Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Pros:

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1 P a g e 1 Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Generating Electrical Energy Using Moving Water: Hydro-Electric Generation Hydroelectricity is the most used renewable source of electrical energy. To generate this electricity, dams are used to contain water in one area. To meet the demands of electricity, water is pumped differently throughout the dam. When there is a low demand of electricity (e.g., Nighttime), the water from the lake flows up into the reservoir to create a higher elevation of water so when there is a higher demand (e.g., Day), there is enough water to be sent to turn the turbine, generate electron flow to a coil generator, and send this current electricity through transmission lines, and deliver large amounts of electricity to buildings and homes across the area. To get a clearer understanding of how this electricity is generated, visit this link below: Rainwater that is collected from the reservoir can be used for consumption of power, or supplying dry lands nearby. Dams are built to be long term structures that can store water for several years. This energy does not pollute air or water as it substitutes the need of burning fossil fuels, and does not produce smog, and/or acid rain. Hydroelectricity is a renewable source of energy by using water that is constantly replenished throughout the water cycle. Fish ladders are created around the dam to prevent diverted water that creates the ease of fish migration. The sluice gates of a dam can conserve water for the times when electricity is most needed. Rainwater that is collected from the reservoir can be used for consumption of power, or supplying dry lands nearby. Dams are built to be long term structures that can store water for several years. This energy does not pollute air or water as it substitutes the need of burning fossil fuels, and does not produce smog, and/or acid rain. Hydroelectricity is a renewable source of energy by using water that is constantly replenished throughout the water cycle. Fish ladders are created around the dam to prevent diverted water that creates the ease of fish migration. The sluice gates of a dam can conserve water for the times when electricity is most needed.

2 P a g e 2 Generating Electrical Energy Using Moving Water: Tidal Generation Generating electrical energy using moving water is called tidal energy. Tidal energy is the energy of fast flowing water. The energy of fast flowing water can be used to rotate a water turbine. The tides happen twice daily at specific times in a cycle. The cycle repeats when the tide changes from low tide to high tide. The generating machine is on for 5 hours and off for 7 hours. Tidal generation is a renewable energy source. It is a non-stop source of energy It doesn't produce greenhouse gases We can predict the rise and fall of tides because they repeat the same every day Tidal Energy doesn t require any kind of fuel to run The life span of tidal energy power plant is very long Using tidal sources to generate electrical energy produces no pollution Tidal Energy plants are emission free It could potentially provide a storm barrier It can last years Cost of construction of tidal power plant is high. There are very few locations for construction of plant and they are all coastal regions. Intensity of sea waves is unpredictable and there can be damage to power generation units. The tides only happen twice a day so electricity can be produced only for that time. The places where tidal energy is produced are usually far away from the places where it is consumed. Tidal generating stations can only be built near coastlines that experience significant changes in tides The tides can damage the Tidal Power plant If damaged, the cost to repair it is high The marine life is badly affected

3 P a g e 3 Generating Electrical Energy Using Steam: Thermal Generation: Fossil Fuels Burning fossil fuels is a relatively slow process. It s the process of heating water, which makes steam, which turns a turbine, which powers the generator and creates electrical power. The fossil fuels are what heat the water, because you are burning them with flame. In this process there are many cons and fewer pros. One large con would be that fossil fuels take millions of years to form but, a pro would be that it is inexpensive, plentiful and produces a great amount of energy. Produces coal, oil and natural gases Cheap and plentiful Produces a great amount of energy The income from the sale of the fuels can help a country s economy Safe Fossil fuels take millions of years to form They are non-renewable resources When fossil fuels burn, carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere Increases the risk of greenhouse gases and climate change Creates air pollution and destroys natural habitats Raises environmental concerns

4 P a g e 4 Generating Electrical Energy Using Steam: Thermal Generation: Nuclear Energy 1. In a nuclear reactor, fuel rods full of uranium pellets are placed in water. 2. Inside the fuel rods, uranium atoms split, releasing energy. 3. This energy heats water, creating steam. 4. The steam moves through a turbine, which turns a generator to create electricity. 5. The steam cools back into water, which can then be used over again. At some nuclear power plants, extra heat is released from a cooling tower. A nuclear power plant is basically a steam power plant that is fueled by uranium. The fuel is placed in a reactor and the atoms are allowed to split apart. The splitting process, known as fission, releases large amounts of energy. This energy is used to heat water until it turns to steam. After that process, the mechanics of a steam power plant take over. The steam pushes on turbines, which force coils of wire to interact with a magnetic field. This generates an electric current. Lower carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere in power generation. Low operating costs. Known, developed technology ready for market. Large power-generating capacity able to meet industrial and city needs. Existing and future nuclear waste can be reduced through waste recycling and reprocessing, similar to Japan and the EU High construction costs due to complex radiation containment systems and procedures. Subsidies and investment could be spent on other solutions (such as renewable energy systems). Long construction time. Waste lasts thousand years. The majority of known uranium around the world lies under land controlled by tribes who don t support it being mined from the earth.

