1 Data, Data Everywhere The Need for BIG Privacy in a World of Big Data Ann Cavoukian, Ph.D. Information and Privacy Commissioner Ontario, Canada Future of Consumer Intelligence Universal City, California May 20, 2014
2 Presentation Outline 1. Privacy = Personal Control 2. Positive-Sum: The Power of And 3. Privacy by Design: The Gold Standard 4. Why Big Data Needs Big Privacy 5. Beware of the Backlash! 6. SmartData: PbD Concluding Thoughts
3 Privacy = Control
4 Privacy = Personal Control User control is critical Freedom of choice Informational self-determination Context is key!
5 Fair Information Practices OECD Guidelines 1980, revised 2013 Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs) U.S. Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) Congressional Advisory Committee 1973 First Fair Information Practice Principles
6 Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) Fair Information Practices 1973 HEW drafted the first code of Fair Information Practices; there must be a way for an individual to prevent information about him or her obtained for one purpose, from being used or made available for other purposes, without consent.
7 The Decade of Privacy by Design
8 Adoption of Privacy by Design as an International Standard Landmark Resolution Passed to Preserve the Future of Privacy By Anna Ohlden October 29th JERUSALEM, October 29, 2010 A landmark Resolution by Ontario's Information and Privacy Commissioner, Dr. Ann Cavoukian, was approved by international Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners in Jerusalem today at their annual conference. The resolution recognizes Commissioner Cavoukian's concept of Privacy by Design - which ensures that privacy is embedded into new technologies and business practices, right from the outset - as an essential component of fundamental privacy protection. Full Article:
9 1. English 2. French 3. German 4. Spanish 5. Italian 6. Czech 7. Dutch 8. Estonian 9. Hebrew 10.Hindi 11.Chinese 12.Japanese Privacy by Design: Proactive in 36 Languages! 13. Arabic 14. Armenian 15. Ukrainian 16. Korean 17. Russian 18. Romanian 19. Portuguese 20. Maltese 21. Greek 22. Macedonian 23. Bulgarian 24. Croatian 25. Polish 26. Turkish 27. Malaysian 28. Indonesian 29. Danish 30. Hungarian 31. Norwegian 32. Serbian 33. Lithuanian 34. Farsi 35. Finnish 36. Albanian
10 Privacy by Design s Greatest Strength Positive-Sum: The Power of And Change the paradigm from the dated zero-sum (win/lose) to a positive-sum model: Create a win/win scenario, not an either/or (vs.) involving unnecessary trade-offs and false dichotomies replace vs. with and
11 Privacy by Design: The 7 Foundational Principles 1. Proactive not Reactive: Preventative, not Remedial; 2. Privacy as the Default setting; 3. Privacy Embedded into Design; 4. Full Functionality: Positive-Sum, not Zero-Sum; 5. End-to-End Security: Full Lifecycle Protection; 6. Visibility and Transparency: Keep it Open; 7. Respect for User Privacy: Keep it User-Centric.
12 Big Data
13 Big Data 90% of all data was created within the last 2 years; Big Data analysis and data analytics promise new opportunities to gain valuable insights and benefits new predictive modes of analysis; But, it will also enable expanded surveillance, increasing the risk of unauthorized use and disclosure, on a scale previously unimaginable.
14 First, the Honeymoon Phase: Big Data will rule the world! Everything else (including privacy) must step aside; Forget causality; correlation is enough.
15 Then, the Honeymoon Ends
16 Some People are Now Asking: Is Big Data a Big Mistake? The Big Data that interests many companies is what we might call found data the digital exhaust of web searches, credit card payments and mobiles pinging the nearest phone mast; Such data sets are cheap to collect relative to their size a messy collage of data-points, collected for disparate purposes; So, how good is the data? April 7, 2014
17 Big Data is moving from its inflated expectations phase to a trough of disillusionment. Gartner Hype Cycle, April, 2014
18 March Issue of Science Google Flu Trends: Under Attack 2009, Google researchers announced Google Flu could track the spread of influenza across the United States, faster than the Centers for Disease Control (CDC); Google was faster because it was tracking the outbreak by finding correlations between what people searched for online; Yet, several years later Google Flu lost its edge it became less accurate than the CDC at estimating the spread of the flu; Google s engineers weren t interested in context they were selecting statistical patterns in the data (correlation over causation a common assumption in big data analysis). April 7, 2014
19 MIT Big Data Expert Calls for Privacy MIT Professor Alex Pentland has proposed a New Deal on Data, which calls for individuals to own their data and control how it is used and distributed. Measuring Idea Flows to Accelerate Innovation, New York Times, April 15, 2014.
