practices by organizations not individuals; This is especially true given the ever increasing collection of personal information.
34 Cost of Taking a Reactive Approach Proactive to Privacy Breaches Class Action Lawsuits Damage to One s Brand Reactive Loss of Consumer Confidence and Trust
35 There are considerable risks in abandoning de-identification efforts, including the fact that individuals and organizations may simply cease disclosing deidentified information for secondary purposes, even those seen to be in the public interest. Commissioner Cavoukian
36 The Argument that Privacy Stifles Big Data Innovation Reflects a Dated, Zero-Sum Mindset 1. Big Data and privacy are not mutually exclusive: Data is one of the most valuable assets of any organization ; Privacy is about personal information; Consumer demands are creating additional pressures; 2. Proactive privacy drives innovation: It is entirely possible to achieve privacy in the Big Data era, while also using data analytics to unlock new insights and innovations to move an organization forward; 3. Innovation and privacy: You can have it all: Organizations will continue to apply data analytics to Big Data in order to advance their strategic goals and better serve their customers. Commissioner Cavoukian, Using Privacy by Design to achieve Big Data Innovation Without Compromising Privacy
37 The Father of the Web wants Greater Control People need to reclaim ownership of their data and start putting it to good use I would like us to build a world in which I have control of my data. -Sir Tim Berners-Lee, The Telegraph, October 8, 2014
38 Trust takes years to build, seconds to destroy, and forever to repair. -Widely quoted phrase
39 Concluding Thoughts Privacy risks are best managed by proactively embedding the principles of Privacy by Design prevent the harm from arising avoid the data breach; Focus on prevention: It is much easier and far more cost-effective to build in privacy, up-front, rather than after-the-fact; Abandon zero-sum thinking embrace doubly-enabling systems: Big Data and Big Privacy; Get smart lead with Privacy by Design, not privacy by chance or, worse, Privacy by Disaster!
40 Contact Information Ann Cavoukian, Ph.D. Executive Director Privacy and Big Data Institute Ryerson University 285 Victoria Street Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 Phone: (416) ext twitter.com/privacybigdata
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