EDUCATE for the FUTURE

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1 Italian National Agency for new technology, energy and sustainable economic development EDUCATE for the FUTURE Partners of the project: - ENEA project - Ministry of Education, University and Research Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea Protection Ministry of Foreign Affairs Italian Development Cooperation Province of Rome IFAD - International Fund for Agricultural Development 1

2 The project s aim is to help students to face new problems which regard the SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT of our planet to create new relationships between students in the North and in the South of the world on the basis of the awareness of our common future 2

3 What is lacking in our educational system is a special education regarding the global epoch that we are living... Nothing teaches us the state of the world that we are part of Edgar Morin 3

4 At school in the planetary epoch What new knowledge must be introduced in our schools to interest students in science and involve them in building their future? What new teacher-student relationships and what new teaching methods do we need to facilitate the growth of a teenager in the 2012 who sees in the future more threats than hopes? 4

5 Educational process follows these steps Emotional bond student teacher Emotional bond student - subject desire to learn will joy of self esteem identity education training / schooling 5

6 Why the issue of a Sustainable future? 1 The world population grows dramatically, within a few decades the earth will host 9 billion people, 2 billion more than now 2 New residents will born mostly in poor regions and to reach acceptable living conditions, will require increasing amounts of energy and natural resources 3 The earth is a closed ecosystem, its resources are limited; human development cannot exceed the biophisical! planet s limits 6

7 THE EARTH IS A CLOSED AND LIMITED ECOSYSTEM Is it possible to realize an unlimited development inside a limited eco-system? 7

8 The consumption of natural resources, energy, food, water, necessary to the life of all inhabitans of the planet, cannot overcome the limited biosphere s capacity Humanity must learn to live sustainably 8

9 9 billions World population grew to 250 million people in 1600 years...and now grows dramatically from 1950 to 2050, in just 100 years will grow to 7 billion people year ,2 billions 2 billions 250 millions 500 millions Year

10 The population doesn t grow uniformly on the planet: in poor nations, the population grows at a rate 10 times higher than in rich nations 20% 80% In % of population will live in poor countries inhabitants of poor countries 10

11 Variation of the global population between 2000 and 2050 By 2050, Africa will be the most populous region in the world with 2 billion people Year ,2 billions of inahibitant Year ,2 billions of inahibitant Europe North America Africa China India europa nord america africa cina india 11

12 A comprensive strategy for sustainable development must involve all countries, both poor and industrialized 12

13 Poor countries will need to have at their disposal the amount of natural resources and energy to achieve minimum levels of dignity and well being Più energia per i paesi poveri 13

14 Meno consumi per i paesi ricchi Developed countries should reduce their consumption, change their life styles, apply available knowledge and technologies to find new solutions in agreement with the environment 14

15 Who consumes energy on the planet? Inahibitants (in Millions) Energy consumption 2007 (MillionsTEP) North America America del Nord Europe Europa Latin America America Latina Africa India Africa India Cina China If everyone on the planet wanted to imitate the lifestyle of Americans, the planet should withstand 14 times the current energy consumption with unimaginable economic, social and environmental consequences 15

16 Distribution of oil and gas deposits in the world 65,1 65% of oil still available for the future, is in the middle East, the gas is present in only two regions of the planet. It s no accident that middle East has been a region of conflicts for many years. 37, ,6 4,9 4,6 1,8 3,5 6,3 7 7,4 4,2 6,9 North nord America america centro Central sud and america South America Europe europa ex Former unione sovietica Soviet Union medio Middle oriente East africa Africa estremo Far oriente East 16

17 An American consumes 26 barrels of oil per year 17

18 An American consumes 26 barrels of oil per year An Italian consumes 12 barrels of oil per year 18

19 An American consumes 26 barrels of oil per year An Italian consumes 12 barrels of oil per year An Chinese consumes 2 barrels of oil per year 19

20 An American consumes 26 barrels of oil per year An Italian consumes 12 barrels of oil per year An Chinese consumes 2 barrels of oil per year An African consumes only 1 20

21 First of all Energy is an ethical issue An American consumes 26 barrels of oil per year An Italian consumes 12 barrels of oil per year An Chinese consumes 2 barrels of oil per year An African consumes only 1 21

22 For how much can we still count on no renewable energies? Energy source Annual production Fonte di enrgia () (billions of barrels Proven reserves (billions of barrels) Riserve Expected attese reserves (billions of barrels) (miliardi di barili) Exhaustion Time (Years) oil 27, natural gas 14, coal 20, uranium thorium 2,