20 Quantity Does Not Equal Quality But while big data promise much to scientists, entrepreneurs and governments, they are doomed to disappoint us if we ignore some very familiar statistical lessons. There are a lot of small data problems that occur in big data. They don t disappear because you ve got lots of the stuff they get worse! David Spiegelhalter, Winton Professor, Cambridge University Big data: are we making a big mistake? FT Magazine, March 2014.
21 Forget Big Data what is needed is Good Data Barrie McKenna, The serious economic cost of Canada's data deficit, Globe and Mail, May 12, 2014
22 Context is Key Performing data analytics on context-free data will only yield correlations (which at times, will be spurious); By adding context as a feature in the analytics, we may be able to impute causality which has the potential to be invaluable in our analyses.
24 Don t Be Fooled Once businesses have amassed the [personal] information, it can be hard, if not impossible, for individuals to know how it will be used in the future. A Long Way to Privacy Safeguards, New York Times Editorial, May 11, 2014.
25 Beware of the Backlash!
26 Majority Mask Digital Footprints Online September 2013 a Pew Research survey reported that 86% of Americans had taken steps to remove or mask their digital footprints online; 68% believed current laws are not strong enough to protect them. A Second Front in the Privacy Wars, New York Times Editorial, February 23, 2014.
27 Financial Implications of NSA Revelations: U.S. Businesses to Lose Billions There are discussions now that the NSA revelations will bring about losses to the U.S. IT industry of upwards of $200 billion. These are major impacts on an industry that is directly traceable to the concerns that non-u.s. citizens, governments, and industry have over whether they can trust U.S.-based companies. Professor Ron Deibert, September 13, Reza Akhlaghi, A Candid Discussion with Ron Deibert, Foreign Policy Association, September 13, 2013.
28 Target CEO is the Latest Casualty
29 The Public Wants Privacy More than 60% of respondents to an Associated-Press poll said they valued their privacy more than anti-terror protections. Eileen Sullivan, AP-GfK poll: Americans value privacy over security, January 27, 2014
30 The Bottom Line Privacy should be viewed as a business issue, not just a compliance issue Think strategically and transform privacy into a competitive business advantage
31 Cost of Taking a Reactive Approach to Privacy Breaches Proactive Lawsuits Damage to Your Brand Reactive Loss of Consumer Confidence and Trust
32 Gain a Privacy Payoff When you protect your customers privacy, and secure their personal data, you in turn, gain their trust and protect your brand win/win Get proactive Get ahead of the harm!
33 Here s What s Coming: Innovation
34 It s All About Context: SmartData: Embedding User Control A new approach to Artificial Intelligence: evolving virtual cognitive agents that can act as your proxy, to protect your personally identifiable data; Intelligent software agents will be evolved to: Protect and secure your personal information; Disclose your information only when your personal criteria for release have been met; Put the user firmly in control Big Privacy, Personal Control!
35 Too many individuals and organizations are resigned to large-scale computer based surveillance, invasion, and expropriation. The purpose of this paper is to explain why we believe that resignation to be unwarranted. Commissioner Cavoukian
36 Concluding Thoughts Privacy risks are best managed by proactively embedding the principles of Privacy by Design prevent the harm from arising; Focus on prevention: It is easier and far more costeffective to build in privacy, up-front, rather than bolting it on after-the-fact; Abandon zero-sum thinking embrace doubly-enabling win/win systems: Big Data and Big Privacy; Get smart lead with Privacy by Design, not privacy by chance or, worse, Privacy by Disaster!
37 How to Contact Us Ann Cavoukian, Ph.D. Information & Privacy Commissioner of Ontario 2 Bloor Street East, Suite 1400 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4W 1A8 Phone: (416) / Web:
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