1 COMENIUS PROJECT Energy Sources in Siciliy Solar Energy Gas Energy Wind Energy Biomass Energy Thermic Energy Coal Energy Water Energy Geothermal Energy Map Power Plants
2 Hidroelectric Power Plant Solar Power Plant Wind Farm Gas Power Plant Biomass Power Plant Thermal Power Plant Archimedes Project
3 CASUZZE: Palermo - Power Efficiency 9 MW GUADALAMI: Piana degli Albanesi (PA) Power Efficiency 80 MW SAN CARLO: Burgio (AG) Power Efficientcy 6 MW POGGIODIANA: Caltabellotta (AG) Power Efficiency 4,3 MW REGALBUTO: Regalbuto (EN) Power Efficiency 6,4 MW CONTRASTO: Adrano (CT) Power Efficiency 35 MW PATERNÒ: Paternò (CT) Power Efficiency 12,8 MW BARCA: Paternò (CT) Power Efficiency 9,4 MW PETINO: Sortino (SR) Power Efficiency 4,1 MW
4 Adrano (CT): experimental solar power station (the first in Europe no longer active) Ginostra (Aeolian): Photovoltaic (under construction) Vulcano (Eolie): Photovoltaic assets under management by ENEL Catania: photovoltaic system in design Gela: photovoltaic system in design Archimedes: Priolo (SR) Power Efficiency 750 MW
5 Caltabellotta (AG) Power Efficiency 7,5 MW Scalfani Bagi (PA) Power Efficiency 26 MW Carlentini (SR) Power Efficiency 25 MW Regalbuto (EN) Power Efficiency KW
6 Fondachelli Fantina (ME)
7 Enna - Under Construction Ribera - Under Construction
8 San Filippo del Mela: S. Filippo del Mela (ME) Power Efficiency 1280 MW Archimede: Priolo Gargallo (SR) Power Efficiency 750 MW Termini Imerese: Termini Imerese (PA) Power Efficiency 454 MW Lampedusa: Lampedusa e Linosa (AG) Out of Service
9 Comenius Project: Energy in your life The Archimedes Project: Carl Rubbia
10 The Archimedes project is the first integration of a gas combined cycle and solar thermodynamic power plant in the world. The plant, located in Priolo, near Syracuse, in Sicily,is called Archimedes for the rows of huge parabolic mirrors used to capture the sun rays.they recall the burning mirrors that Archimedes is said to have used to fire the Roman ship that besieged Syracuse during the Punic war in 212 BC. The project is the result of Rubbia s research activities concentrated on the problem of energy supply for the future, with particular focus on the development of new technologies for renewable energy sources. The nuclear researcher has developed a new method for concentrating solar power at high temperatures for energy production. The special technology used in the Priolo plant, was developed by Enea, the Italian energy authority. The Archimedes plant is the first in the world to use molten salts as the heat transfer fluid and to integrate a combined cycle gas facility and a solar thermal power plant for electricity generation. The plant can collect and store the heat of the sun for many hours in order to generate electricity at night or in overcast conditions. This allows to overcome the common limitation of this renewable source,namely,that you can use it only when nature makes it available.
11 Solar thermodynamic technology uses a set of parabolic mirrors to concentrate the sun rays on pipes carrying a fluid. The latter,collected in special tanks, can be used to power a steam generator. The high-temperature steam and the pressure drive the turbines into the adjacent gas combined cycle power plant to generate electricity when it is necessary, reducing consumption of fossil fuels. The molten salts used in the system are a mixture of sodium nitrates and potassium, which can accumulate heat for long periods. The capacity of the solar plant is about 5 MW. It presents an annual savings of 2,100 tonnes of oil. It reduces carbon dioxide emissions by about 3,250 tonnes. The solar thermal power plant consist of a field of about 30,000 square metres of mirrors (the parabolic collectors ) that concentrate sunlight onto 5,400 metres of pipe carrying the molten salts fluid. The thermal energy collected by the system produces high pressure steam that is channeled into the turbines of the power plant producing electricity and reducing the consumption of fossil fuels and, as a result, enhancing the environmental performance of the gas combined cycle plant. The solar collectors (the parabolic mirrors and pipes or receivers), together with a steam generator and two heat storage tanks-one cold and one hot make up the solar portion of the system. When the sun shines, the thermal fluid draws from the cold tank and circulates through the network of parabolic collectors.there it is heated to a temperature of 550 C and injected into the hot tank where at a high temperature the thermal energy is stored. The fluid is then drawn from the hot reservoir to produce steam at a high pressure and temperature and it is sent to Enel s nearby combined cycle plant where it contributes to electricity generation. This system enables the plant to generate electricity at any time of the day and in any weather conditions until the stored energy is depleted.
12 Advantages of the Archimedes Project The energy obtained is clean. There is less dependence on foreign import of electricity or crude oil. The Archimedes solar will boost employment in the South of Italy and more generally in the tropical word, where solar exposure is possible on wider areas and where light fields will generate a greater quantity of clean and renewable electricity. Disadvantages of the Archimedes Project The plant requires a wide surface area for the concentrating mirrors. Since the exposure to the sun rays is not continuous, the production of energy can not be constant. This aspect is however partially mitigated in this case by the possibility of accumulating heat in special reservoirs. The amount of energy produced is still too low in comparison with the one generated by fossil fuels. The Archimedes project still counts on experimental technology. The technological costs are still high. Video
13 Carlo Rubbia was born in Gorizia in After his studies at the University of Pisa he moved to New York. He continued his research in Rome becoming researcher of the European Organization for the Nuclear Research, CERN. He taught Physics at Harvard University in Massachussetts. Later he held the position of General Manager at CERN- In 1994 he moved to the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste. Now, he teaches Complements of Superior Physics in Pavia. He also won the Nobel Prige for Physics in 1984.
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