23 Growth of the world energy consumption 23

24 What kind of damages are we producing to our ecosystem because of the way we produce and consume energy? 24

25 Which sources do we use to produce energy? what are the consequences for the ecosystem? 35% 80% of all world energy comes from fossil (oil + gas + coal) 21% 23% 6,7% 2,4% 11% petrolio Oil gas carbone Coal nucleare idro biomassa Gas Nuclear Biomass 25

26 With the extraction of fossil man returns into the atmosphere, in a few years, huge amounts of carbon that natural processes had confined underground in hundreds of millions of years. This is particularly alarming when one recalls that it was the removal of carbon and oxygen accumulation in the atmosphere that allowed the occurrence of humankind CARBON CYCLE HUMAN FACTOR 3.7 million MtC fossil carbon contained in more than 100 million years in the underground comes back in the atmosphere Atmosphere 1,8% ( MtC) MtC/year Soil 5,6% (2,3 millions MtC) MtC/year OCEAN 92,6% (38 millions MtC) MtC/year 26

27 How much carbon emissions we produce by burning Imissioni fossil di carbonio fuels today? in atmosfera And how many can withstand the planet? Oceans and forests absorb CO2 and convert it into oxygen in the following amounts (Megaton/year): oceans 2400 trees/land areas 900 Total capacity of the planet to absorb carbon 3300 Anthropogenic emissions of carbon 8000 Inputs of carbon into the atmosphere by human activities 4700 The current carbon emissions are more than twice the natural capacity of our planet to absorb 27

28 For how long the emitted and not "recycled" from the planet CO2 remains alive in the 'atmosphere? CO2 CH4 NO2 CFC-11 HFC-23 CF4 (PFC) Pre Industrial Revolution ~280 ppmv ~700 ppbv ~280 ppbv pptv ppmv 1745 ppbv 314 ppbv 268 pptv 14 pptv 80 pptv Annual Growth Rate Persistence average (years) 50 / GWP (global warming potential) Ppmv = parts per million by volume, ppbv = parts per billion by volume, pptv = parts per trillion in volume The portion of CO2 produced annually by human activities and not absorbed by the planet, remains in the atmosphere for 50 / 200 years So the CO2 emitted today will be added to that emitted in the coming decades, causing a drastic increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere 28

29 Grafico aumento concentrazione CO2 380 CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has increased by 35% in just 200 years passing from 280 ppmv to 380 ppmv 29

30 Studies carried out in Antarctica on air bubbles trapped in the deep layers of ice have permitted to write La storia "history" della of CO2 CO2 fino in a the 600 air mila up anni to 600,000 fa years ago The measurements show that the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has always been maintained, from 600 thousand years ago to today, within the two dashed red lines corresponding to a minimum of 200 and a maximum of 290 parts per million. Today (year 0 of the graph) has been produced a sudden and extremely high increase in CO2 concentration from 290 to 380 parts per million. a very higher level than the one ever reached in the last 650,000 years 30

31 World Energy Outlook 2008 International Energy Agency Report that provides data to evaluate the development of the international ones energy market and its consequences on climate change The world energy system is at a crossroads. The current energy consumption are clearly unsustainable from an environmental, economic and social point of view we must implement an ENERGY REVOLUTION 31

32 The student needs to know if knowledge, scientific research, new technologies are able to find positive solutions for the future. Are there new sources of energy to meet the needs of humanity without causing irreparable damage to the environment? 32

33 According to European Renewable Energy Council by 2020 EU industry sources can produce 33-40% of the electricity needed for Europe. Thermal solar energy will be able to cover up to25% of heat demand in Europe. With renewables energies we will be able to generate about 2 million jobs Energia dal vento 33

34 Often in Germany and Austria solar thermal collectors are integrated on the roofs of houses or buildings Solar block in Neckarsulm Germany 34

35 Renewable energy for sustainable development of the South of the World Poor countries have large quantities of solar energy, free and non polluting.two billion people living in the millions of rural villages scattered throughout the world, can produce electricity and heat necessary for their development without harming the planet

36 Concentrating solar power for electricity production Large linear parabolic mirrors of 5 metres, concentrate solar radiation on a receiver pipe flowing molten salts that are heated to 500 C. ENEA s Research Centre - Rome 36

37 The solar plant heats the fluid in the pipe receiver. The heat of the fluid is accumulated in the first tank at 550 C. With this heat can be produced steam 24 hours on 24. The steam turbine generates electricity. After having transferred part of its thermal energy to produce steam, the fluid is collected in a second tank to 290 C. Then it returns to the solar plant to warm again. 37