5 P a g e 5 Generating Electrical Energy Using Steam: Thermal Generation: Biomass Biomass energy is any form of plant and/or animal matter. Some examples are: wood, straw, manure and plant based oils. Biomass could also include any biodegradable waste that could be burned. Biomass energy is renewable because plants and animals are always making waste and plants and crops are always being planted. Renewable Does not pollute the air Reduces the amount of waste on Earth Reduces greenhouse gas emissions Large areas of land are needed in order to create enough electricity to make biomass energy an efficient energy source Some materials are not available the whole year (like crop waste) Requires massive amounts of space to set up Requires a large amount of water to recycle the wastes that are produced Releases the highest level gases that contribute to global warming May increase the amounts of nitrogen oxide in the atmosphere

6 P a g e 6 Generating Electrical Energy Using Steam: Thermal Generation: Geothermal FACTS: Geothermal energy is clean and safe for the surrounding environment. Geothermal energy is sustainable because hot water can be reinjected into the ground. Geothermal energy is extremely price competitive in suitable areas. Geothermal energy suitable areas aren't widely spread. Geothermal energy is main energy source in Iceland. Source: Geothermal Energy can be defined as heat from the Earth. This heat is generated and collected into the Earth's core. Geothermal Energy is known for being renewable. The heat that comes from the Earth's core is unlimited and the Earth's core is always hot, never cold (it'll never run out of heat). Geothermal Energy is used in many areas such as - Italy, Iceland, New Zealand, Mexico, Japan, USA, Canada, and many more countries. Significant Cost Saving, Reduce Reliance on Fossil Fuels No Pollution, Direct Use Job Creation and Economic Benefits, Renewable There is an enormous amount of thermal energy deep within the earth, that is replenished at a very high rate. This amount is conservatively estimated to be higher than all the fossil fuels and uranium combined. Geothermal energy is not susceptible to price fluctuation like crude oil. It is considered the most "green" of all renewable energy types, primarily because there are no products of combustion like in all fossil fuel energy generation operations. The US government has offered tax credits for individuals who use the technology in their homes. Yes, this means you can have one of the highest efficiency heating and cooling systems in your own home for a discount! Lifetime costs of geothermal operations, both in residences and generation plants are smaller than other types of energy. Geothermal energy is found deep in the earth's core and because of this geothermal energy is hard to access and hard to obtain. Geothermal generating stations must be built in areas where the temperature deep in the ground is hot enough to produce steam. Geothermal energy has heavy upfront costs. The power plants for geothermal energy, rarely but still may, cause earthquakes. It's extremely important that the maintenance of a power plant for geothermal energy is well taken care of because the water traveling through the pipes is extremely hot which means they are very hazardous.

7 P a g e 7 Generating Electrical Energy Using Wind: A Wind Turbine is made up of large blades connected to a tall tower and as the wind blows it turns the blades of the turbine. A Wind Turbine can generate enough electricity for 250 Canadian home. When many Wind Turbines are linked together on the same grid, a large amount of electricity can be generated. Wind Turbines are very cheap to buy and maintain compared to other generating stations Wind Turbines can be added and removed from the grid easily They do not cause air or water pollution Wind energy reduces our need for fossil fuels They can only work when there is wind To power large things there needs to be many Wind Turbines They make loud noises They kill flying animals Storms can cause damage to Wind Turbines They can feed forest fires

8 P a g e 8 Generating Electrical Energy from Light: Does not produce any air or water pollution after installation. Can operate independently off the power grid or connected to it. Maintenance free when properly installed. Can last more than forty years. Not noisy like fossil fuels and some renewable fuels. Installation is to remote locations, this is more cost effective than high voltage wires. Initial cost may be overwhelming, but once installed, they provide a free source of electricity, and this pays off over the coming years. Allows the users to become less dependent on the worlds fossil fuels. Only 30% efficient at converting electricity because of the limitations of materials used to create solar panels. Can be expensive. After installation they do not produce any air or water pollution, but when they are being manufactured and disposed of, they do create water and air pollution. Do not produce a large amount of energy immediately. Each solar cell needs several hours of sunlight in order to produce large amounts of electricity. Solar cells and installation are costly. Only able to generate power during daylight hours (half the day they are not generating electricity) Weather can affect the efficiency of solar cells.

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