38 The Receiver Piper 38

39 Archimede s Project Demonstration of a solar power plant 5MWe in Priolo (Sicily) 39

40 Large areas of the planet are very sunny and therefore suitable for the construction of solar concentration plants. From each square meter of surface, we can achieve in one year, the same amount of energy that is derived from a barrel of oil. Hypothetical extension of the area occupied by solar thermal plants to produce the world's supply (European) of electricity to

41 A cooperation project between Europe- Middle East - North Africa 41

42 Technology is the most important weapon to overcome poverty The end of poverty - Jeffrey Sachs La tecnologia può sconfiggere la povertà The spread of mobile telephony is a prime example (280 million users in Africa, 130 in Brazil, 120 in Indonesia); it will allow to overcome the isolation of villages, to disseminate information, to do business. In Bangladesh mobile operator GrameenPhone has introduced the Healthline, a direct and no stop line for medical assistance via mobile 42

43 SOLAR ENERGY FOR RURAL VILLAGES Today you can make self-sufficient millions of rural villages scattered around the world with small thermal and photovoltaic systems that produce the electricity sufficient for their needs. Opportunities of use: illuminate homes and environments, cooking with solar ovens and biogas, irrigate with solar pumps, potable water, using work tools and refrigerators, communicate and make school 43

44 A photovoltaic School in Africa Scuola fotovoltaica africana In a school in an area of South Africa, SELF (Solar Electric Light Found), has installed a photovoltaic system to 2400W, DELL has provided some computers and INFOSAT provided the satellite link. Myeka High School is a technological dream came true 44

45 The students who were reading by candlelight, can now connect to the Internet and have access to the Learning Channel. The graduates have increased from 30 to 70%, some students have won science prizes, and many go on to university. 45

46 AN EXAMPLE ON HOW A SCHOOL CAN PARTECIPATE TO A COOPERATION PROJECT This Pv kit can provide electricity to a small rural school and the teacher s house. photovoltaic panels 300Wp Six lamps to light up the first class 2 lamps to light up the teacher s room Control unit Six lamps to light up the second class Battery, 12V It costs (about 3 / year per student in a school with 500 pupils) 46

47 Burkina Faso, April

48 48

49 49

50

51 This Pv kit can provide electricity

52 We can do, very briefly, another example of interdisciplinary path. This time touching the theme of the economy. A FINANCIAL SYSTEM THAT WANTS TO OVERCOME POVERTY Grameen Bank (Bank of the village) Bangladesh 1976 (www.grameen-info.org) The most important experience of microcredit bank founded by Muhammad Yunus 52

53 The bank lends money only to the poor, particularly women Working for these people, the bank had a recovery rate of loans of 98%. Yunus started paying $ 5 to a woman who made straw baskets for a company who in return gave her rice for her and her children. With $ 5 the woman was able to buy straw and was able to sell the baskets to the market, obtaining the proper gain. With only $ 5 this woman is out of poverty and entered the market 53

54 "We were told we had to make loans to family heads, usually males. Instead we have addressed mainly to women in the most extreme degree of poverty... village women who do not have a piece of land and throughout their lives have never touched money.... Women who can neither read nor write, women who dare not stand in front of a man and hide their face in the presence of strangers... 54

55 Grameen Bank believes that the poor have the ability to work that remain underutilized. The answer to poverty is to release energy and creativity in each human being The credit is a human right, not a game of speculation by "Banker to the Poor" by M. Yunus 55

56 Yunus demonstrate us that lend money to the poor is not absurd at all. Lending money to the poor is the only way to overcome poverty and on the other hand is the only ethic way to see economy. This experience needs to be discussed at school in order to let the student understand that it is possible to find solutions only through new and commongood-oriented experiences. 56

57 Making school in planetary age To create an emotional bond between the student, the teacher and the knowledge the school must overcome the fragmentation of knowledge in subjects and offer a mix of interdisciplinary knowledge, allowing students to tackle complex issues and to seek new solutions. the school must become the privileged place where you are defending the interests of students and the common property of society needed to build a peaceful and sustainable future for all inhabitants of the planet 57

58 The homepage of the Project 58

59 Educate for the Future project of scientific cooperation between ENEA and schools to create NATIONAL NETWORK of SCHOOLS for a SUSTAINABLE FUTURE TEACHERS, STUDENTS, RESEARCHERS WORK TOGETHER IN ORDER TO: produce new teaching materials for schools, to be broadcasted on web promoting renewable sources and the responsible consumption in the territory realize cooperation projects with schools in developing countries 59

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